Smoking bans are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, which restrict tobacco smoking in workplaces and public spaces. The term criminal law, sometimes called penal law, refers to any of various bodies of rules in different Jurisdictions whose common characteristic is the potential Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in This article is for the legal term For regulation of genes see Regulation of gene expression. Tobacco Smoking is the inhalation of smoke from burned dried or cured leaves of the Tobacco plant most often in the form of a Cigarette. Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A public space refers to an area or place that is open and accessible to all citizens regardless of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age or
The rationale cited for smoking bans is the protection of workers, in particular, from the harmful effects of second-hand smoke, which include an increased risk of heart disease, cancer, emphysema and other chronic and acute diseases. Heart disease is an Umbrella term for a variety for different diseases affecting the Heart. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) is a Disease of the lungs in which the Airways become narrowed  Laws implementing bans on indoor smoking have been introduced by many countries in various forms over the years, with legislators citing scientific evidence that shows tobacco smoking is often harmful to the smokers themselves and to those inhaling second-hand smoke. A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws especially someone who is a member of a Legislature.
In addition, such laws may affect health care costs, improve work productivity and lower the overall cost of labor in a community, thus making a community more attractive for bringing new jobs into the area and keeping current jobs and employers in an area. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing In Indiana for example, the state's economic development agency wrote into its 2006 plan for acceleration of economic growth that it encourages cities and towns to adopt local smoke-free workplace laws as a means of promoting job growth in communities. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union
Additional rationales for smoking restrictions include reduced risk of fire in areas with explosive hazards or where flammable materials are handled, cleanliness in places where food or pharmaceuticals, semiconductors or precision instruments and machinery are produced, decreased legal liability, potentially reduced energy use via decreased ventilation needs, reduced quantities of litter, helping promote healthier environments, and to make it easier for smokers to quit. HVAC (pronounced either "H-V-A-C" or occasionally " H-vak " is an Initialism or Acronym that stands for " Heating 
Research has generated evidence that secondhand smoke causes the same problems as direct smoking, including lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and lung ailments such as emphysema, bronchitis and asthma. Lung cancer is a Disease of uncontrolled Cell growth in tissues of the Lung. Cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular diseases refers to the class of diseases that involve the Heart or Blood vessels ( arteries and Respiratory Disease is the term for Diseases of the Respiratory system. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) is a Disease of the lungs in which the Airways become narrowed Bronchitis is an Inflammation of the Bronchi. More specifically it may refer to Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting Asthma is a chronic Condition involving the Respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constrict become inflamed, and are  Specifically, meta-analyses show that lifelong non-smokers with partners who smoke in the home have a 20–30% greater risk of lung cancer than non-smokers who live with non-smokers. In Statistics, a meta-analysis combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke in the workplace have an increased lung cancer risk of 16–19%. 
A study issued in 2002 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization concluded that non-smokers are exposed to the same carcinogens as active smokers. The International Agency for Research on Cancer ( IARC, or CIRC in its French Acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation  Sidestream smoke contains 69 known carcinogens, particularly benzopyrene and other polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive decay products, such as polonium 210. Benzopyrene, C20H12 is a five-ring Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is Mutagenic and highly Carcinogenic It is a crystalline Polonium (pəˈloʊniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Po and Atomic number 84 discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie  Several well-established carcinogens have been shown by the tobacco companies' own research to be present at higher concentrations in secondhand smoke than in mainstream smoke. 
Scientific organizations confirming the harmful effects of secondhand smoke include the U. S. National Cancer Institute, the U. The National Cancer Institute (NCI is part of the United States Federal government's National Institutes of Health. S. Centers for Disease Control, the U. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services based in unincorporated S. National Institutes of Health, the United States Surgeon General, and the World Health Organization. "NIH" redirects here For other meanings of NIH see NIH (disambiguation. Overview The Surgeon General is nominated by the US President and confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. 
Bans on smoking in bars and restaurants can substantially improve the air quality in such establishments. For example, one study listed on the website of the CDC (Center for Disease Control) states that New York's statewide law to eliminate smoking in enclosed workplaces and public places substantially reduced RSP (respirable suspended particles) levels in western New York hospitality venues. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous RSP levels were reduced in every venue that permitted smoking before the law was implemented, including venues in which only second-hand smoke from an adjacent room was observed at baseline.  The CDC concluded that their results were similar to other studies which also showed substantially improved indoor air quality after smoking bans.
A 2004 study showed that in New Jersey, bars and restaurants had more than nine times the levels of indoor air pollution of neighboring New York City, which had enacted its ban. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The City of New York 
Research has also shown that improved air quality translates to decreased toxin exposure among employees.  For example, among employees of the Norwegian establishments that enacted smoking bans, tests showed improved (decreased) levels of nicotine in the urine of both smoking and non-smoking workers (as compared with measurements prior to the ban). 
Pope Urban VII's 13-day papal reign included the world's first known public smoking ban (1590), as he threatened to excommunicate anyone who "took tobacco in the porchway of or inside a church, whether it be by chewing it, smoking it with a pipe or sniffing it in powdered form through the nose". Pope Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community  The earliest citywide European smoking bans were enacted shortly thereafter. Such bans were enacted in Bavaria, Kursachsen, and certain parts of Austria in the late 1600s. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Smoking was banned in Berlin in 1723, in Königsberg in 1742, and in Stettin in 1744. Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Königsberg (Karaliaučius Low German: Königsbarg; Królewiec see also other names) was until 1946 the name of Kaliningrad. These bans were repealed in the revolutions of 1848. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout the European  The first modern, nationwide tobacco ban was imposed by the Nazi Party in every German university, post office, military hospital and Nazi Party office, under the auspices of Karl Astel's Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research, created in 1941 under direct orders from Adolf Hitler himself. Nazi Germany initiated a strong anti-tobacco movement and led the first public anti- Smoking campaign in Modern history. The, officially National Socialist German Workers' Party, ( abbreviated NSDAP) was a Political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately  Major anti-tobacco campaigns were widely broadcast by the Nazis until the demise of the regime in 1945. 
In the latter part of the 20th century, as research on the health risks of secondhand tobacco smoke were made public, the tobacco industry launched "courtesy awareness" campaigns. Fearful of revenue losses, the industry created a media and legislative program that focused on "accommodation". Tolerance and courtesy were encouraged as a way to ease heightened tensions between smokers and those around them while avoiding smoking bans. In the USA, states were encouraged to pass laws providing separate smoking sections. 
In 1975, the U. S. state of Minnesota enacted the Minnesota Clean Indoor Air Act, making it the first state to ban smoking in most public spaces. To begin with, restaurants were required to have No Smoking sections, and bars were exempt from the Act.  As of 1 October 2007, Minnesota signed into law a ban on smoking completely from all restaurants and bars throughout the state. This is the Freedom to Breathe Act of 2007. The Freedom to Breathe Act of 2007 is a piece of Minnesota legislation that restricts the act of smoking Tobacco products in public places 
In 1990, the city of San Luis Obispo, California, U. San Luis Obispo (sænˈluːɪs əˈbɪspoʊ Spanish for St Louis the Bishop) is a city in California, located roughly midway between San Francisco S. A. became the first city in the world to ban indoor smoking at all public places, including bars and restaurants. 
In America, the success and subsequent popularity of the ban enacted by the state of California in 1998 encouraged other states such as New York to implement bans of their own. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. California's smoking ban included an initially controversial ban of smoking in bars, extending the statewide workplace smoking ban enacted in 1994. There are now 35 states with some form of smoking ban on the books.  In addition, some areas in California have recently begun making whole cities smoke-free, which would include every place except residential homes. More than 20 cities in California have passed park and beach smoking bans.
On March 29, 2004, the Irish Government implemented a ban on smoking in public places, making it the first country to ever do so. Events 1461 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Towton - Edward of York defeats Queen Margaret to become King "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " In Norway similar legislation was put into force on July 1 the same year. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. The whole of the United Kingdom became subject to a ban on smoking in enclosed public places in 2007, when England became the final nation to have the legislation come into effect. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The age limit for buying tobacco was also raised from 16 to 18 on October 1, 2007. Events 331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. In 2007, Chandigarh became the first city in India to become 'smoke-free'. Chandigarh ( ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ, चंडीगढ़) also called The City Beautiful India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Smoking was also banned in public indoor venues in Victoria, Australia on July 1, 2007. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
In 1973, Arizona became the first state in the United States to pass a comprehensive law restricting smoking in public places. This is a list of Smoking bans by country A 2006 smoking ban in Buenos Aires city prohibits smoking in public areas including bars and restaurants The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the California enacted a workplace smoking ban in 1994, and a complete smoking ban in enclosed spaces in 1998. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Florida made a workplace smoking ban part of its state constitution in 2002. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the  Washington state passed initiative 901 in 2005, banning smoking within 25 feet of public buildings or places of employment. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. 
In March 2004, Ireland was the first country to institution a nationwide ban against smoking in all enclosed workplaces. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The ban now extends, voluntarily, to outside buildings: for example, smoking is not allowed at the entrances to buildings at Dublin Airport, but only in areas where signs indicate that smoking is permitted. In 2008, the country will ban advertising in shops (advertising is already banned in print and on radio, television, and billboards) and ensure that cigarettes remain out of sight when stored behind counters.
Norway followed Ireland then New Zealand was the third country to follow Ireland on December 10 2004.  Italy introduced a full ban on 10 January 2005. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Estonia had smoking banned on 5 June 2007 in all facilities that serve food, including bars and nightclubs. Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia ( Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a Country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Bar owners were left the choice to put up special rooms for smoking where people are not permitted to be served food or drinks, most owners opted not to. Each nation of the United Kingdom implemented a similar ban: Scotland on 26 March 2006; Wales on 02 April 2007; Northern Ireland on 30 April 2007; England on 1 July 2007. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. France brings in a ban in 2008 when the existing ban will be extended to cover bars and cafés. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Denmark started a smoking ban in clubs and restaurants on 15 August 2007, although the legislation carved out exemptions for small bars and restaurants with separate smoking rooms. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Sweden enforced a similar ban on July 1, 2005. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Netherlands and Romania will start a smoking ban in bars and clubs on 1 July 2008. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
Spain has a law, introduced by the Spanish Socialist Party, which came into force at the start of 2006 and bans smoking in workplaces; it has some restrictions for public places, such as airports and train stations. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, commonly abbreviated by its Spanish initials PSOE ( P artido S ocialista O brero E spañol is A public space refers to an area or place that is open and accessible to all citizens regardless of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Age or An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land Pubs, restaurants and other public places smaller than 100 m² are exempted. A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared Food to Customers.
South Africa introduced the Tobacco Products Control Act in 1993. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa The Tobacco Products Control Act Since the Introduction of the Tobacco Products control Act in 1993 a notable victory has been scored in the battle against tobacco in South Africa where The act was amended several times and currently smoking is restricted in all public areas, such as the workplace, restaurants and bars, shopping malls, sports venues and airports. The act also bans the advertising of any tobacco product. "
The only country in the world to have banned the sale and smoking of tobacco is Bhutan since early 2005. The Kingdom of Bhutan (buːˈtɑːn is a Landlocked nation in South Asia.
In many parts of the world tobacco advertising and sponsorship of sporting events is not allowed. The ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the EU in 2005 has prompted the Formula One Management to look for venues that allow teams to display the livery of tobacco sponsors, and has also led to some of the more popular races on the calendar being cancelled in favour of more tobacco-friendly markets. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A livery is a Uniform or other sign worn in a non-military context on a person or object (such as an airplane or Vehicle) to denote a relationship However, pressure from fans who like the track has seen these decisions reversed, and Grands Prix such as the Belgian Grand Prix have re-appeared on the calendar. The Belgian Grand Prix is an Automobile race, part of the Formula One World Championship As of 2008, only one Formula One team, Scuderia Ferrari, now receives sponsorship from a tobacco company. Scuderia Ferrari is the name for the Gestione Sportiva the division of the Ferrari automobile company concerned with racing Its Marlboro branding only appears at two of 17 season races: Monaco and China. Neither hold bans on tobacco advertising.
In the first 18 months after the town of Pueblo, Colorado enacted a smoking ban in 2003, hospital admissions for heart attacks dropped 27%. The City of Pueblo (ˈpwɛbloʊ is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County Admissions in neighboring towns without smoking bans showed no change. The American Heart Association said, "The decline in the number of heart attack hospitalizations within the first year and a half after the non-smoking ban that was observed in this study is most likely due to a decrease in the effect of second hand smoke as a triggering factor for heart attacks. The American Heart Association (AHA is a Non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate "
Similar findings are beginning to emerge from other areas which have enacted bans. Researchers at the University of Dundee found significant improvements in the health of bar staff in the two months following the ban. The University of Dundee ( Gaelic: Oilthigh Dùn Deagh) is the older and arguably much more stuck-up and snobby of the two Universities in the city They tested bar workers' lung function and inflammatory markers a month before the ban came in, and again two months after it had been introduced. Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs measuring Lung function specifically the measurement Inflammation ( Latin, inflamatio, to set on fire is the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as Pathogens The number showing symptoms related to passive smoking fell from more than 80% to less than half, with reduced levels of nicotine in the blood and improvements in lung function of as much as 10%. 
A 2007 study of the effect of the ban in Scotland showed that there was 17% year-on-year drop in heart attack admissions since the ban was introduced in March 2006.  However, another source suggests heart attack admissions declined by 14% in the three months prior to the Scottish smoking ban.  Furthermore, the study has not yet been published, nor has the data on which it was based.  An analysis of the saliva of 39 non-smoking workers before and after the Scottish smoking ban came into force found a 75% fall in cotinine, which is a by-product of nicotine. Cotinine is a Metabolite of Nicotine. The word 'cotinine' is an Anagram of 'nicotine' Nicotine is an Alkaloid found in the Nightshade family of plants ( Solanaceae) which constitutes approximately 0 The level of cotinine is a good indicator of how much cigarette smoke has entered the body. 
One report stated that cigarette sales in Ireland and Scotland increased after a smoking ban.  In contrast, another report states that in Ireland, cigarette sales fell by 16% in the six months after the ban's introduction. In the UK as a whole, cigarette sales fell by 11% during July 2007, the first month of the smoking ban in England, compared with July 2006. 
A 1992 document from Phillip Morris Impact of Workplace Restrictions on Consumption and Incidence, summarized the results of its long-running research into the effects of a ban: "Total prohibition of smoking in the workplace strongly effects [sic] tobacco industry volume. Altria Group Inc ( (previously named Philip Morris Companies Inc Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Smokers facing these restrictions consume 11%-15% less than average and quit at a rate that is 84% higher than average. "
In the United States, the Center for Disease Control has reported a leveling off of smoking rates in recent years despite a large number of ever more severe smoking bans and large tax increases being passed by anti-smoking groups. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Anti-smoking groups claim this is due to funding reasons. It has also been suggested that a "backstop" of hardcore smokers has been reached who are unmotivated and increasingly defiant in the face of further legislation,
In Sweden, use of snus, as an alternative to smoking, has risen steadily since the smoking ban. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Snus ( is a moist powder tobacco product that is consumed by placing it under the upper lip for extended periods of time 
Smoking bans may make it easier for smokers to quit. A survey suggests 22% of UK smokers may quit in response to a smoking ban in enclosed public places. 
Restaurant smoking bans help stop young people becoming habitual smokers. A study of Massachusetts youths, found that those in towns with bans were 35 per cent less likely to be habitual smokers. 
Many studies using objective measures of economic activity, such as sales taxes, have been done by Smoke Free Groups on the effect of smoke-free policies. officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and located on the eastern side of the main island Honshū. The vast majority have found that there is no negative economic impact, with many finding that there may be some positive effects on local businesses.  A 2003 review of 97 studies of the economic effects of a smoking ban on the hospitality industry found that the best-designed studies by anti-smoking groups and their contractors reported no impact or a positive impact of smoke-free restaurant and bars laws on sales or employment. 
A government study in Sydney found that the proportion of the population attending pubs and clubs rose after the imposition of a ban on smoking in enclosed places. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 
Smoking bans were introduced in German hotels, restaurants and bars in 2007 and early 2008. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The restaurant industry has claimed that many businesses in the states which introduced a smoking ban in late 2007 (Lower Saxony, Baden-Württemberg and Hessen) witnessed lowers profits. Lower Saxony ( German: Niedersachsen ch is pronounced before an s --> lies in north-western Germany and is second Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states ( Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany. Hesse (Hessen is a state of Germany with an area The German Hotel and Restaurant Association (DEHOGA) claimed that the ban deterred people from going out for a drink or meal, stating that 15% of establishments that adopted a smoking ban in 2007 saw turnover fall by around 50%. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
In the Republic of Ireland, the main opposition was from publicans. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Irish workplace ban was introduced with the intention of protecting workers from passive smoking ("second-hand smoke") and to discourage smoking in a nation with a high percentage of smokers. Many pubs introduced "outdoor" arrangements (generally heated areas with shelters) though many customers now choose to drink at home or at parties, which has had the effect of aiding the off licence trade.
Ireland's Office of Tobacco Control website indicates that "an evaluation of the official hospitality sector data shows there has been no adverse economic effect from the introduction of this measure (the March 2004 national ban on smoking in bars, restaurants, etc). It has been claimed that the ban was a significant contributing factor to the closure of hundreds of small rural pubs, with almost 440 fewer licenses renewed in 2006 than in 2005. 
The ban came into force in Wales on 2 April 2007. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.  Six months after the ban's implementation in Wales, the Licensed Victuallers Association (LVA), which represents pub operators across Wales, claimed pubs had lost up to 20% of their trade. The LVA says some businesses were on the brink of closure, others had already closed down, and there was little optimism trade would eventually return to pre-ban levels. 
In September 2007, Japan Tobacco announced it would be closing its cigar factory in Cardiff, Wales, resulting in the loss of 184 jobs. JT for short is a Cigarette manufacturing company It is part of the Nikkei 225 index Cardiff ( 'kɑːdɪf) is the Capital and the largest city and county in Wales. It would move its operations to Northern Ireland with the creation of 95 jobs. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of The company indicated that a 50% fall in tobacco sales since 1999 had led to the decision to close the factory, and that this fall had been accelerated by the smoking ban. 
Three months after the ban in England came into force, The Rank Group, owners of Mecca Bingo Halls and Grosvenor Casinos, claimed that coupled with the Gambling Act 2005 which imposed restrictions on the number of £500 jackpot fruit machines, the smoking ban had had a detrimental impact upon its profits. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Rank Group plc ( was established on 22 December, 1995 as a Public limited company in England and Wales and in October 1996 The Gambling Act 2005 is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament, mainly applying to England, Wales and Scotland designed to control 
Bingo hall customers have declined by 600,000 since the ban's introduction. Combined with the negative impact on revenue of the smoking ban, and government tax rules, one third of bingo halls are facing closure. 
The British Beer and Pub Association (BBPA), an organisation representing breweries across United Kingdom has claimed beer sales are at their lowest level since the 1930s. The British Beer and Pub Association is an organization which represents the brewing industry in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The BBPA attributed a fall in sales of 7% during 2007 to the smoking ban. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
According to a survey conducted by pub and bar trade magazine The Publican, the anticipated increase in sales of food following the smoking ban has not occurred. The trade magazine's survey of 303 pubs in the United Kingdom found the average customer spent £14. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 86 on food and drink at dinner in 2007, virtually identical to 2006. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
A survey conducted by BII (formerly British Institute of Innkeeping) and the Federation of Licensed Victuallers' Associations (FLVA) concluded that sales had decreased by 7. 3% in the 5 months since the smoking ban's introduction on 1 July 2007. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Of the 2,708 responses to the survey, 58% of licensees said they had seen smokers visiting less regularly, while 73% had seen their smoking customers spending less time at the pub. 
The smoking ban has been partly blamed for Sports Cafe bars group going into administration. 
Britain's largest pub operator, Punch Taverns, have reported an estimated 5% decline in trading throughout the traditionally busy Christmas period, which the company attributes to diminishing consumer confidence and the effects of the smoking ban. Punch Taverns plc ( is the largest pub and bar operator in the United Kingdom, with around 9500 tenanted and managed pubs 
In the USA, smokers and hospitality businesses initially argued that businesses would suffer from smoking bans. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Some restaurateurs argued that smoking bans would increase the rate of dine and dashes where patrons declare they are stepping outside to smoke, while their intent is to leave. A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared Food to Customers. A dine and dash (also referred to in some quarters as "Chew and Screw" is a form of Theft where a patron eats at a Restaurant and then leaves without paying Others have countered that even if this occurred it could decrease the leisure (non-eating) time spent in the restaurants, resulting in increased turn-over of tables, which could actually benefit total sales. The experiences of Delaware, New York, California, and Florida have shown that businesses are generally not hurt, and that many hospitality businesses actually show increased revenues. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the A 2006 U.S. Surgeon General review of studies suggests that business may actually improve. Overview The Surgeon General is nominated by the US President and confirmed via majority vote by the Senate.  Thus, research generally indicates that business incomes are stable (or even improved) after smoking bans are enacted, and many customers appreciate the improved air quality.
In 2003 New York City amended its anti-smoking law to include all restaurants and bars, including those in private clubs, making it one of the toughest in the United States. The City of New York The city's Department of Health found in a 2004 study that air pollution levels had decreased sixfold in bars and restaurants after the ban went into effect, and that New Yorkers had reported less second-hand smoke in the workplace. The study also found the city's restaurants and bars prospered despite the smoking ban, with increases in jobs, liquor licenses and business tax payments.  A 2006 study by the state of New York found similar results.  According to the 2004 Zagat Survey, which polled nearly 30,000 New York City restaurant patrons, respondents said by a margin of almost 6 to 1 that they eat out more often now because of the city's smoke-free policy. Zagat Survey zʌ'ɡæt was established by Tim and Nina Zagat in 1979 as a way to collect and correlate the ratings of Restaurants by diners  Similar smoking bans modeled after NYC's were soon implemented in neighboring states; New York State in July 2003, Connecticut in January 2004, and New Jersey in April 2006.
Other studies, however, have found far different results. Michael Pakko of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis has released several studies of the negative economic impact of smoking bans on restaurants and bars, including generally, in Columbia, Missouri, and at Delaware gambling facilities. The Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis is one of 12 regional Reserve Banks that along with the Board of Governors in Washington D Columbia (kəˈlʌmbiə is the fifth-largest city in the US state of Missouri and the largest city in Mid-Missouri. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. 
Some areas with a large tourism trade are concerned about the impact of a smoking ban on their tourism market. In Hawaii, for example several tourism monitoring agencies reported that the ban has had a significant negative impact on tourism, based on government numbers and industry feedback. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the 
Another effect of smoking bans has been the smokeasy. A smokeasy (also spelled smoke-easy or smokeeasy) is a business especially a barroom, which allows smoking despite a Smoking ban enacted as A smokeasy (also spelled smoke-easy or smokeeasy) is a business especially a barroom, which allows smoking despite a Smoking ban enacted as As the speakeasy was to alcohol prohibition in the early 20th century, so is the smokeasy to smoking bans: it is a business, especially a bar, which allows smoking despite a legal prohibition. A speakeasy was an establishment that surreptitiously sold Alcoholic beverages during the period of United States history known as Prohibition (1920-1933 Prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, also known as Noble Experiment, refers to a Sumptuary law which prohibits Alcohol Numerous clandestine smokeasies exist in most jurisdictions with smoking bans in bars and restaurants, and have been noted widely, including in New York City, Hawaii, Alberta, Arizona, Boston, California, Colorado, Columbia, Missouri, Delaware, Dublin, Germany, Illinois, Manitoba, Minnesota, Ohio, Philadelphia, Qatar, Scotland, Seattle, Toronto, the United Kingdom, Utah, and Washington, D.C.. The City of New York The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The State of Colorado ( or chiefly by nonresidents) is a state located in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States of America. Columbia (kəˈlʌmbiə is the fifth-largest city in the US state of Missouri and the largest city in Mid-Missouri. Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Manitoba (English ˌmænɨˈtoʊbə French /manitoba/ is a province of Canada, spanning 647797 square kilometres (250116  sq mi of North America Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Qatar ( قطر; ˈqɑtˁɑr local pronunciation giṭar officially the State of Qatar (Arabic دولة قطر transliterated Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D 
According to the Roofie Foundation, a charity said to be the only agency in the United Kingdom addressing the issues surrounding sex abuse through drink spiking, the number of cases of drink spiking reported to it has risen markedly since the introduction of the smoking ban in England as a result of smokers leaving their drink unattended while going off for a smoke. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland 
Bellows-driven instruments – such as the accordion, concertina, melodeon and Uilleann (or Irish) bagpipes – reportedly need less frequent cleaning and maintenance as a result of the Irish smoking ban. The accordion is a portable box-shaped Musical instrument of the hand-held Bellows -driven free-reed aerophone family sometimes referred to as a Squeezebox A concertina is a free-reed Musical instrument, like the various Accordions and the Harmonica. 
Smoking has been banned on the streets of Tokyo's Chiyoda Ward since October 2002. Ward employees patrol the streets and hand out ¥2000 fines to violators. According to the cigarette company Japan Tobacco, Inc. , 60 municipalities, whose residents make up 10% of Japan's population, have regulations to ban or discourage people smoking on the street. However, only three municipalities assess fines for violations.
In April 2007, the City of Burbank joined Calabasas and Santa Monica by restricting smoking in public places . The Secondhand Smoke Control Ordinance was supported by Mayor Todd Campbell, Jef Vander Borght and Marsha Ramos following independent requests by 2 Burbank residents, Eric Michael Cap & Robert Phipps Esq.  In May, 2007 the City of Beverly Hills voted to ban smoking in all outdoor dining areas, effective October 1, 2007 . Numerous other cities have since initiated their own public smoking restrictions, including Baldwin Park, Belmont and S. Pasadena. The City of Los Angeles has also banned smoking in it's Parks following the 2007 Griffith Park fire started by a smoker.
In February 2008, the Hawaii County Council voted to ban smoking at county recreation facilities on the island of Hawaii. The Island of Hawaii, also called the Big Island or Hawaii Island, is a volcanic Island in the U  Mayor Harry Kim expressed concerns over the bill's failure to allow designated smoking areas, and ultimately vetoed the bill. However, on April 22, 2008, the Council overrode his veto by a 7-2 vote, and smoking was banned in all county recreation facilities, including beach parks, rodeo arenas and the Hilo drag strip.
Smoking bans have been criticised on a number of grounds:
Critics of smoking bans, including artist Joe Jackson and essayist and political critic Christopher Hitchens, claim that bans are misguided efforts of retrograde Puritans. Joe Jackson (born David Ian Jackson, 11 August 1954 Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire) is an English Musician and Singer-songwriter Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British Author, Journalist, Literary critic and American A Puritan of 16th and 17th century England was an associate of any number of religious groups advocating for more "purity" of Worship and Doctrine, Typically, this argument is based on John Stuart Mill's harm principle, arguing that the damage to public health through passive smoking is insufficient to warrant government intervention; however, in On Liberty, Mill himself wrote "The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential The harm principle is articulated most clearly in John Stuart Mill 's On Liberty, though it is also articulated in John Locke 's Second His own good, either physical or moral, is not sufficient warrant. " This rationale only has validity if passive smoking is proven to be absolutely 100% harmless.
Other critics emphasize the property rights of business owners, drawing a distinction between public places (such as government buildings) and privately-owned establishments (such as bars and restaurants). Citing economic efficiency, some economists suggest that the basic institutions of private property rights and contractual freedom are capable of resolving conflicts between the preferences of smokers and those who seek a smoke-free environment - without government intrusion. 
Another claim is that smoking bans hurt the business in the hospitality sector (bars, restaurants, hotels, casinos, etc. ), especially those near a border with a jurisdiction that does allow smoking. There are media reports of individual establishments which have suffered reduced revenue since the ban came into effect.  Other studies have found no such loss, or even that restaurants' revenue increased after the smoking ban. 
The main arguments against smoking being a "victimless crime" are the health risks of passive smoking and increased health costs borne by society. On the latter point, a study suggests that, although health care costs for smokers at a given age are as much as 40 percent higher than those for non-smokers, complete smoking cessation might actually result in an increase in total health care costs after 15 years because people would live longer. 
Bans on smoking in offices and other enclosed public places often result in smokers going outside to smoke, frequently congregating outside doorways. Many jurisdictions that have banned smoking in enclosed public places have extended the ban to cover areas within a fixed distance of entrances to buildings. 
The former British Cabinet Member John Reid claimed that bans on smoking in public places may lead to more smoking at home. In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister Dr John Reid (born 8 May 1947 is a British Politician who was formerly the Home Secretary and also filled several other cabinet positions including  However, both the House of Commons Health committee and the Royal College of Physicians disagreed, with the former finding no evidence to support Reid's claim after studying Ireland, and the latter finding that smoke-free households increased from 22% to 37% between 1996 and 2003. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Royal College of Physicians of London was the first medical institution in England to receive a Royal Charter 
Some smoking ban opponents nonetheless concede that in many localities, the number of smoke-free bars and restaurants is insufficient to meet the needs and wants of residents who prefer a smoke-free environment. In order to encourage the creation of more smoke-free businesses, some experts and politicians support tax credits and other financial incentives for businesses that enact non-smoking policies. During the debates over the Washington, DC smoking ban, city council member Carol Schwartz proposed legislation that would have enacted either a substantial tax credit for businesses that chose to ban smoking or a significant additional licensing fee for bars and restaurants that wished to allow smoking. Proponents of such policies claim that they would help to increase the options for customers and employees who prefer a smoke-free bar or restaurant without infringing on the rights of business owners. Opponents of such tax measures counter that only a complete ban can fully protect patrons and employees.
One solution to the problem of smoking externalities favoured by some economists is a system of tradable smoking pollution permits, similar to other emissions trading (cap-and-trade) pollution permits systems used by the Environmental Protection Agency in recent decades to curb other types of pollution. In Economics, an externality is an impact on any party not directly involved in an economic decision As an alternative to Smoking bans, some economists have proposed a system of tradable smoking permits as a solution to the problem of cigarette-smoking " Externalities " Emissions trading (or emission trading) is an administrative approach used to control Pollution by providing economic Incentives for The proposal has been suggested by Profs. Robert Haveman and John Mullahy of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 
Emissions trading systems are generally favored by economists as a market-based alternative to direct regulation, because they yield a given reduction in pollution at lower cost, and may permit a reduction in administrative costs.
Tradable pollution permits as a market-based alternative to smoking bans can be applied as follows: Lawmakers decide the optimal level of smoking establishments for an area. Permits are then auctioned off or otherwise allocated. Nonsmoking establishments with unused permits can sell them on the open market to smoking establishments. In essence, businesses are required to purchase the property rights over the clean air space of their business before their customers can smoke.
Critics of bans suggest ventilation is a means of reducing the harmful effects of passive smoking. A study conducted by the School of Technology of the University of Glamorgan in Wales, United Kingdom, published in the Building Services Journal stated that ventilation systems can dramatically improve indoor air quality. The University of Glamorgan (Prifysgol Morgannwg is a University in Pontypridd (in the former County of Mid Glamorgan) Wales with campuses The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located 
A study by Repace titled "Can Displacement Ventilation control SecondHand ETS?". The conclusion is a resounding no, ventilation is no subsitute for a smoking ban. 
The tobacco industry has focused on proposing ventilation as an alternative to smoking bans, though this approach has not been widely adopted in the U. S. due to the cost and complexity of widespread implementation of ventilation devices.  The Italian smoking ban permits dedicated smoking rooms with automatic doors and smoke extractors. Nevertheless, few Italian establishments are creating smoking rooms due to the additional cost. 
In some communities, establishments were able to prove that they did in fact suffer substantial financial loss as a direct result of a smoking ban and received hardship waivers from the governing entity which passed the ban.