A snowmobile (known as a snowmachine in Alaska and parts of New England) is a land vehicle commonly propelled by track(s) at the rear and ski(s) up front for steering. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the A ski is a long flat device worn on the feet designed to help the wearer slide smoothly over snow In contrast, the first motor vehicle made to operate on snow, the Aerosan invented in Russia by Igor Sikorsky, was propeller-powered and running on skis. An aerosan (aэросани aerosani, literally 'aerosled' is a type of propeller-powered Snowmobile, running on skis used for communications mail deliveries Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Igor Sikorsky (25 May 1889 &ndash 26 October 1972 was born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (Игорь Иванович Сикорский A propeller is essentially a type of fan which transmits power by converting Rotational motion into Thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such as an
Early snowmobiles used rubber tracks, however a modern snowmobile will have a track made of a kevlar composite. They are designed to be operated on snow and ice, and require no road or trail. "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Most snowmobiles are typically powered by two-stroke gasoline/petrol internal combustion engines. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Four-stroke engines are becoming more and more popular in snowmobiles. Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. Summertime occupations for snowmobile enthusiasts can also involve drag racing on grass, asphalt strips, or even across water. Drag racing is a competition in which objects compete to be the first to cross a set finish mark usually from a dead stop and in a straight line Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include Asphalt ( is a sticky black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude Petroleums and in some natural deposits sometimes termed asphaltum People who ride them commonly are known as snowmobilers. The three main types of riding are Snowcross/racing, trail riding and mountain climbing.
The origin of the snowmobile is not the work of any one inventor but more a process of advances in engines for the propulsion of vehicles and supporting devices over snow. It parallels the development of automobile and later aviation, often inventors using the same componants for a different use.
The Aerosan, propeller-powered and running on skis, was built in 1909-1910 by the Russian inventor Igor Sikorsky. Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1910 ( MCMX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Igor Sikorsky (25 May 1889 &ndash 26 October 1972 was born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (Игорь Иванович Сикорский Aerosans were used by the Soviet Red Army during the Winter War and the Second World War (There is some dispute over whether Aerosans should be considered a snowmobiles, as they are not propelled by tracks). The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Winter War (Talvisota Советско-финляндская война - official Зимняя война - unofficial Vinterkriget began when the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Adolphe Kégresse designed an original caterpillar tracks system, called the Kégresse track, while working for Tsar Nicholas II of Russia between 1906 and 1916. Adolphe Kégresse, ( 1879 Héricourt - 1943 Croissy-sur-Seine) was a French Military engineer, inventor of the Half-track. Continuous tracks are large (modular tracks used on the so-called caterpillar Tanks construction equipment and certain other off-road vehicles A Kégresse track is an unusual kind of Rubber tracks which uses a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year These used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow. A half-track is a civilian or military vehicle with regular wheels on the front for steering and Caterpillar tracks on the back to propel the vehicle and carry most of the Conventional front wheels and steering were used but the wheel could be fitted with skis as seen in the upper right image. He applied it to several cars in the Royal garage including Rolls-Royce cars and Packard trucks. For the present day company see Rolls-Royce plc. For other uses see Rolls-Royce (disambiguation. Packard was an American luxury Automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation Although this was not a snowmobile, it could be thought as one of the ancestor of the modern concept.
The first United States patent for a snow-vehicle using the now recognized format of rear track(s) and front skis was issued to Ray H. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Muscott of Waters, MI on June 27, 1916 with U. Events 1358 - Republic of Dubrovnik is founded 1709 - Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year S. Patent # 1,188,981. Many individuals later modified Ford Model Ts with the undercarriage replaced with tracks and skis following this design. The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and also the Flivver) was an Automobile produced by Henry Ford 's Ford They were popular for rural mail delivery for a time.
The relatively dry snow conditions of the United States Midwest suited the converted model Ts and other like vehicles but they were not suitable for operation in more humid snow areas such as Southern Quebec. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk This led Joseph-Armand Bombardier of the small town of Valcourt in Quebec, Canada, to invent a different caterpillar track system suitable for all kinds of snow conditions. Joseph-Armand Bombardier ( April 16, 1907 - February 18, 1964) was a Canadian inventor and businessman and was the founder of Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Continuous tracks are large (modular tracks used on the so-called caterpillar Tanks construction equipment and certain other off-road vehicles Bombardier had already made some "metal" tracked vehicles since 1928, but his new revolutionary track traction system (a toothed wheel covered in rubber, and a rubber and cotton track that wraps around the back wheels) was his first major invention. He started production of a large, enclosed, seven-passenger snowmobile in 1937, the B-7 and introduced another enclosed twelve-passenger model, the B-12 in 1942. Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The B-7 had a V-8 flathead engine from Ford Motor Company. A flathead engine or sidevalve engine (sometimes called a flatty) is an Internal combustion engine with valves placed in the engine block Ford Motor Company is an American Multinational corporation and the world's fourth largest automaker based on Worldwide vehicle sales, following The B-12 had a flathead in line six cylinder engine from Chrysler industrial, and 2,817 units were produced until 1951. Chrysler LLC is an American Automobile manufacturer that has been producing Automobiles since 1925 It was used in many applications, such as ambulances, Canada post vehicles, winter "school buses", forestry machines and even army vehicles in World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Bombardier had always dreamed of a smaller version, more like the size of a motor scooter.
Numerous people had similar ideas. Edgar and Allen Hetteen and David Johnson of Roseau, Minnesota were among the first to build a practical snowmobile in 1955-1956, but the early machines were heavy (1000 lbs or 450 kg) and slow (20 mph or 30 km/h). Their company, Hetteen Hoist & Derrick Co. , became Polaris Industries, a major snowmobile manufacturer. Polaris Industries ( is a Snowmobile and ATV manufacturer based in Medina Minnesota, USA. . It was only in 1959, when engines became lighter and smaller than before, that Bombardier invented what we know as the modern snowmobile in its open-cockpit one- or two-person form, and started selling it as the "Ski-doo". The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A snowmobile (known locally as snowmachine, snowsled or by the Brandname Ski-Doo) is a land vehicle that is commonly propelled by Competitors sprang up and copied and improved his design. In the 1970s there were over a hundred of snowmobile manufacturers. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. From 1970 to 1973 they sold close to two million machines, a sales summit never since equalled, with a peak of half a million in 1971. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Many of the snowmobile companies were small outfits and the biggest manufacturers were often attempts by motorcycle makers and outboard motor makers to branch off in a new market. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. An outboard motor is a propulsion system for smaller Boats General uses Outboard motors for a Boat are developed as a self-contained Most of these companies went bankrupt during the gasoline crisis of 1973 and succeeding recessions, or were bought up by the larger ones. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against Year 1973 ( MCMLXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. Sales rebounded to 260,000 in 1997 but went down gradually afterward, influenced by warmer winters and the use during all four seasons of small one- or two-person ATVs. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar An all-terrain vehicle (ATV is defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI as a vehicle that travels on low pressure tires with a seat that is straddled by The snowmobile market is now divided up between the four large North American makers (Bombardier, Arctic Cat, Yamaha, and Polaris) and some specialized makers like the European Alpina Snowmobiles, . Ski-Doo redirects here for a snowmobile see Snowmobile. Bombardier Recreational Products or BRP is a Canadian company Arctic Cat (is a North American manufacturer of Snowmobiles and All-terrain vehicles. ( a Japanese motorized vehicle-producing company (whose HQ is at 2500 Shingai Iwata Shizuoka) is part of the Yamaha Corporation. Polaris Industries ( is a Snowmobile and ATV manufacturer based in Medina Minnesota, USA. Alpina Snowmobiles Alpina Snowmobiles are manufactured in Italy by Alpina s Modern snowmobiles can achieve speeds in excess of 120 mph [190 km/h]). Racing snowmobiles reach speeds in excess of 180 mph [288 km/h].
Snowmobiles are widely used in arctic territories for travel. The Arctic is the Region around the Earth 's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. Travel is the change in location of people on a trip through the means of Transport from one location to another However, the small population of the Arctic areas makes for a correspondingly small market. Most of the annual snowmobile production is sold for recreational purposes much further south, in those parts of North America where the snow cover is stable during the winter months. Winter is one of the four Seasons of Temperate zones Calculated astronomically, it begins on the Solstice and ends on the Equinox The number of snowmobiles in Europe and other parts of the world is relatively low, though they are growing rapidly in popularity.
Snowmobiles designed to perform various work tasks have been available for many years with dual tracks from such manufacturers as Aktiv (Sweden), who made the Grizzly, Ockelbo (Sweden), who made the 8000, and Bombardier who made the Alpine and later the Alpine II. Aktiv Grizzly, dual-track snowmobile manufactured by Aktiv Maskin Östersund AB in Sweden Currently Alpina Snowmobiles is the only manufacturer of dual track work sleds. Alpina Snowmobiles Alpina Snowmobiles are manufactured in Italy by Alpina s
An odd version of snowmobile is the Swedish Larven made by Lenko in Östersund from the 1960s until the end of the 1980s. Larven "Caterpillar" was a Swedish Snowmobile that was manufactured from the 1960s to the 1980s in Östersund. Östersund (ˈœstəˌʂɵnː Jamtish pronunciation " Åstersånn " is an urban area ( city) in Jämtland It was a very small and basic design with just an engine in the rear and a track. The driver sat on it and steered using skiis on his feet
Snowmobiles are capable of moving across steep hillsides without sliding downslope as the rider is putting his weight toward the uphill side. High-performance snowmobiles will beat most stock or aftermarket cars in a 0-100 km/h drag race (when the snowmobile is equipped for "asphalt drags"). Many 2007 snowmobiles will accelerate to 100mph+ in under six seconds(when set-up for ice-drags). Mountain sleds permit access in remote areas, of deep snow, which was nearly impossible a few decades ago. This is mainly due to improvements in technology.
The environmental impact of snowmobiles has been the subject of much debate. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Most snowmobiles are still powered by two-stroke engines, although Alpina Snowmobiles and Yamaha have been using four-strokes respectively since 2002 and 2003. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust Alpina Snowmobiles Alpina Snowmobiles are manufactured in Italy by Alpina s Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. In the last decade several manufacturers have been experimenting with less polluting motors, and putting most of them in production. Yamaha and Arctic-Cat were the first to mass produce four-stroke models, which are significantly less polluting than the early two-stroke machines. Alpina offers a 4-stroke EFI engine equipped with exhaust converter (catalyst) and dual oxygen-probe, which is the state of the art in the emissions control among snowmobiles. Bombardier’s Semi-Direct Injection (SDI) two stroke motors emit 60 percent less pollutants than previous carburated 2-strokes. Polaris is using a fuel-injection technology called "Cleanfire Injection" on their 2 strokes. The industry is also working on direct injected "clean two strokes" which are actually an improvement on carbureted four strokes in terms of NOX emissions. A carburetor (North American spelling or carburettor ( Commonwealth spelling) is a device that blends air and Fuel for an Internal Only four-stroke snowmobiles are allowed in Yellowstone National Park since a bylaw was passed to minimize CO2 emissions and noise.
Cornices and other kinds of jumps are sought after for aerial maneuvers. Riders are often very zealous in their search for un-tracked, prime terrain and are known to "trailblaze" or "boondock" deep into remote territory where there is absolutely no visible path to travel on. Riders will often look for large open fields of fresh snow where they can sleiter. Some riders use extensively modified snowmobiles, customized with parts such as handle bar risers, handguards, custom/lightweight hoods, windshields, and seats, running board supports, and numerous other modifications that increase power and maneuverability. Many of these customizations can now be purchased straight off the showroom floor on stock machines.
Snowmobilers in Canada and the United States spend over $28 billion on snowmobiling each year. This includes expenditures on equipment, clothing, accessories, snowmobiling vacations (lodging, fuel, and food), maintenance, etc. It is very often the only source of income for some smaller towns that rely solely on tourism during the summer and winter months, while it still has a major economic impact on larger cities and towns as well. 
Loss of control can readily cause extensive damage, injury, or death. A common accident entails a rider losing his or her grip on the machine because they do not have an adequate grip and do not realize how powerful the machine is, which often results in the now rider-less sled crashing into objects like trees.
It is also possible for a rider to cut a turn too quickly, veer off the road and flip the machine and/or head directly into a tree. Also, many cases of decapitation have occurred. Riders going too fast in an area they are unfamiliar with drive through barbwire or haywire fences at high speeds often resulting in decapitation or mutilation.
People die every year when they crash into other snowmobiles, automobiles, pedestrians, or trees or fall through ice. A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or Around 10 people a year die in such crashes in Minnesota alone with alcohol a contributing factor in many (but not all) cases. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers In Saskatchewan, 16 out of 21 deaths in snowmobile collisions between 1996 and 2000 were alcohol-related. Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. 
The majority of snowmobile-related deaths in Alaska are caused by drowning. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Because of the extreme cold in many parts of Alaska the rivers and lakes are frozen over for a large portion of the winter. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent People riding too early or late in the season run the risk of falling through unstable ice, and heavy winter clothing can make it extremely difficult to escape the frigid water. The next leading cause is avalanches, which can result from the practice of “high-marking,” or driving a snowmobile as far up a hill as it can go. The practice is extremely dangerous.
Bombardier wanted to brand its snowmobile “ski-dog” , but it seems that the tail of the “g” on the artwork fell off or was misinterpreted by the advertising agency, and it was too late to change it when Bombardier discovered it. There may have been some influence from the slang phrase "23 skidoo!" via the idea of getting away.