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The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the country's founding fathers in the Constitution. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the Head of government The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising 181 articles is the supreme Law of Malaysia. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the highest ranking office created by the constitution of the federation of Malaysia The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysia 's government The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia. Dato' Seri Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi (born 26 November 1939 is a Malaysian politician who has served as Prime Minister since 2003 Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia ( Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. Dato' Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (born July 23, 1953, in Kuala Lipis, Pahang) is a Malaysian politician who The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the Common law legal system The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The Dewan Negara (literally "National Hall" or Senate is the Upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat (literally "Hall of the People" or House of Representatives is the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia. Malaysia is a Federation of thirteen states but judicial power in the federation is almost exclusively vested in a federal court system. The Opposition in Malaysia is a term used to describe political parties represented in the Parliament of Malaysia that is not in government either on its The Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly is the legislature of Malaysian states. Elections in Malaysia (and previously Malaya exist at two levels national level and state level The Election Commission of Malaysia ( Malay: Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya Malaysia (SPR) is a commission set up for the purpose of regulating and conducting Political parties in Malaysia lists political parties in Malaysia. Barisan Nasional ( National Front or BN) is a major political Coalition in Malaysia. Pakatan Rakyat or PR ( People's Pact) was established on April 1, 2008. Malaysia is a Federation which consists of thirteen '''states''' ( Negeri) and three '''federal territories''' ( Wilayah Persekutuan This article concerns the Foreign relations of Malaysia. Malaysia is an active member of various international organisations including the Commonwealth of Nations Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising 181 articles is the supreme Law of Malaysia. The social contract usually refers to a quid pro quo trade-off through Articles 14–18 of the Constitution, pertaining to the granting of citizenship to the non-Malay people of Malaysia, and Article 153, which grants the Malays special rights and privileges. Quid pro quo ( Latin for "something for something") indicates a more-or-less equal exchange or substitution of goods or services Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia responsibility for The term has also been used occasionally to refer to other portions of the Constitution, such as the Article stating that Malaysia is a secular state. A secular state is a State or Country that is officially neutral in matters of Religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs
In its typical context related to race relations, the social contract has been heavily criticised by many, including politicians from the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition, who contend that constant harping on the non-Malays' debt to the Malays for citizenship has alienated them from the country. Race relations is the area of Sociology that studies the Social, Political, and Economic relations between races at all different A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person Barisan Nasional ( National Front or BN) is a major political Coalition in Malaysia. Such criticisms have met with opposition from the Malay media and the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the largest political party in Barisan Nasional. The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu is a Right-wing party and Malaysia 's largest Political A political party is a Political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within Government, usually by participating in electoral Many Malays, typically from UMNO, have used the social contract to defend the principle of Ketuanan Melayu (Malay supremacy). Ketuanan Melayu ( Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is a belief that the Malay people are the tuan (masters
The Constitution does not explicitly refer to a "social contract" (in terms of citizenship rights and privileges), and no act of law or document has ever fully set out the social contract's terms. Its defenders often refer to the Constitution as setting out the social contract, and the Malaysian founding fathers having agreed to it, although no reference to a "social contract" appears in the Constitution. Instead, the social contract is typically taken to mean a quid pro quo agreement that provides the non-Malay and other non-indigenous peoples of Malaysia (mostly the Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indian) with citizenship, in return for their granting special privileges to the Malays and indigenous people of Malaysia, collectively referred to as the Bumiputra (sons of the soil). Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries Malaysian Indians are a group of Malaysians largely descended from those who migrated from southern India during the British colonization 
A higher education Malaysian studies textbook conforming to the government syllabus states: "Since the Malay leaders agreed to relax the conditions for citizenship, the leaders of the Chinese and Indian communities accepted the special position of the Malays as indigenous people of Malaya. With the establishment of Malaysia, the special position status was extended to include the indigenous communities of Sabah and Sarawak. Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. "
Another description of the social contract declares it to be an agreement that "Malay entitlement to political and administrative authority should be accepted unchallenged, at least for the time being, in return for non-interference in Chinese control of the economy". 
The Constitution explicitly grants the Bumiputra reservations of land, quotas in the civil service, public scholarships and public education, quotas for trade licences, and the permission to monopolise certain industries if the government permits. See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution In reality, however, especially after the advent of the Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP) due to the racial riots of the May 13 Incident which occurred in 1969 when Malays held only 4% of the Malaysian economy, Bumiputra privileges have extended to other areas; quotas are set for Bumiputra equity in publicly traded corporations, and discounts for them on automobiles and real estate ranging from 5% to 15% are mandated. For the Soviet New Economic Policy see New Economic Policy. The Malaysian New Economic Policy ( NEP or DEB for Dasar The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions notably in the USA, United Kingdom
The Constitution also included elements of Malay tradition as part of the Malaysian national identity. The Malay rulers were preserved, with the head of state, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, drawn from their ranks. The Rulers of the Malay States in Malaysia are the seven Sultans of Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the highest ranking office created by the constitution of the federation of Malaysia Islam would be the national religion, and the Malay language would be the national language. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the These provisions, along with the economic privileges accorded by Article 153 of the Constitution, made up one half of the bargain, and have been referred to as the Malay Agenda. Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia responsibility for The Malay Agenda is a concept in Malaysian politics related to the ideal of Ketuanan Melayu The nature of these provisions is disputed; although many Malays refer to them as "rights" – a term common in UMNO rhetoric – critics have argued that the Constitution never refers to special rights for the Malays:
|“||There is no such thing as a racial "right" to be given special treatment. And that is not me being argumentative, it's the Constitution. You won't find "Malay rights" in the supreme law of our land, instead, you will find terms such as "special position" of Malays. The difference is more than semantics. A right implies something inalienable. A privilege on the other hand is a benefit, presumably given to those who need it.||”|
Such critics have used this basis to argue that the social contract was meant "to protect the Malays from being overwhelmed economically, administratively and politically from the immigrant ethnic groups of the time", instead of granting particular special rights to the Malays. 
Some suggest that this bias towards Malays in education and politics is, in part, a response to the ability of the Malaysian Chinese to secure most of the country's wealth. The Indian Malaysians, as with the Indian Singaporeans, can make a case for being those that lose out the most, although this may be disputed.
The government did roll back the quota system for entry to public universities in 2003 and introduced a policy of "meritocracy". Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability However, this new system was widely criticised by the non-Bumiputras as benefiting the Bumiputras by streaming them into a matriculation programme that featured relatively easy coursework while the non-Bumiputras were forced to sit for the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM, or Malaysia Higher School Certificate). The Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM English: Malaysian Higher School Certificate is a pre-university examination taken by students in Malaysia. Although in theory non-Bumiputras may enter the matriculation stream, and Bumiputras may sit for the STPM, this rarely occurs in reality. Meritocracy was also criticised by some quarters in UMNO as being discriminatory, as it caused the rural and less-prepared Malays to fall behind in university entrance rates.
The Reid Commission which prepared the framework for the Constitution stated in its report that Article 153, the backbone of the social contract, would be temporary only, and recommended that it be reviewed 15 years after independence. The Reid Commission was an independent commission responsible for drafting the Constitution of the Federation of Malaya prior to Malayan independence from Britain The Commission also said that the article and its provisions would only be necessary to avoid sudden unfair disadvantage to the Malays in competing with other members of Malaysian society, and that the privileges accorded the Malays by the article should be gradually reduced and eventually eliminated. Due to the May 13 Incident, after which a state of emergency was declared, however, 1972, the year that Article 153 was due to be reviewed, passed without incident. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1972 ( MCMLXXII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
According to the social contract's proponents, in return for the enactment of these originally temporary provisions, non-Malay Malaysians are accorded citizenship under Chapter 1 of Part III of the Constitution. Except for the Bumiputra privileges, non-Bumiputras are otherwise generally regarded as equal to their Bumiputra counterparts, and are accorded all the rights of citizenship as under Part II of the Constitution. In recent years, some have sought to provide Malay citizens with more political rights as per the ketuanan Melayu philosophy. Ketuanan Melayu ( Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is a belief that the Malay people are the tuan (masters However, most of these ketuanan Melayu proponents argue that their additional rights are already written as law and thus only seek to "defend" them from their opponents.
When he assumed the Presidency of UMNO, Tunku Abdul Rahman (later the first Prime Minister of Malaysia) stated that ". Sir Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, CH ( February 8 1903 &ndash December 6 The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia. . . when we (the Malays) fought against the Malayan Union (which upset the position of the Malays' rights) the others took no part in it because they said this is purely a Malay concern, and not theirs. The Malayan Union was a federation of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements excluding Singapore. They also indicate that they owe their loyalty to their countries of origin, and for that reason they oppose the Barnes Report to make Malay the national language. The Barnes Report was a British proposal put forward in 1951 to develop a national education system in British Malaya. The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the If we were to hand over the Malays to these so-called Malayans when their nationality has not been defined there will be a lot of problems ahead of us. " However, he continued that "For those who love and feel they owe undivided loyalty to this country, we will welcome them as Malayans. They must truly be Malayans, and they will have the same rights and privileges as the Malays. " 
Article 153, and thus by extension the social contract, has been a source of controversy since the early days of Malaysia. Singaporean politician Lee Kuan Yew (later the first Prime Minister of Singapore) of the People's Action Party (PAP; its Malaysian branch would later become the Democratic Action Party or DAP) publicly questioned the need for Article 153 in Parliament, and called for a "Malaysian Malaysia". Singapore A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH ( born September 16 1923 also spelled Lee Kwan-Yew) is a Singaporean of Chinese immigrant background The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the Head of government of the Republic of Singapore (and prior to 9 August 1965 The People's Action Party ( abbrev: PAP; Chinese: 人民行动党 Pinyin: Rénmín Xíngdòngdǎng Malay: Parti Tindakan Rakyat The Democratic Action Party, or DAP (Parti Tindakan Demokratik is a Secular, multi-racial social democratic / democratic socialist The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The phrase " Malaysian Malaysia " was originally used in the early 1960s as the rallying Motto of the Malaysian Solidarity Council, a Confederation Questioning the social contract, Lee stated: "According to history, Malays began to migrate to Malaysia in noticeable numbers only about 700 years ago. Of the 39 percent Malays in Malaysia today, about one-third are comparatively new immigrants like the secretary-general of UMNO, Dato' Syed Ja'afar Albar, who came to Malaya from Indonesia just before the war at the age of more than thirty. Tan Sri Syed Jaafar bin Hassan Albar (1914&ndash January 14, 1977) was a Malaysian politician. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Therefore it is wrong and illogical for a particular racial group to think that they are more justified to be called Malaysians and that the others can become Malaysian only through their favour. "
Lee criticised the government's policies by stating that "[t]hey, the Malay, have the right as Malaysian citizens to go up to the level of training and education that the more competitive societies, the non-Malay society, has produced. That is what must be done, isn't it? Not to feed them with this obscurantist doctrine that all they have got to do is to get Malay rights for the few special Malays and their problem has been resolved. "  He also lamented, "Malaysia — to whom does it belong? To Malaysians. But who are Malaysians? I hope I am, Mr Speaker, Sir. But sometimes, sitting in this chamber, I doubt whether I am allowed to be a Malaysian. "
Lee's statements upset many, especially politicians from the Alliance, Barisan Nasional's predecessor. Then Finance Minister Tan Siew Sin of the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) called Lee the "greatest, disruptive force in the entire history of Malaysia and Malaya. Tun Tan Siew Sin ( 21 May 1916 &ndash 17 March 1988) was Malaya 's (later Malaysia 's first Minister of Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA ( Cantonese: MaLoiSaiYa WahYen KoongWui; Persatuan Cina Malaysia " Tunku Abdul Rahman, the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, considered Lee to be too extremist in his views, while other UMNO politicians thought Lee was simply taking advantage of the situation to pander to the Malaysian Chinese. Sir Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, CH ( February 8 1903 &ndash December 6 The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia.
PAP-UMNO relations were chilled further by the PAP running several candidates in elections on the Malay peninsula, with UMNO retaliating by trying to run candidates on its ticket in Singapore. The sometimes turbulent relationship between the People's Action Party (PAP and United Malays National Organisation (UMNO, which were and still are The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast Eventually, the Tunku decided to ask Singapore, through Lee and some of his closest confidantes, to secede from Malaysia. Eventually, Lee agreed to do so, and Singapore became an independent nation in 1965. The Constitution of Singapore contains an article, Article 152, that names the Malays as "indigenous people" of Singapore and therefore requiring special safeguarding of their rights and privileges as such. The Constitution of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore and it is a Codified constitution. However, the article specifies no policies for such safeguarding, and no reference to a "social contract" has ever been made by the political establishment in Singapore.
In 2005, the social contract was brought up by Lim Keng Yaik of the Gerakan party in Barisan Nasional. Tun Dr Lim Keng Yaik ( is a former Malaysian politician and ex-Minister of Energy Water and Telecommunications in the Malaysian cabinet. Lim, a Minister in the government, asked for a re-examination of the social contract so that a "Bangsa Malaysia" (literally Malay for a Malaysian race or Malaysian nation) could be achieved. The Bangsa Malaysia ( English: Malaysian nation) policy was introduced by Mahathir Mohamad, then Prime Minister of Malaysia, to create The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the Lim was severely criticised by many Malay politicians, including Khairy Jamaluddin who is Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's son-in-law and Deputy Chairman of the UMNO Youth wing, and Ahmad Shabery Cheek, a prominent Malay Member of Parliament from the state of Terengganu. Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar (born January 10, 1976) is a Malaysian Politician. Dato' Seri Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi (born 26 November 1939 is a Malaysian politician who has served as Prime Minister since 2003 Ahmad Shabery Cheek is a Malaysian politician and the current Malaysian Information Minister Terengganu ( Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia The Malay press (most of which is owned by UMNO) also ran articles condemning the questioning of the social contract. Lim was adamant, asking in an interview "How do you expect non-Malays to pour their hearts and souls into the country, and to one day die for it if you keep harping on this? Flag-waving and singing the Negaraku (the national anthem) are rituals, while true love for the nation lies in the heart. "Negaraku" ( English: My Country is the National anthem of Malaysia. "
A year earlier, Abdullah had given a speech where he mentioned the most "significant aspect" of the social contract as "the agreement by the indigenous peoples to grant citizenship to the immigrant Chinese and Indians". However, Abdullah went on to state that "the character of the nation" changed to "one that Chinese and Indian citizens could also call their own". However, the speech went largely unremarked.
In the end, Lim stated that the Malay press had blown his comments out of proportion and misquoted him. The issue ended with UMNO Youth chief and Education Minister Hishamuddin Hussein warning people not to "bring up the issue again as it has been agreed upon, appreciated, understood and endorsed by the Constitution. Dato' Seri Hishammuddin bin Tun Hussein (born August 5, 1961) is a Malaysian politician and member of United Malays National Organization "
Earlier that year, Hishamuddin had waved the keris (traditional Malay dagger) at the UMNO Annual General Meeting, warning non-Malays not to threaten "Malay rights" and to question the social contract. The kris or keris is a distinctive asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Thailand and This was applauded by the UMNO delegates, but widely ridiculed in the Malaysian blogosphere. Blogosphere is a collective term encompassing all Blogs and their interconnections
Other politicians, mostly from opposition parties, have also criticised the NEP and its provisions, but refrained from directly criticising the social contract or Article 153 of the Constitution. Former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim of the Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) promised he would roll back the NEP if he ever gained power, and many from the Democratic Action Party (DAP) have also spoken out against the NEP. Dato' Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born 10 August 1947) is a Malaysian politician who served as Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister from 1993 to 1998 The People's Justice Party ( Malay: Parti Keadilan Rakyat, often known simply as Keadilan is a Centrist Political party in Malaysia The Democratic Action Party, or DAP (Parti Tindakan Demokratik is a Secular, multi-racial social democratic / democratic socialist They criticised the NEP as benefiting only a small portion of Malays, mostly well-connected and urban, while ignoring the rural and poor Malays, and noted that the NEP's avowed goal was to give the Malays a 30% share in the country's economic equity, regardless of whether only a few or many Malays held this share. The DAP has been particular in arguing it does not question Article 153 or the social contract, but merely seeks to abolish inequitable policies such as the NEP.
Article 10 (4) of the Constitution permits the government to ban the questioning of Article 153, and thus the social contract; indeed, the Sedition Act does illegalise such questioning. The Internal Security Act (ISA) also permits the government to detain anybody it desires for practically an infinite period of time, and many, including politicians from the DAP such as Lim Kit Siang and Karpal Singh have been held under the ISA; it is widely believed this was because of their vehement criticism of Malay privileges. The Internal Security Act 1960 ( ISA) (Akta Keselamatan Dalam Negeri is a Preventive detention law in force in Malaysia. Lim Kit Siang (born February 20, 1941; Chinese: 林吉祥 Pinyin: Lín Jíxiáng Karpal Singh a/l Ram Singh (born June 28, 1940) is a Malaysian politician and a Lawyer by profession
More recently, some commentators have remarked on younger Malaysians chafing at the terms of the social contract. One wrote that "half a century on, younger non-Malays especially feel they were not parties to deals and contracts (at the time of independence) and should not be beholden to them. " In 2006, several non-Malay parties in the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition called for a reexamination of the social contract; Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's refusal to do so reportedly triggered "much consternation". Dato' Seri Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi (born 26 November 1939 is a Malaysian politician who has served as Prime Minister since 2003 Abdullah was quoted in the Malay media as saying: "If we change this balance and if we are forced to meet all over again on the rights of every group, it will not be the same as now. It would be far from satisfactory. Whatever the new formula, it will not succeed because the old formula is enough, is already maximum. As everyone had agreed to this before, why do we want to disturb this and meet again?"
That year, at the UMNO General Assembly, several delegates criticised other members of the government coalition for criticising the social contract and ketuanan Melayu. Ketuanan Melayu ( Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is a belief that the Malay people are the tuan (masters One stated that "If they question our rights, then we should question theirs. So far we have not heard the Malays questioning their right to citizenship when they came in droves from other countries. " Others argued that the Bumiputra communities continued to lag behind the rest of the country economically, and called for stronger measures in line with the social contract.  One delegate, Hashim Suboh, made headlines when he asked Hishammuddin, who had brandished the kris again, "Datuk Hisham has unsheathed his keris, waved his keris, kissed his keris. Datuk Hashim Suboh is a Malaysian Politician from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO the leading party of the ruling Barisan The Malay language has a complex system of Titles and Honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. We want to ask Datuk Hisham when is he going to use it?" Hashim said that "force must be used against those who refused to abide by the social contract", provoking criticism from the DAP, which accused him of sedition. This is about the law term For other uses see Sedition (disambiguation Sedition is a term of Law which refers to covert conduct 
In response to what it termed "[t]he veiled threat of violence . . . made explicit during last year's UMNO conference", The Economist criticised the social contract, calling it "absurd and unjust to tell the children of families that have lived in Malaysia for generations that, in effect, they are lucky not to be deported and will have to put up with second-class treatment for the rest of their lives, in the name of 'racial harmony'", and called policies based on the social contract "official racism". The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London 
The social contract has also occasionally been referred to in a context other than that involving race relations. In the 2004 general election, the DAP ran on a platform of defending the "social contract" by combatting an Islamic theocracy, which the Constitution forbids, but was endorsed by former Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad, Lim Keng Yaik and by PAS, the second-largest Malay-based political party in the country. General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. The incumbent National Front (Barisan Nasional government of Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad (ma'ħɑðiɽ bin mʊħɑmmæd̚ (recorded as born on 20 December 1925 was the fourth Prime Minister of The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party or the Islamic Party of Malaysia ( Parti Islam Se-Malaysia) commonly known as PAS or Pas, is an Islamist