|Motto: "Afferant Montes Pacem Populo"|
"May mountains bring people peace"
|Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska|
"Lightning over the Tatras"
(and largest city)
|-||Prime Minister||Robert Fico|
|Independence||Peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia|
|-||Date||January 1, 19931|
|EU accession||May 1, 2004|
|-||Total||49,035 km² (130th)|
18,932 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$109. The current form of the flag of Slovakia was adopted by Slovakia's Constitution which came into force on September 3, 1992. The coat of arms of Slovakia is composed of a Silver ( argent) double cross, elevated on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Nad Tatrou sa blýska " Lightning Over the Tatras " is the National anthem of Slovakia. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The majority of the 54 million inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovak (85 ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The Slovak language ( slovenčina, slovenský jazyk, not to be confused with Slovenščina) sometimes referred to as "Slovakian" A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place } The Slovaks or Slovakians are a western Slavic People that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia Slovakia (1939-1945 Jozef Tiso (26 October 1939- April 1945 Slovakia since 1993 The Ivan Gašparovič (born March 27 1941) Slovak politician and law professor became President of Slovakia on June 15, 2004 Chairman/President of the Provisional Government for Slovakia (1918 within Czechoslovakia) Vavro Šrobár ( 4 November 1918 &ndash Robert Fico ( September 15, 1964 in Topoľčany) is the current Prime Minister of Slovakia (since July 4 2006 Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A Member State of the European Union is any one of the twenty-seven sovereign Nation states that have acceded the European Union (EU since its De facto Events 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions  Areas between 10000 km² and 100000 km² are listed here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 587 billion (59th)|
|-||Per capita||$20,251 (41st)|
|GDP (nominal)||2007 IMF estimate|
|-||Total||$55. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic 103 billion (60th)|
|-||Per capita||$13,227 (44th)|
|HDI (2004)||▲ 0. PLEASE NO RANDOM FIGURES THERE ARE NO FIGURES BASED ON NATIONAL STATISTICS IN THIS ARTICLE Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product Per capita at Nominal values, the The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 863 (high) (42nd)|
|Currency||Slovak koruna (1 koruna = 100 haliers) (|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|1 Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia; see Velvet Divorce. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The Slovak koruna (slovenská koruna is the currency of Slovakia since February 8, 1993. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Central European Time ( CET) is one of the names of the Time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. Daylight saving time ( DST Central European Summer Time ( CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 Time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, The dissolution of Czechoslovakia, which took effect on January 1 1993, saw Czechoslovakia split into two separate countries the Czech Republic |
² Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
³ Shared code 42 with Czech Republic until 1997. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia,
Slovakia (long form: Slovak Republic; Slovak: , long form ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million and an area of about 49,000 square kilometres (almost 19,000 square miles). The Slovak language ( slovenčina, slovenský jazyk, not to be confused with Slovenščina) sometimes referred to as "Slovakian" A landlocked country is commonly defined as one enclosed or nearly enclosed by land Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The Slovak Republic borders the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south. The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic The largest city is its capital, Bratislava. ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading Slovakia is a member state of the European Union, NATO, OECD, WTO, and other international organizations. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The North Atlantic Treaty
The Slavic people arrived in the territory of present day Slovakia between the 5th and 6th century AD during the Migration Period (Migration of Nations). The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions, or sometimes Völkerwanderung ( German for "wandering of peoples" is the English name Various parts of Slovakia belonged to Samo's Empire, the first known political unit of Slavs, Great Moravia, the Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg (Austrian) monarchy, Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia throughout history. Samo (died 658 was a Frankish merchant from the "Senonian country" ( Senonago) probably modern Sens, France. Great Moravia (see Name section was a Slavic state that existed in Central Europe from the 9th century to the early 10th century The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Slovakia became independent on January 1, 1993 with the peaceful division of Czechoslovakia in the Velvet Divorce. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The dissolution of Czechoslovakia, which took effect on January 1 1993, saw Czechoslovakia split into two separate countries the Czech Republic
Slovakia made economic reforms such as massive privatization and flat tax. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business A flat tax (short for flat rate tax is a Tax system with a constant tax rate In 2006, Slovakia reached the highest growth of GDP (8. 9%) among the members of OECD. Slovakia joined the European Union in 2004 and will join the Eurozone in 1 January 2009. Euro Enlargement of the
From around 500 BC, the territory of modern-day Slovakia was settled by Celts, who built powerful oppida on the sites of modern-day Bratislava and Havránok. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts An enclosed oppidum was a type of large late Iron Age settlement or Oppidum surrounded by an encircling bank and ditch ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading Havránok is an important archaeological site in northern Slovakia. Biatecs, silver coins with the names of Celtic kings, represent the first known use of writing in Slovakia. Biatec was the name of a person presumably a king who appeared on the Celtic Coins minted by the Boii in Bratislava (the capital of Slovakia From 2 AD, the expanding Roman Empire established and maintained a series of outposts around and just north of the Danube, the largest of which were known as Carnuntum and Brigetio. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj Carnuntum (Καρνοιις in Ptolemy) was an important Roman army camp in what is now Austria. Near the northernmost line of the Roman hinterlands, Limes Romanus there existed the winter camp of Laugaricio (modern-day Trenčín) where the Auxiliary of Legion II fought and prevailed in a decisive battle over the Germanic Quadi tribe in 179 AD during the Marcomannic Wars. A limes (or the Limes Romanus) was a Border defense or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. Trenčín ( also known under alternative names) is a city in western Slovakia of the central Váh River valley near the Czech Trenčín ( also known under alternative names) is a city in western Slovakia of the central Váh River valley near the Czech Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known The Marcomannic Wars (called by the Romans bellum Germanicum or expeditio Germanica) were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about AD 166 The Kingdom of Vannius, a barbarian kingdom founded by the Germanic Suebian tribes of Quadi and Marcomanni, as well as several small Germanic and Celtic tribes, including the Osi and Cotini, existed in Western and Central Slovakia from 8-6 BC to 179 AD. Vannius was the king of the germanic tribe Quadi. He lived in the 1st century "Barbarian" is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * swēbaz based on the Proto-Germanic root * swē- meaning "one's own" Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Buri, Suebi or Suevi Cotini was a Celtic tribe most probably living in today's Slovakia, or (according to occasional opinions in Moravia and southern Poland.
The Slavic tribes settled in the territory of Slovakia in the 6th century. Western Slovakia was the centre of Samo's Empire in the 7th century. Samo (died 658 was a Frankish merchant from the "Senonian country" ( Senonago) probably modern Sens, France. A Slavic state, known as the Principality of Nitra, arose in the 8th century and its ruler Pribina had the first known Christian church in Slovakia consecrated by 828. The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality (Nitrianske kniežatstvo Nitriansko Nitrava is the name for a Slavic polity centered around Nitra Pribina, also called Priwina or Privina by Frankish chronicles was the ruler and Prince of the Principality of Nitra before 833 and established A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Together with neighboring Moravia, the principality formed the core of the Great Moravian Empire from 833. Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Great Moravia (see Name section was a Slavic state that existed in Central Europe from the 9th century to the early 10th century The high point of this Slavonic empire came with the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius in 863, during the reign of Prince Rastislav, and the territorial expansion under King Svatopluk I. Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Rastic or Rastiz (in modern Slovak Rastislav) (died after 870 was the second ruler of Great Moravia between 846 and 870 Svatopluk I (around 830 - 894 from the House of Mojmír was the prince of the Principality of Nitra (850s - 871 and then the king of Great Moravia (871
After the disintegration of the Great Moravian Empire in the early 10th century, the Hungarians gradually annexed the territory of the present-day Slovakia. Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. In the late 10th century, south-western Slovakia became part of the arising Hungarian principality, which transformed to the Kingdom of Hungary after 1000. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Most of Slovakia was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary by c. 1100, north-eastern parts by c. 1300. For almost two centuries, it was ruled autonomously as the Principality of Nitra within the Kingdom of Hungary. The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality (Nitrianske kniežatstvo Nitriansko Nitrava is the name for a Slavic polity centered around Nitra Slovak settlements extended to northern and south-eastern present-day Hungary. The ethnic composition became more diverse with the arrival of the Carpathian Germans in the 13th century, Vlachs in the 14th century and Jews. Carpathian Germans (Karpatendeutsche Felvidéki németek Slovak: Karpatskí Nemci) sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German Slowakeideutsche Vlachs is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinised population in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
A huge population loss resulted from the invasion of the Mongols in 1241 and the subsequent famine. The Mongol invasions of Europe, under the leadership of Subutai, centered on the destruction of East Slavic principalities such as Kiev and Vladimir A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation However medieval Slovakia was characterized rather by burgeoning towns, construction of numerous stone castles, and the development of art.  In 1465, King Matthias Corvinus founded the first university in Bratislava, but it was closed in 1490 after his death. Matthias Corvinus ( Matthias the Just; February 23 1443 &ndash April 6 1490) was King of Hungary and 
After the Ottoman Empire started its expansion into Hungary and the occupation of Buda in the early 16th century, the centre of the Kingdom of Hungary (under the name of Royal Hungary) shifted towards Pressburg (now Bratislava), which became the capital city of the Royal Hungary in 1536. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Buda ( German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak / Czech: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Royal Hungary was the name of a territory of medieval Hungary (together with Kingdom of Croatia) where the Habsburgs were recognized as Kings of Hungary Royal Hungary was the name of a territory of medieval Hungary (together with Kingdom of Croatia) where the Habsburgs were recognized as Kings of Hungary But the Ottoman wars and frequent insurrections against the Habsburg Monarchy also inflicted a great deal of destruction, especially in rural areas. The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older European Habsburg Monarchy (alternatively Habsburg Empire) refers to the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor As the Turks withdrew from Hungary in the late 17th century, Slovakia's importance within the kingdom decreased, although Bratislava retained its position as the capital city of Hungary until 1848, when the capital moved to Budapest. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political,
During the revolution in 1848-49 the Slovaks supported the Austrian Emperor with the ambition to secede from the Hungarian part of the Austrian monarchy, but they failed to achieve this aim. From March 1848 through July 1849 the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements The phrase Emperor of Austria describes an Hereditary Imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by the Austrian Habsburg During the period of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 1867 to 1918, the Slovaks experienced severe oppression in the form of Magyarization, promoted by the Hungarian government. Magyarization (also "Magyarisation" "Hungarisation" "Hungarization" "Hungarianization" "Hungarianisation" is a designator applied
In 1918, Slovakia and the regions of Bohemia and Moravia formed a common state, Czechoslovakia, with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon. Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Moravia (Morava; Morawy Moravie Moravia is a historical region in central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, one of the former Czech lands. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new The Treaty of Trianon is the peace treaty concluded at the end of World War I by the Allies of World War I, on one side and Hungary, seen as a successor In 1919, during the chaos following the breakup of Austria-Hungary, Slovakia was attacked by the provisional Hungarian Soviet Republic and one-third of Slovakia temporarily became the Slovak Soviet Republic. The Hungarian Soviet Republic or Soviet Republic of Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság was a Communist regime established in Hungary from The Slovak Soviet Republic (in Slovak: Slovenská republika rád = literally "Slovak Republic of Councils" - the name originated before the Russian
During the inter-war period, democratic and prosperous Czechoslovakia was under continuous pressure from the revisionist governments of Germany and Hungary, until it was finally broken up in 1939, as a result of the Munich Agreement concluded a year before. Revanchism (from French revanche " Revenge " is a term used since the 1870s to describe a political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial The Munich Agreement (Mnichovská dohoda Mníchovská dohoda Münchner Abkommen Accords de Munich was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland, which were areas along borders Southern Slovakia was lost to Hungary due to the First Vienna Award. The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration ( November 2, 1938) which took place at Vienna 's Belvedere
Under pressure from Nazi Germany, the First Slovak Republic, led by the clerical fascist leader Jozef Tiso, declared its independence from Czechoslovakia in 1939. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers The Slovak Republic ( Slovak: Slovenská republika) was an independent national Slovak state which existed from 14 March 1939 Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of Fascism with Theology or religious tradition Monsignor Jozef Tiso Th D ( October 13, 1887 – April 18, 1947) was a Slovak Politician of the However, the government was strongly influenced by Germany and gradually became a puppet regime. A puppet state is a State that is nominally independent but in reality under the control of another power An anti-Nazi resistance movement launched a fierce armed insurrection, known as the Slovak National Uprising, in 1944. The Slovak National Uprising ( Slovak: Slovenské národné povstanie, abbreviated SNP or 1944 Uprising was an armed Insurrection organized A bloody German occupation and a guerilla war followed. Most Jews were deported from the country and taken to German concentration camps during the Holocaust. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as
After World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and Jozef Tiso was hanged in 1947 for collaboration with the Nazis. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including More than 76,000 Hungarians and 32,000 Germans were forced to leave Slovakia, in a series of population transfers initiated by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference. Hungarians or Magyars are the largest ethnic minority of Slovakia, numbering 520528 people or 9 The expulsion of Germans after World War II was the Forced migration and Ethnic cleansing of German nationals ( Reichsdeutsche) and ethnic The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, Germany, from July 16,  This expulsion is still a source of tension between Slovakia and Hungary.
Czechoslovakia came under the influence of the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact after a coup in 1948. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Warsaw Pact (see Nomenclature) was an organization of Communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. The country was occupied by the Warsaw Pact forces in 1968, ending a period of liberalization under the leadership of Alexander Dubček. On the night of August 20 - August 21, 1968, the Soviet Union and four of its Warsaw Pact allies invaded the Czechoslovak Socialist The Prague Spring ( Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during Alexander Dubček (November 27 1921 – November 7 1992 was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969 famous for his attempt to reform In 1969, Czechoslovakia became a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" From 1969 to 1990, the Slovak Socialist Republic ( Slovenská socialistická republika in Slovak; abbreviated SSR) was the official
The end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989, during the peaceful Velvet Revolution, was followed once again by the country's dissolution, this time into two successor states. The " Velvet Revolution " (sametová revoluce nežná revolúcia ( November 16 &ndash December 29 1989) refers to a non-violent Succession of states is a theory in International relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created State by other states based on In July 1992 Slovakia, led by Prime Minister Vladimír Mečiar, declared itself a sovereign state, meaning that its laws took precedence over those of the federal government. Vladimír Mečiar (born July 26, 1942) is the leader of the People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (ĽS-HZDS and a former Prime Minister Throughout the Autumn of 1992, Mečiar and Czech Prime Minister Václav Klaus negotiated the details for disbanding the federation. Václav Klaus (ˈvaːtslaf ˈklaʊ̯s born 19 June 1941) is the second President of the Czech Republic (since 2003 reelected 2008 and a former In November the federal parliament voted to dissolve the country officially on December 31, 1992. Slovakia and the Czech Republic went their separate ways after January 1, 1993, an event sometimes called the Velvet Divorce. The dissolution of Czechoslovakia, which took effect on January 1 1993, saw Czechoslovakia split into two separate countries the Czech Republic Slovakia has remained a close partner with the Czech Republic and other countries within the Visegrad Group. The Visegrad Group, also called the Visegrad Four or V4, is an alliance of four Central European states &ndash the Czech Republic, Slovakia became a member of NATO on March 29, 2004 and of the European Union on May 1, 2004 . The North Atlantic Treaty The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in
The Slovak landscape is noted primarily for its mountainous nature, with the Carpathian Mountains extending across most of the northern half of the country. The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians (Carpaţi Czech, Polish and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати Amongst these mountain ranges are the high peaks of the Tatra mountains. Panorama tatierjpg|thumb|right|300px|Panorama of Tatras]]The Tatra Mountains, Tatras or Tatra ( Tatry in both Polish and Slovak)  To the north, close to the Polish border, are the High Tatras which are a popular skiing destination and home to many scenic lakes and valleys as well as the highest point in Slovakia, the Gerlachovský štít at 2,655 metres (8,711 ft), and the country's highly symbolic mountain Kriváň. High Tatras or High Tatra (Slovak and Czech Vysoké Tatry, Polish Tatry Wysokie) are a Mountain range on the borders between Slovakia Snow skiing is a group of sports utilizing Skis as primary equipment Gerlachovský štít ( translated into English as Gerlachov Peak, Gerlachovský Peak or Gerlach Peak) is the highest peak in the High Tatras Kriváň ( is a mountain in the High Tatras, Slovakia, that dominates the upper part of the former Liptov County
Major Slovak rivers are the Danube, the Váh and the Hron. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj This article is about the River Hron For the Rector of Prag-Suchdol see Jan Hron Hron (Hron Gran Garam Granus is a 298 km long left tributary of the Danube
The Slovak climate lies between the temperate and continental climate zones with relatively warm summers and cold, cloudy and humid winters. The area of Slovakia can be divided into three kinds of climatic zones and the first zone can be divided into two sub-zones.
The average annual temperature is about 9–10°C (48–50°F). The average temperature of the hottest month is about 20°C (68°F) and the average temperature of the coldest month is greater than −3°C (26°F). This kind of climate occurs at Záhorská nížina and Podunajská nížina. The Serbian lowland is treated under Danube Plain (Serbia The Danubian Lowland or Danube Lowland (Podunajská nížina It is the typical climate of the capital city Bratislava. 
The average annual temperature is about 8–9°C (46–48°F). The average temperature of the hottest month is about 19°C (66°F) and the average temperature of the coldest month is less than −3°C (26°F). This kind of climate can be found at Košická kotlina and Východoslovenská nížina. The East(ern Slovak Lowland (Slovak Východoslovenská nížina) is the name of the part of Great Hungarian Plain (Slovak Veľká dunajská kotlina It is the typical climate of the city of Košice. 
The average annual temperature is between 5°C and 8. 5°C (41–47°F). The average temperature of the hottest month is between 15°C and 18. 5°C (59–65°F) and the average temperature of the coldest month is between −3°C and −6°C (21–26°F). This climate can be found in almost all basins in Slovakia. For example Podtatranská kotlina, Žilinská kotlina, Turčianska kotlina, Zvolenská kotlina. The Podtatranská kotlina (literally Sub-Tatra Basin or Basin under Tatra(s is a basin in Slovakia, part of the Fatra-Tatra Area, which belongs to the Inner It is the typical climate for the towns of Poprad and Sliač. Poprad is also the name of a river in Slovakia and Poland (see Poprad River) Poprad ( Poprád Deutschendorf is a Sliač is a small Spa town located in central Slovakia, on the Hron river between Banská Bystrica and Zvolen. 
The average annual temperature is less than 5°C (41°F). The average temperature of the hottest month is less than 15°C (59°F) and the average temperature of the coldest month is less than −5°C (23°F). This kind of climate occurs in mountains and in some villages in the valleys of Orava and Spiš. Spiš (- Slovak; Latin: Scepusium, Zips Szepesség Spisz is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern
The majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia are ethnically Slovak (85. The majority of the 54 million inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovak (85 } The Slovaks or Slovakians are a western Slavic People that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is 8%). Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority (9. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic 7%). Other ethnic groups, as of the 2001 census, include Roma with 1. The Romani people (singular Rom, plural Roma as a Noun; also known as Romanies or Roma people) are an ethnic group with origins 7%, Ruthenians or Ukrainians with 1%, and other or unspecified, 1. Rusyns (also referred to as Русины Ruthenians Ruthenes Rusins Carpatho-Rusyns and Rusnaks) are a Slavic Ethnic group that speaks Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens 8%. 
The official state language is Slovak, a member of the Slavic Language Family, but Hungarian is also widely spoken in the south of the country and enjoys a co-official status in some municipalities, and many people also speak Czech. The Slovak language ( slovenčina, slovenský jazyk, not to be confused with Slovenščina) sometimes referred to as "Slovakian" The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages Hungarian ( magyar nyelv) is a Uralic language (more specifically a Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. Czech (ˈʧɛk čeština ˈʧɛʃcɪna in Czech is a West Slavic language with about 12 million native speakers it is the majority language in the
The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion. The Constitution of Slovakia, officially Constitution of the Slovak Republic (Ústava Slovenskej republiky is the current Constitution of Slovakia Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance The majority of Slovak citizens (68. 9 %) identify themselves with Roman Catholicism (although church attendance is lower); the second-largest group are people without confession (13%). About 6. 93% belong to Lutheranism, 4. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther 1% are Greek Catholic, affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, Calvinism has 2. This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the 0%, other and non-registered churches 1. 1% and some (0. 9%) are Eastern Orthodox. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world About 2,300 Jews remain of the large estimated pre-WWII population of 90,000. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
In 2007 Slovakia was estimated to have a fertility rate of 1. The total fertility rate ( TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR or total 33.  (i. e. , the average woman will have 1. 33 children in her lifetime), which is one of the lowest numbers among EU countries.
Slovakia is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The Grassalkovich Palace (in Slovak Grasalkovičov palác) or the Presidential Palace ( Prezidentský palác) is a Palace in ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading Politics of Slovakia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic Republic, with a multi-party system This is a List of rulers of Slovakia. Notes A stands for the House of Arpád M stands for the House of Mojmír In the 10th Chairman/President of the Provisional Government for Slovakia (1918 within Czechoslovakia) Vavro Šrobár ( 4 November 1918 &ndash This is a list of the Presidents of Slovakia Slovakia (1939-1945 Jozef Tiso (26 October 1939- April 1945 Slovakia since 1993 The The last parliamentary elections were held on June 17, 2006 and two rounds of presidential elections took place on April 3, 2004 and April 17, 2004. The 2006 parliamentary elections in Slovakia took place on Saturday June 17, 2006. Events 1462 - Vlad III the Impaler attempts to assassinate Mehmed II ( The Night Attack) forcing him to retreat Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The 2004 presidential elections were held in Slovakia on April 3 (first round and April 17 (second round 2004. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again "
The Slovak head of state is the president (Ivan Gašparovič, 2004 - 2009), elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state Ivan Gašparovič (born March 27 1941) Slovak politician and law professor became President of Slovakia on June 15, 2004 Most executive power lies with the head of government, the prime minister (Robert Fico, 2006 - 2010), who is usually the leader of the winning party, but he/she needs to form a majority coalition in the parliament. In Political science and Constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the State. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State Robert Fico ( September 15, 1964 in Topoľčany) is the current Prime Minister of Slovakia (since July 4 2006 A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. The prime minister is appointed by the president. The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch.
Slovakia's highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic (Národná rada Slovenskej republiky). A legislature is a type of representative Deliberative assembly with the power to create amend and change Laws The law created by a legislature is called Legislation Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber The National Council of the Slovak Republic (in Slovak: Národná rada Slovenskej republiky, often just Národná rada, abbr Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation or PR is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes Slovakia's highest judicial body is the Constitutional Court of Slovakia (Ústavný súd), which rules on constitutional issues. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Constitutional Court of Slovakia (officially Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic, Ústavný súd Slovenskej republiky is a special court established by the A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity The 13 members of this court are appointed by the president from a slate of candidates nominated by parliament.
Slovakia is a member state of the European Union and NATO since 2004. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The North Atlantic Treaty As a member of the United Nations (since 1993), Slovakia was, on October 10, 2005, elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council from 2006 to 2007. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Events 680 - Battle of Karbala: Shia Imam Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated Slovakia is also a member of WTO, OECD, OSCE, and other international organizations.
As for administrative division, Slovakia is subdivided into 8 kraje (singular - kraj, usually translated as "region", but actual meaning is "county"), each of which is named after its principal city. Since 1949 (except 1990-1996, Slovakia has been divided into a number of Kraje ' (singular kraj; usually translated as "Regions" with capital An okres (in English district) is an administrative unit in Slovakia. KRAJ (1009 FM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Rhythmic Contemporary Hit Radio format Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since 2002. Their self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing (or autonomous) Regions (sg. samosprávny kraj, pl. samosprávne kraje) or Upper-Tier Territorial Units (sg. vyšší územný celok, pl. vyššie územné celky, abbr. VÚC).
(the word kraj can be replaced by samosprávny kraj or by VÚC in each case)
The "kraje" are subdivided into many okresy (sg. The Bratislava Region (Slovak Bratislavský Kraj) is one of the administrative regions of Slovakia. ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading The Trnava Region (Slovak Trnavský Kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions. Trnava ( Nagyszombat Tyrnau Tyrnavia is a city in western Slovakia, 47 km to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river The Trenčín Region ( Slovak: Trenčiansky Kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions. Trenčín ( also known under alternative names) is a city in western Slovakia of the central Váh River valley near the Czech The Nitra Region ( Slovak: Nitriansky Kraj) is one of the administrative regions of Slovakia. If you were looking for a chemical see Nitre or Nitro. Nitra ( Neutra ( Nyitra / Nyitria) is a city in western The Žilina Region (Slovak Žilinský Kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions and consists of 11 districts ( Okresy. Žilina ( Sillein Zsolna names in other languages) is a city in north-western Slovakia, around from the capital Bratislava. The Banská Bystrica Region (Slovak Banskobystrický Kraj) is one of the Slovak regions in the country of Slovakia in Europe Banská Bystrica ( Hungarian:Besztercebánya ( previously known also by several alternative names) is a key City in central Slovakia located The Prešov Region (in Slovak Prešovský Kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions. Prešov ( known also by alternative names) is a City in eastern Slovakia. The Košice Region (Slovak Košický Kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions. Košice (; Hungarian: Kassa; (also known by other alternative names) is a city in eastern Slovakia. Okres ( Czech and Slovak term meaning "district" in English; from Old Slavic окрьсть - around refers to administrative entities in the okres, usually translated as districts). Slovakia currently has 79 districts. The districts are then subdivided into zuj ("village" or "municipality").
In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions; however the relative difference is no bigger than in most EU countries having regional differences. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work.
Slovakia has pursued a difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. These traditional regions of Slovakia are mostly former counties of the Kingdom of Hungary, but also some other regions There are the following official regions for the purposes of tourism in Slovakia: Division until 2004 The districts (okresy completely or partly included in the regions A high-rise is a tall Building or structure Normally the function of the building is added for example high-rise Apartment building or A central business district ( CBD) is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city Slovakia is rapidly becoming a Developed country, with the highest sustained GDP growth in the European Union, reporting 10 A planned economy or directed economy is an Economic system in which the Government or Workers' councils manages the Economy. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has picked up. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money
Slovakia is characterized by the sustained high economic growth. Economic growth is the increase in the amount of the goods and services produced by an economy over time In 2006, Slovakia reached the highest growth of GDP (8. 9%) among the members of OECD. The annual GDP growth in 2007 is estimated at 10,4%, with the record level of 14,3% reached in the fourth quarter. 
Unemployment, peaking at 19. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. 2% at the end of 2001, decreased to 7. 84% in February 2008 according to the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic.  In addition to the economic growth, migration of workers to other EU countries also contributed to this reduction. According to Eurostat, which uses calculation method different from that of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, the unemployment rate is still the highest in the EU at 9. The Statistical Office of the European Communities ( Eurostat) is the Statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union 9%. 
Inflation dropped from an average annual rate of 12. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time 0% in 2000 to just 3. 3% in the election year 2002, but it rose again in 2003-2004 because of increases in taxes and regulated prices. It reached 3. 7 % in 2005.
Slovakia will adopt the Euro currency on 1 January 2009 and has already entered the ERM II for this purpose (see Slovak euro coins). Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979 as part of the European Monetary System (EMS Slovak euro coins feature three separate designs for the three series of coins The Euro in Slovakia was approved by the European commission on 7 May 2008. The Slovak koruna was revalued on 28 May 2008 to 30. 126 for 1 euro. 
Slovakia is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly because of its lower labour cost, low tax rates and well educated labour force. In recent years, Slovakia has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. FDI inflow grew more than 600% from 2000 and cumulatively reached an all-time high of $17. Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country 3 billion USD in 2006, or around $18,000 per capita by the end of 2006.
Despite a sufficient number of researchers and a solid secondary educational system, Slovakia, along with other post-communist countries, still faces many challenges in the field of modern knowledge economy. The knowledge economy is a term that refers either to an economy of knowledge focused on the production and management of knowledge in the frame of economic constraints The business and public research and development expenditures are well below the EU average. The phrase research and development (also R and D or more often R&D) according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks the Slovak secondary education as the 30th in the world (placing it just below the United States and just above Spain). 
In March 2008, the Ministry of Finance announced that Slovakia's economy is developed enough to stop being an aid receiver from the World Bank. The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Slovakia will become an aid provider by the end of 2008. 
Slovakia features natural landscapes, mountains, caves, medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts. Tourism in Slovakia offers natural landscapes, mountains, caves, medieval castles and towns folk architecture spas and There are more than 2400 caves in Slovakia, out of which more than 400 have been explored so far This is a list of Castles in Slovakia. These Slovak words translate as following hrad, hrádok and Ski and winter sports in Slovakia are very prominent and popular given the mountainous topography of the region and the fact that much of the country is covered by snow for a
More than 1. 6 million people visited Slovakia in 2006, and the most attractive destinations are the capital of Bratislava and the High Tatras. ARTICLE TEXT BEGINS AFTER THESE COMMENTS - PLEASE READ 1 Please do not edit the lead without reading High Tatras or High Tatra (Slovak and Czech Vysoké Tatry, Polish Tatry Wysokie) are a Mountain range on the borders between Slovakia  Most visitors come from the Czech Republic (about 26%), Poland (15%) and Germany (11%). 
Pork, beef and poultry are the main meats consumed in Slovakia, with pork being the most popular by a substantial margin. Slovak cuisine varies slightly from region to region It was influenced by the traditional cuisine of its neighbours and influenced these as well Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive Beef is the Culinary name for Meat from Bovines especially domestic Cattle (cows Poultry is the category of Domesticated Birds which some humans keep for the purpose of collecting their eggs, or kill for their Meat and/or Among poultry, chicken is most common, although duck, goose, and turkey are also well established. A blood sausage called jaternice also has a following, containing any and all parts of a butchered pig, it is an acquired taste. Game meats, especially boar, rabbit, and venison, are also widely available around the year. Lamb and goat are also available, but for the most part are not very popular. The consumption of horse meat is generally frowned upon.
Wine is common throughout all parts of Slovakia. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Slovak wine comes predominantly from the southern areas along the Danube and its tributaries; the northern half of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines. Tokaj wine from the Tokaj region is among the best-known varieties. For Tokajský wine and the wine region in Slovakia see Tokaj (Slovakia Tokaji (of Tokaj is the name of the wines from the region of Tokaj-Hegyalja The Tokajsky wine is from the Slovakian wine region of Tokaj, a wine region in Slovakia which comprises 7 communities and 998 hectares of vineyards Traditionally, white wine was more popular than red or rosé (except in some regions), and sweet wine more popular than dry, but both these tastes seem to be changing.
Beer (in slovak language Pivo) is also popular throughout the country. Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed Alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea In most of the country, the Pils is predominant. Pilsner, sometimes pilsener or simply pils, is a Pale lager, developed in the 19th century in the city of Pilsen, Bohemia (
Popular music began to replace folk music beginning in the 1950s, when Slovakia was a part of Czechoslovakia; American jazz, R&B, and rock and roll were popular, alongside waltzes, polkas, and czardas, among other folk forms. History of Slovak music Music has long occupied an important and distinguished place in Slovak cultural life Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African The waltz is a ballroom and folk Dance in time, performed primarily in Closed position. The polka is a fast lively Central European Dance and also a genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas Csárdás (ˈt͡ʃaːrdaːʃ " char -dash" is a traditional Hungarian Folk dance. By the end of the '50s, radios were common household items, though only state stations were legal. Slovak popular music began as a mix of bossa nova, cool jazz, and rock, with propagandistic lyrics. Bossa nova ( is a style of Brazilian music popularized by Antônio Carlos Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes and João Gilberto. Cool jazz is a Jazz style that emerged in the late 1940s in New York City. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Dissenters listened to ORF (Austrian Radio), Radio Luxembourg, or Slobodna Europa (Radio Free Europe), which played more rock. This article is about the radio broadcast service For the REM Czechoslovakia was more passive in the face of Soviet domination, and thus radio and the whole music industry toed the line more closely than other satellite states.
After the Velvet Revolution and the declaration of the Slovak state, domestic music greatly diversified as free enterprise allowed a great expansion in the number of bands and genres represented in the Slovak market. The " Velvet Revolution " (sametová revoluce nežná revolúcia ( November 16 &ndash December 29 1989) refers to a non-violent Free enterprise may refer to Free enterprise system or Free enterprise economy, another term for Capitalism Free Soon, however, major label brought pop music to Slovakia and drove many of the small companies out of business. In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure The 1990s, American grunge and alternative rock, and Britpop gain a wide following, as well as a newfound popularity in musicals. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative; known primarily in the UK as indie) is a genre of Britpop is a subgenre of Alternative rock that originated in the United Kingdom. Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance.