8 May 1989 – 23 July 1997
|Prime Minister||Desimir Jevtić|
|Preceded by||Office created|
|Succeeded by||Dragan Tomić (Acting)|
23 July 1997 – 5 October 2000
|Prime Minister||Radoje Kontić|
|Preceded by||Zoran Lilić|
|Succeeded by||Vojislav Koštunica|
|Born||20 August 1941|
|Died||11 March 2006 (aged 64)|
The Hague, Netherlands
|Political party||Socialist Party of Serbia|
Slobodan Milošević (pronounced [sloˈbodan miˈloʃevitɕ] ; Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (August 20, 1941, Požarevac, Kingdom of Yugoslavia – March 11, 2006, The Hague, Netherlands) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. The President of Serbia is the Head of state of the Republic of Serbia. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Dragutin Zelenović ( Serbian: Драгутин Зеленовић born 19 May 1928 in Temerin, Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes Radoman Božović (Радоман Божовић born 13 January 1953 in Šipačno village near Nikšić, People's Republic of Montenegro, Nikola Šainović ( Serbian: Никола Шаиновић born 7 December 1948 in Bor, Serbia, Yugoslavia) is a former Mirko Marjanović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мирко Марјановић ( July 27, 1937 in Knin, Croatia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia Dragan Tomić (Драган Томић (born 1936 in Priština, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is a former Speaker of the National Assembly of Serbia holding the This is a List of Heads of State of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the end of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Events 869 - The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Radoje Kontić (Радоје Контић (born May 31 1937 in Nikšić, Zeta Banovina, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is a retired Momir Bulatović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Момир Булатовић (born September 21, 1956 in Belgrade, Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia Zoran Lilić - Lilke ( Serbian Cyrillic: Зоран Лилић b Dr Vojislav Koštunica ( Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница) (ˈvɔjislaːv kɔˈʃtunitsa born March 24, 1944, Belgrade Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Požarevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац is a city located in Serbia at. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The Socialist Party of Serbia (Социјалистичка партија Србије Socijalistička partija Srbije) is a Political party in Serbia. Mirjana "Mira" Marković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мирјана Марковић (born on July 10, 1942 in Požarevac Atheism The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска/Вукова ћирилица srpska/Vukova ćirilica, literally " Serbian/Vuk's Cyrillic alphabet " is Events 636 - Battle of Yarmouk: Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid take control of Syria and Palestine Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Požarevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац is a city located in Serbia at. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The President of Serbia is the Head of state of the Republic of Serbia. This is a List of Heads of State of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the end of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro He served as the President of Serbia from 1989 until 1997 and as President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state He also led Serbia's Socialist Party from its foundation in 1990. The Socialist Party of Serbia (Социјалистичка партија Србије Socijalistička partija Srbije) is a Political party in Serbia.
He resigned the Yugoslav presidency amid demonstrations, following the disputed presidential election of September 24, 2000. The 5th October Overthrow (sometimes colloquially called the Bulldozer Revolution) is a term referring to the series of events that occurred in 2000 in the Federal Republic Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Milošević was a controversial figure. His detractors called him the "Butcher of the Balkans" and accused him of starting four wars. His supporters say he was a peacemaker who did everything in his power to avert war and put a stop to the violence.
Milošević was arrested by Serbian authorities early on Sunday, April 1, 2001, on suspicion of corruption, abuse of power, and embezzlement. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets usually financial in nature by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted   The initial investigation into Milošević faltered for lack of hard evidence, prompting the Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić to send him to The Hague to stand trial for alleged war crimes instead. Zoran Đinđić, PhD (often Zoran Djindjić, from Serbian Cyrillic: Зоран Ђинђић, /ˈzorɑn ˈdʑɪndʑɪtɕ/ (1 August The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied 
The Hague war crimes tribunal charged Milošević with crimes against humanity, violating the laws or customs of war, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and genocide for his role during the wars in Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of The law of war (also law of armed conflict, LOAC) is Law concerning acceptable practices relating to war The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan
Milošević conducted his own defense, but the trial ended without a verdict because he died during the proceedings.  Milošević suffered from heart ailments and high blood pressure. Blood pressure is also the title of a short story by Damon Runyan in Guys and Dolls and Other Stories He died of a heart attack  after the court denied his request to seek specialized medical treatment at a cardiology clinic in Moscow. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of  
Milošević, by origin, was a Vasojevići tribe Montenegrin, born in Požarevac, Serbia during the Axis occupation. The Vasojevići tribe (Васојевићи is the biggest Highland clan of Montenegro. Montenegrins ( Serbian: Црногорци/ Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people closely akin to the Serbs, associated to Montenegro Požarevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац is a city located in Serbia at. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries His parents separated soon after the war; his father, Svetozar Milošević, committed suicide in 1962, and his mother, Stanislava Milošević née Koljenšić, a school teacher and also an active member of the Communist Party, hung herself in 1974. A Political party described as a communist party includes those that advocate the application of the social principles of Communism through a communist form of
He went on to study law at Belgrade University, where he became the head of the ideology committee of the Yugoslav Communist League's (SKJ) student branch (SSOJ). Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The University of Belgrade ( Serbian: sr Универзитет у Београду is the oldest and most important institution of higher Education in all of League of Communists of Yugoslavia ( Savez komunista Jugoslavije) before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia ( Komunistička partija Jugoslavije) was Young Communist League of Yugoslavia, commonly known by its abbreviation SKOJ (from Serbo-Croatian: Savez komunističke omladine Jugoslavije) was the youth While at the university, he befriended Ivan Stambolić, whose uncle Petar Stambolić had been a president of Serbian Executive Council (the Communist equivalent of a prime minister). Ivan Stambolić (Иван Стамболић ( November 5, 1936 - August 25, 2000) was a Communist Party of Yugoslavia official and Petar Stambolić ( July 12 1912 &ndash September 21 2007) was a Yugoslav Communist Politician who served as This was to prove a crucial connection for Milošević's career prospects, as Stambolić sponsored his rise through the SKJ hierarchy.
On leaving university in 1960, Milošević became an economic advisor to the Mayor of Belgrade. Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. Five years later, he married Mirjana Marković, whom he had known since childhood. Mirjana "Mira" Marković ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мирјана Марковић (born on July 10, 1942 in Požarevac Marković would have some influence on her husband's political career both before and after his rise to power; she was also leader of Milošević's junior coalition partner, Yugoslav Left (JUL) in the 1990s. Yugoslav Left ( Serbo-Croat: Југословенска Левица Jugoslovenska Levica; abbreviated ЈУЛ, JUL) is a political In 1968 he got a job at the Tehnogas company, where Stambolić was working, and became its chairman in 1973. By 1978, Stambolić's sponsorship had enabled Milošević to become the head of Beobanka, one of Yugoslavia's largest banks; his frequent trips to Paris and New York gave him the opportunity to learn English. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
On April 16, 1984 Slobodan Milošević was elected to a two-year term as president of the Belgrade League of Communists City Committee. 
On February 21, 1986 the Socialist Alliance of Working People unanimously supported him as presidential candidate for the SKJ's Serbian branch Central Committee. The League of Communists of Serbia was the Serbian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990  Milošević was elected by a majority vote at the 10th Congress of the Serbian League of Communists on May 28, 1986. 
Milošević emerged in 1987 as a force in Serbian politics. The Hague indictment alleges that, starting in 1987, Milošević "endorsed a Serbian nationalist agenda" and "exploited a growing wave of Serbian nationalism in order to strengthen centralised rule in the SFRY. Serbian nationalism is the Ethnic nationalism of the Serb people Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization particularly those regarding decision-making become concentrated within The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: " 
Milošević always denied allegations that he exploited Serbian nationalism in his rise to power. In a 1995 interview with TIME, he said: "All my speeches up to '89 were published in my book. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and You can see that there was no nationalism in those speeches. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation We were explaining why we think it is good to preserve Yugoslavia for all Serbs, all Croats, all Muslims and all Slovenians as our joint country. Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Slovenes or Slovenians ( Slovene Slovenci, dual Slovenca, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenke, dual Slovenki Nothing else. " 
As animosity between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo deepened during the 1980s, Milošević was sent to address a crowd of Serbs in Kosovo Polje on April 24, 1987. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Kosovo Polje or Fushë Kosova ( Albanian Fushë Kosovë or Fushë Kosova; Serbian Косово Поље or Kosovo Polje Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) While Milošević was talking to the leadership inside the local cultural hall demonstrators outside clashed with the local Kosovo-Albanian police force.
The New York Times reported that "a crowd of 15,000 Serbs and Montenegrins hurled stones at the police after they used truncheons to push people away from the entrance to the cultural center of Kosovo Polje. " 
Milošević heard the commotion and was sent outside to calm the situation. A videotape of the event shows Milošević responding to complaints from the crowd that the police were beating people by saying "You will not be beaten".  Later that evening, Serbian television aired the video of Milošević's encounter.
In Adam LeBor's biography of Milošević, he describes that the crowd attacked the police and Milošević's response was "No one should dare to beat you again!" 
The Federal Secretariat of the SFRY Interior Ministry however, condemned the police's use of rubber truncheons as not in keeping within the provisions of Articles 100 and 101 of the rules of procedure for "conducting the work of law enforcement", they had found that "the total conduct of the citizenry in the mass rally before the cultural hall in Kosovo Polje cannot be assessed as negative or extremist. Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society or otherwise claimed to violate There was no significant violation of law and order. " 
Although Milošević was only addressing a small group of people around him -- not the public, a great deal of significance has been attached to that remark. Stambolić, after his reign as President, said that he had seen that day as "the end of Yugoslavia".
Dragiša Pavlović, a Stambolic ally and Milošević's successor at the head of the Belgrade Committee of the party, was expelled from the party during the 8th Session of the League of Communists of Serbia after he publicly criticized the party's Kosovo policy. The central committee voted overwhelmingly for his dismissal: 106 members voted for his expulsion, eight voted against, and 18 abstained. 
Stambolić was fired after Communist officials in Belgrade accused him of abusing his office during the Pavlović affair. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Stambolic was accused of sending a secret letter to the party Presidium, in what was seen as an attempt to misuse the weight of his position as Serbian President, to prevent the central committee's vote on Pavlović's expulsion from the party.  
In 2002 Adam LeBor and Louis Sell would write that Pavlović was really dismissed because he opposed Milošević's policies towards Kosovo-Serbs. They contend that, contrary to advice from Stambolić, Milošević had denounced Pavlović as being soft on Albanian radicals. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language LeBor and Sell assert that Milošević prepared the ground for his ascent to power by quietly replacing Stambolić's supporters with his own people, thereby forcing Pavlović and Stambolić from power. 
In February 1988, Stambolić's resignation was formalized, allowing Milošević to take his place as Serbia's President. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar)
Starting in 1988 the so-called "anti-bureaucratic revolution" led to the resignation of the governments of Vojvodina and Montenegro and to the election of officials allied with Milošević. The term " Anti-bureaucratic revolution " refers to a series of mass Protests against governments of Yugoslavian republics and autonomous provinces during The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina ( Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина or Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; Hungarian: Vajdaság Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE!
Slovenian leader Milan Kučan accused Serbia of deliberately fanning nationalist passions and Slovene newspapers published articles comparing Milošević to Mussolini. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Milan Kučan (born in Križevci, Slovenia, then a part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on January 14, 1941) is a Slovene Milošević contended that such criticism was unfounded and amounted to “spreading fear of Serbia”. Serbophobia, or Anti-Serb sentiment, is a term used to describe a sentiment of hostility or Hatred towards Serbs or Serbia. 
In Vojvodina, where 54 percent of the population was Serbian, an estimated 100,000 demonstrators rallied outside the Communist Party headquarters in Novi Sad on October 6, 1988 to demand the resignation of the provincial leadership. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina ( Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина or Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; Hungarian: Vajdaság Novi Sad ( Cyrillic: Нови Сад 'nɔviː 'saːd; Hungarian: Újvidék Slovak Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) The majority of protesters were workers from the Vojvodina town of Bačka Palanka, 40 kilometres west of Novi Sad. The kilometre ( American spelling: kilometer) symbol km is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one thousand They were supportive of Milošević and opposed the provincial government's moves to block forthcoming amendments to the Serbian Constitution.   
The demonstrations were successful. The provincial leadership resigned, and Vojvodina League of Communists elected a new leadership. 
On January 10, 1989 the anti-bureaucratic revolution continued in Montenegro, which had the lowest average monthly wage in Yugoslavia, an unemployment rate of nearly 25 percent, and where one-fifth of the population lived below the poverty line. Dragutin Zelenović ( Serbian: Драгутин Зеленовић born 19 May 1928 in Temerin, Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! A wage is a compensation workers receive in exchange for their labor. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and 50,000 demonstrators gathered in the Montenegrin capital of Titograd (now Podgorica) to protest the republic's economic situation and to demand the resignation of its leadership. Podgorica ( Montenegrin / Serbian: Подгорица Podgorica ˈpɔdgɔˌriʦa is the Capital and largest city of Montenegro 
The next day Montenegro's state presidency tendered its collective resignation along with the Montenegrin delegates in the Yugoslav Politburo. Politburo, short for Political Bureau, Russian Politicheskoye Buro, is the executive organization for a number of Political parties, most notably Montenegro's representative on the federal presidency, Veselin Đuranović, said the decision to step down "was motivated by a sense of responsibility for the economic situation. Veselin Đuranović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Веселин Ђурановић ( May 17 1925 &ndash August 30 1997) was a communist "  
Demonstrators were seen carrying portraits of Milošević and shouting his name, but the New York Times reported "there is no evidence that the Serbian leader played an organizing role" in the demonstrations. 
Multiparty elections were held in Montenegro for the first time after the anti-bureaucratic revolution. Nenad Bućin, an opponent of Milošević's policies, was elected Montenegro's representative on Yugoslavia's collective presidency  and Momir Bulatović, a Milošević ally, was elected Montenegrin President. Momir Bulatović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Момир Булатовић (born September 21, 1956 in Belgrade, Serbia, FPR Yugoslavia  
Starting in 1982 and 1983, in response to nationalist Albanian riots in Kosovo, the Central Committee of the SFRY League of Communists adopted a set of conclusions aimed at centralizing Serbia’s control over law enforcement and the judiciary in its Kosovo and Vojvodina provinces. 
In 1986 Serbian president Ivan Stambolic established a commission to amend the Serbian Constitution inkeeping with conclusions adopted by the federal Communist Party. 
The constitutional commission worked for three years to harmonize its positions and in 1989 an amended Serbian constitution was submitted to the governments of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Serbia for approval.
On March 10, 1989 the Vojvodina Assembly approved the amendments, followed by the Kosovo Assembly on March 23, and the Serbian Assembly on March 28. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar)   
In the Kosovo Assembly 187 of the 190 assembly members were present when the vote was taken: 10 voted against the amendments, two abstained, and the remaining 175 voted in favor of the amendments.  
Although the ethnic composition of the Kosovo Assembly was over 70 percent Albanian , Kosovo-Albanian nationalists reacted violently to the constitutional amendments. The UPI wire service reported that "unrest began [in Kosovo] when amendments were approved returning to Serbia control over the province's police, courts, national defense and foreign affairs . . . mass demonstrations turned into violent street rioting when demonstrators began using firearms against police. " According to the report the rioting killed 29 people and injured 30 policemen and 97 civilians. 
In the wake of the unrest following the 1989 constitutional amendments, ethnic Albanians in Kosovo largely boycotted the provincial government and refused to vote in the elections.   Azem Vllasi, leader of the League of Communists of Kosovo, was arrested for inciting rioting amid a strike by Kosovo-Albanian miners. Azem Vllasi ( Azem Vlasi in Serbo-Croat) born 1948 in Rubovc Kamenica municipality, is a senior Kosovo Albanian politician and lawyer  In the wake of the Albanian boycott, supporters of Slobodan Milošević were elected to positions of authority by the remaining Serbian voters in Kosovo.
The anti-bureaucratic revolutions in Montenegro and Vojvodina coupled with the Albanian boycott in Kosovo effectively meant that Slobodan Milošević and his supporters held power in four out of the eight republics and autonomus provinces that made-up the Yugoslav federation. Whether this was cynically engineered by Milošević is a matter of controversey between his critics and his supporters.
Because Milošević's supporters controlled half of the votes in the SFRY presidency, his critics charge that he undermined the Yugoslav federation. This, his detractors argue, upset the balance of power in Yugoslavia and provoked sepratism elsewhere in the federation.
Milošević's supporters contend that the representatives of the SFRY presidency were elected according to the law. They say that Milošević enjoyed genuine popular support so it was perfectly logical for his allies to be elected to the presidency. His supporters dismiss allegations that he upset the balance of power in Yugoslavia as a propaganda ploy designed to justify sepratism.
Milošević's role in the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s is a matter of considerable controversy. The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and His detractors accuse him of starting the wars in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between They accuse him of inciting Serbian nationalism in a murderous drive to carve "Greater Serbia" from the ruins of Yugoslavia. The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia ( Serbian: Велика Србија Velika Srbija) applies to the key current within Serbian His supporters say that he vehemently opposed ethnic nationalism and never advocated the creation of a Greater Serbia. They blame the outbreak of war on the republics that chose to breakaway from Yugoslavia.
Former U. S. President Bill Clinton articulated the view of many Milosevic critics when he told a veterans group that Milošević "sought to expand his power, by inciting religious and ethnic hatred in the cause of Greater Serbia; by demonizing and dehumanizing people, especially the Bosnian and Kosovar Muslims . . . He unleashed wars in Bosnia and Croatia, creating 2 million refugees and leaving a quarter of a million people dead . . . he stripped Kosovo of its constitutional self-government, and began harassing and oppressing its people. " 
Former U. S. Secretary of State Madeline Albright explained the U. S. Government's view that, "Slobodan Milošević initiated four wars during the 1990s, including a devastating campaign of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo which killed thousands and drove almost a million people from their homes. " 
In a speech before the U. S. Congress, Rep. Cristopher Smith (R-NJ) brought up a common view among Milošević's critics when he said Milošević "relied on virulent Serbian nationalism to instigate conflict".  Milošević was motivated to start the wars, his critics say, because of his murderous ambition to create an ethnically pure Greater Serbian state.
The CIA World Fact book says, "Under Milošević's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a 'Greater Serbia. '" Milošević's critics claim that forces under his command committed "atrocities against civilians as part of a systematic campaign to secure territory for an ethnically 'pure' Serb state. " 
The foundation of the war crimes charges against Milošević is based on the allegation that he sought the establishment of a "Greater Serbia". Prosecutors at the Hague argued that "the [Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo] indictments were all part of a common scheme, strategy or plan on the part of the accused [Milošević] to create a 'Greater Serbia', a centralized Serbian state encompassing the Serb-populated areas of Croatia and Bosnia and all of Kosovo, and that this plan was to be achieved by forcibly removing non-Serbs from large geographical areas through the commission of the crimes charged in the indictments. Although the events in Kosovo were separated from those in Croatia and Bosnia by more than three years, they were no more than a continuation of that plan, and they could only be understood completely by reference to what had happened in Croatia and Bosnia. " 
Milošević's supporters say he was a peacemaker who wanted to preserve Yugoslavia. James Bissett, Canada's former Ambassador to Yugoslavia said, "the idea that Milošević entered into any sort of criminal conspiracy to establish a Greater Serbia is pure fantasy. I think the record speaks for itself, Milošević was personally involved in every attempt to negotiate a peace agreement and stop the fighting . . . this goes right from the first Vance-Owen Plan, the Vance-Stoltenberg Plan, both plans which were subverted not by the Serbian side but by others. " 
Former Russian Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov categorically stated the Russian Government's view that Milošević "had no plans and conducted no actions to achieve a Greater Serbia". Yevgeny Maksimovich Primakov (Евгений Максимович Примаков born October 29 1929 is a Russian Politician, a former KGB general 
Milošević's supporters deny allegations that Serbia attacked its neighbors in the Yugoslav federation. They say that war broke-out because secessionists in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo unilaterally seized Yugoslav territory and launched attacks against its security forces.
Former U. S. Secretary of State, James Baker said: Yugoslavia "broke up through the unilateral declaration of independence by Slovenia and Croatia and the seizing by these two countries' republics of their border posts, which was an act of force and a violation of the Helsinki principles. See also James Addison Baker James Addison Baker III (born April 28 1930) is a American attorney politician political But the European powers and the United States ultimately recognised Slovenia and then Croatia and Bosnia as independent countries, and admitted them to the United Nations. The real problem was that there was a unilateral declaration of independence and a use of force to gain that independence rather than a peaceful negotiation of independence, which is the way it should have happened. " 
Milošević's supporters deny allegations that Croatia and Bosnia were attacked by Serbia. They say these were civil wars in which the indigenous Serb population living in those republics resisted their forcible separation from Yugoslavia.
Milošević's supporters claim that Hague Prosecutors could not produce a single order issued by his government to Serbian fighters in Croatia or Bosnia. Near the end of the Prosecuton's case, Prosecution analyst Reynaud Theunens admitted under cross-examination that the Prosecution didn't have any orders issued by Milošević's government to any of fighters in Croatia or Bosnia. Theunens was quick to point out, "the fact that we don't have orders doesn't mean that they don't exist" and Milošević replied "There are none, that's why you haven't got one. " 
Although Milošević's supporters deny that he commanded the Serbian war effort in Croatia and Bosnia, they don't deny that he provided those Serbs with financial and humanitarian assistance during the war. They also readily admit that as the President of Yugoslavia, Milosevic commanded Serbian security forces in Kosovo during the war.
A large number of Slobodan Milošević's interviews have been collected online. Milošević argued that the Serbian Constitution gave self-determination to peoples, not to nations. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered On this basis, he states that the Croatian Serbs and later the Bosnian Serbs should not have been subject to the declarations of independence by the nations of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
He denies that Serbia was at war during the wars in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia. Milošević was President of Serbia, not of Yugoslavia, and claims that his government was only indirectly involved through support for Serbs in Croatia and Bosnia at some points. The President of Serbia is the Head of state of the Republic of Serbia. Biographer Adam LeBor writes that Milošević cut off links with the Bosnian Serbs due to hyperinflation in Serbia rather than to objections over their tactics.
Milošević spent most of 1988–89 focusing his politics on the "Kosovo problem". In Kosovo, Milošević alleges that he supported the right of the Albanians to "self-determination", but not to independence, as he claimed that Kosovo was an essential part of Serbia due to its history and its numerous churches and cultural relics. Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their He also claimed that the KLA were a neo-Nazi organisation that sought an ethnically pure Kosovo, and he argued that independence would deliver Kosovo to their hands. The term neo-Nazism refers to post- World War II Political movements Social movements and ideologies seeking to revive Nazism,
Milošević denies that he gave orders to massacre Albanians in 1998. He claims that the deaths were sporadic events confined to rural areas of West Kosovo committed by paramilitaries and by rebels in the armed forces. A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force but which are not regarded as having the same status Those from the Serbian army or police who were involved were all, he claims, arrested and many were sentenced to long prison sentences.
Former United States ambassador to Yugoslavia, Warren Zimmerman, during his conversations with Milošević claimed that he was not a genuine nationalist, but rather a political opportunist. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Zimmerman has claimed that unlike other politicians which he had discussions with during the collapse of Yugoslavia, such as Franjo Tudjman and Radovan Karadzic, Milošević in public did not emphasis any hatred of ethnic groups and emphasized that Serbia would continue to be a multiethnic republic in Yugoslavia. Zimmerman has claimed that Milošević opportunistically used nationalism to allow him to rise to power in the Communist establishment in Serbia as Communism in eastern Europe became increasingly unpopular, and continued to advocate a nationalist agenda to draw in support for his government.  However on another occasion Milošević revealed to Zimmerman his negative attitude towards ethnic Albanians who had demanded autonomy and in the 1990s, independence from Serbia and Yugoslavia. Milošević told Zimmerman jokingly that the Albanians of Kosovo were the most pampered minority in Europe.  Zimmerman later reported that Milošević's unusual and conflicting positions and mannerisms made him believe that Milošević may have had a multiple personality disorder, as at times Milošević would behave in an arrogant, stubborn, authoritarian and aggressive in manner towards others, which staunchly supported Serbian nationalism against all opponents, while at other times he would be polite, conciliatory, and be eager and willing to find moderate and peaceful solutions to the crisis in Yugoslavia. Dissociative Identity Disorder ( DID) as defined by the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM  Zimmerman has concluded however that Milošević constantly demonstrated that he primarily saw Yugoslavia as a state for insuring the unity of Serbs, and did not have much interest in preserving the unity Yugoslavia outside of areas of Serb national interests. 
Accusations against Milošević of supporting nationalism and creating a "Greater Serbia" have been challenged. The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia ( Serbian: Велика Србија Velika Srbija) applies to the key current within Serbian While Milošević portrayed himself as the leading the Serb people in Yugoslavia, unlike traditional Serbian nationalists, Milošević accepted the Republic of Macedonia as being an independent country and maintained modest relations. The Republic of Macedonia (Република Furthermore despite growing Serbian nationalism, Milošević opposed Greater Serbian nationalists demands to absorb Montenegro into Serbia, and allowed Montenegro to continue to be a constituent republic with its own government throughout his tenure as President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. Milošević saw Yugoslavia as continuing to be the state which could unify the Serb people and others like Montenegrins who at the time wished to remain in Yugoslavia. Milošević remained adamant however that a Yugoslav state respect the rights of the Serb majority and that neither Bosnia nor Croatia be allowed to leave Yugoslavia without allowing Serb-populated territories to remain within Yugoslavia. Milošević did however endorse nationalist forces during the Yugoslav wars that would allow Serb self-determination in Bosnia and Croatia within Yugoslavia as most Serbs wished to remain in Yugoslavia while the governments of Bosnia and Croatia wished to become independent of Yugoslavia. However Milošević's desire for Serb self-determination and support of ultranationalist paramilitaries who could achieve this, did not respect self-determination of Bosniaks and Croats who were murdered by Serb ultranationalist paramilitaries. The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia" Croats (Hrvati are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries
In the summer of 2000 former Serbian President Ivan Stambolić was kidnapped; his body was found in 2003 and Milošević was charged with ordering his murder. In 2005, several members of the Serbian secret police and criminal gangs were convicted in Belgrade for a number of murders, including Stambolić's. These were the same people who arrested Milošević in April 2001. Later, Interior Minister Dušan Mihajlović denied that Milošević had been involved in Stambolić's death at Fruška Gora. 
In June 2006 the Supreme Court of Serbia ruled that Milošević had ordered the murders of Stambolić and Vuk Drašković. Vuk Drašković (Вук Драшковић (b November 29 1946, Međa, Žitište, Serbia, former FPR Yugoslavia) leader The Supreme Court accepted the previous ruling of the Special Court for Organized Crime in Belgrade which targeted Milošević as the main abettor of politically motivated murders in the 1990s.
Milošević's attorneys said the Court's ruling was of little value because he was never formally charged or given an opportunity to defend himself against the accusations.
Moreover, most of these murders were of Serbian and Yugoslavian government officials, such as high police official Radovan Stojijić Badza, Defence Minister Pavle Bulatović, and the head of Yugoslav airlines JAT. Pavle Bulatović, ( 13 December 1948, Kolašin, Montenegro, Yugoslavia – February 7, 2000, Belgrade
On February 4, 1997, Milošević recognized the opposition victories in some local elections, after mass protests lasting 96 days. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar
Constitutionally limited to two terms as Serbian president, on July 23, 1997, Milošević assumed the presidency of the Yugoslav Federation (the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The President of Serbia is the Head of state of the Republic of Serbia. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar This is a List of Heads of State of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the end of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state
Armed actions by Albanian separatist groups and Serbian police and military counter-action in Serbia's previously autonomous (and 90 percent Albanian) province of Kosovo culminated in escalating warfare in 1998, NATO air strikes against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between March and June 1999, and finally a full withdrawal of all Yugoslav security forces from the province. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija) or FRY was a federal state June 1999 was a month with thirty days The following events also occurred during the month
During the Kosovo War he was indicted on May 27, 1999, for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Kosovo, and he was standing trial, up until his death, at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 Events 927 - Simeon the Great, Tsar of Bulgaria, dies 1120 - Richard III of Capua is anointed Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 He attempted to assert that the trial was illegal, having been established in contravention of the UN charter. The United Nations Charter is the Treaty that forms and establishes the International organization called the United Nations. 
Milošević's permissive rule featured a very free press, much of it financed by Yugoslavia's enemies. Despite attempts by the Serbian Radical Party to tighten the space open to those serving Yugoslavia's enemies, attempts that included the October 1998 media law, a whole rebel infrastructure operated financed by Yugoslavia's enemies. The Serbian Radical Party (Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka, SRS is a Nationalist right-wing Political party This included media such as B92, described by Vojislav Seselj as a "treacherous medium", and a parallel election counting agency, CeSID, that openly advocated the overthrow of the government. B92 is a broadcaster with national coverage headquartered in Belgrade, Serbia. Milošević appeared not to fear this formidable enemy and took no substantial measures against it, and did so to his own disadvantage.
Milošević's rejection of claims of a first-round opposition victory in new elections for the Federal parliament and presidency in September 2000 led to mass demonstrations in Belgrade on October 5, known as the Bulldozer Revolution. September 2000: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - The 5th October Overthrow (sometimes colloquially called the Bulldozer Revolution) is a term referring to the series of events that occurred in 2000 in the Federal Republic The Yugoslav constitution called for a second election round with all but the two leading candidates eliminated, in the event that no candidate won more than 50 percent of the vote. Official results put Koštunica ahead of Milošević but at under 50 percent. The U. S. -financed CeSID claimed otherwise, though its story changed throughout the two weeks between 24 September and 5 October.
On cue, the rebel infrastructure sprung into action with paid strikes and demonstrations. The regime's authority collapsed when security forces refused to put down the protests and the Milošević controlled public broadcaster, RTS was taken over by fellow "Joint Criminal Enterprise" co-conspirator Captain Dragan. Public broadcasting refers to radio television and other electronic media outlets that receive some or all of their funding from the public Radio Television of Serbia (Радио-телевизија Србије (PTC or sr Radio-televizija Srbije) is the public broadcaster in Serbia. Dragan Vasiljković, nicknamed Captain Dragan, was a founder and captain of the Serbian Paramilitary unit called Knindže (Nicknames Knin ninjas The Yugoslav parliament was set on fire and ballots burned, so that no one would ever know the truth about the vote.
Milošević lost power not because of the presidential election, but because of the coup d'etat against the Serbian government of Mirko Marjanović, carried out by armed groups with the help of the JSO unit of special operations. Mirko Marjanović ( Serbian Cyrillic: Мирко Марјановић ( July 27, 1937 in Knin, Croatia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia For the British parachute troops also known as The Red Berets see The Parachute Regiment. Marjanović held the most powerful official post in Yugoslavia but as a subordinate in the SPS run by Milošević, that power was effectively Milošević's. The illegal overthrow of the Serbian government was what ended his power.
Milošević was forced to accept this when commanders of the army whom he had expected to support him had indicated that in this instance they would not, and would permit the violent overthrow of the Serbian government. On October 6, Milošević met with opposition presidential candidate leader Vojislav Koštunica and publicly accepted defeat. Dr Vojislav Koštunica ( Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница) (ˈvɔjislaːv kɔˈʃtunitsa born March 24, 1944, Belgrade Koštunica finally took office as Yugoslav president on October 7 following Milošević's announcement.
Ironically, Milošević lost his grip on power by losing in elections which he scheduled prematurely (before the end of his mandate) and which he did not even need to win in order to retain power which was centered in the parliaments which his party and its associates controlled.
He did so because of successes in the reconstruction effort led by Milutin Mrkonjić, and because the main opposition leaders, Zoran Đinđić and Vuk Drašković, could not agree to unite against him and because they both were caught shaking Bill Clinton's hand in one case, and kissing Madeleine Albright's hand in the other. Milutin Mrkonjić ( Serbian Cyrillic: Милутин Мркоњић born May 23, 1942 in Belgrade) is a Serbian politician Zoran Đinđić, PhD (often Zoran Djindjić, from Serbian Cyrillic: Зоран Ђинђић, /ˈzorɑn ˈdʑɪndʑɪtɕ/ (1 August Vuk Drašković (Вук Драшковић (b November 29 1946, Međa, Žitište, Serbia, former FPR Yugoslavia) leader William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State.
According to American polling, only Vojislav Koštunica had a chance to defeat Milošević. This was because of his decision to sit out the Serbian political struggles since the mid-1990s and because of his nationalism. He did not participate in Zajedno nor did he participate in the 1997 Serbian parliamentary and presidential elections. He was effectively Fortinbras, entering the fray as other Serbian politicians were beating each other to death. Fortinbras is the name of two minor Fictional characters from William Shakespeare 's tragedy Hamlet.
He ran for Zoran Đinđić's Democratic Opposition of Serbia; Đinđić was the real candidate against Milošević, effectively, as Milošević warned the Serbian people on 2 October 2000. Koštunica claimed that he took no money from NATO powers, claiming such money to be the "kiss of death", and said "no to NATO, no to Milošević", and was able to obtain many votes from those angry at Milošević for his concessions to the West during the 1993-98 period, and for allowing himself to be fooled into permitting a NATO occupation of Kosovo-Metohija. His candidacy served as a trojan horse for a planned coup d'etat planned by Đinđić and his foreign sponsors. The Trojan Horse was part of the Trojan War, as told in Virgil 's Latin Epic poem The Aeneid.
The coup d'etat placed Democratic Opposition of Serbia leader Zoran Đinđić in power. The Democratic Opposition of Serbia ( Демократска oпозиција Cрбије, ДОС; Demokratska opozicija Srbije, DOS) was a wide He forced the Serbian parliament to create a new government under his effective control, with DOS leading (Hungarian autonomist politicians who joined the DOS provided its parliamentary presence) and with the SPS and SPO as window dressing. The Serbian Radical Party refused to participate in this illegal act and went into opposition. The Serbian Radical Party (Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka, SRS is a Nationalist right-wing Political party With the entire media under his control, Đinđić arranged for Serbian parliamentary elections; in order to trick Serbian voters, Vojislav Koštunica's name headlined the DOS list. Dr Vojislav Koštunica ( Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница) (ˈvɔjislaːv kɔˈʃtunitsa born March 24, 1944, Belgrade DOS swept that vote and Đinđić formalised his power as Serbia's ruler with the post of Serbian Prime Minister.
Following a warrant for his arrest by the Yugoslav authorities on charges of corruption and abuse of power, Milošević was forced to surrender to security forces on March 31, 2001 following an armed stand off at his fortified villa in Belgrade. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. On June 28 of the same year, Milošević was transferred by Yugoslav government officials from the jail in Belgrade where he was being held to United Nations custody just inside Bosnian territory. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security He was then transported to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 The Yugoslav Constitution prohibited extradition of Yugoslav citizens and Koštunica formally on legal grounds opposed the transfer that has been ordered by Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić. Zoran Đinđić, PhD (often Zoran Djindjić, from Serbian Cyrillic: Зоран Ђинђић, /ˈzorɑn ˈdʑɪndʑɪtɕ/ (1 August
Historically, Russia has consistently had very close relations with Serbia and the former Yugoslavia, with Russian influence on Serbia/Yugoslavia often strong. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Russia and Serbia have significant affinities, including majority populations of Slavic ethno-linguistic groups, Orthodox Christianity, multi-ethnic polities. In the Philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a Language that is spoken or written in phonemic-alphabetic or phonemically-related The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to The Eastern Orthodox Church: the Eastern Christian churches of Byzantine Russia is remembered by Serbs for giving assistance in becoming autonomous from the Ottoman and establishing the Kingdom of Serbia in 19th century. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish During Milošević's rule, Russia pursued policies that generally supported the Milošević regime. During the Kosovo conflict in 1999, some observers suggested the possibility of Russia deploying troops in support of Serbia. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999  However, in spite of being considered as a great friend in need for Serbia, Russia has provided political asylum to Milosevic's family, which the families of those killed in the conflicts have protested. Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient Judicial notion under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his 
Milošević first visited China in the early 1980s while head of Beobank. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Milošević visited China again in 1997, after an invitation by Chinese president Jiang Zemin. The President of the People's Republic of China ( literally Chairman of the Chinese People's Republic or abbreviated Guójiā Zhǔxí 国家主席 literally State Chairman Jiang Zemin ( born 17 August 1926 was the "core of the third generation " of Communist Party of China leaders serving as General Secretary of Milošević was often popularly known in China by the nickname "Lao Mi" (老米), a shortened form of the informal Chinese-style nickname "Old Milošević" (老米洛舍维奇); among the state-operated media in China, Milošević was often referred to as "Comrade Milošević" (米洛舍维奇同志). Many sources hold that the Chinese government asserted strong backing of Milošević throughout his presidency until his surrender, and was one of the few countries supportive of him and the Yugoslav regime, at a time when most Western countries were strongly critical of the Milošević government. The New York Times states that China was "one of Mr. Milošević's staunchest supporters" during the Kosovo conflict.  China vocally opposed NATO armed intervention in Kosovo throughout the campaign. Chinese parliamentary leader Li Peng, was presented by Milošević with Yugoslavia's highest medal (the Great Star) in Belgrade in 2000. Li Peng ( (b 20 October 1928 was the Premier of China between 1987 and 1998 the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress 
The New York Times observed that Milošević, and particularly his wife Marković had "long viewed Beijing and its Communist party" as allied and "the sort of ideological comrades" lacking in Eastern Europe after the fall of Communism in the 1990s.  After Milošević's indictment, China's public statements shifted toward emphasizing Yugoslav-Chinese relations rather than focusing on its support for Milošević, while after the election of Vojislav Koštunica as Yugoslav president, Chinese foreign ministry officially stated that "China respects the choice of the Yugoslavian people. "
Milošević was indicted in May 1999, during the Kosovo War, by the UN's International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia for crimes against humanity in Kosovo. May 1999 was a month with thirty-one days The following events also occurred during the month The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of Charges of violating the laws or customs of war, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions in Croatia and Bosnia and genocide in Bosnia were added a year and a half later. The law of war (also law of armed conflict, LOAC) is Law concerning acceptable practices relating to war The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian
Following Milošević's transfer, the original charges of war crimes in Kosovo were upgraded by adding charges of genocide in Bosnia and war crimes in Croatia. On January 30, 2002, Milošević accused the war crimes tribunal of an "evil and hostile attack" against him. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The trial began at The Hague on February 12, 2002, with Milošević defending himself while refusing to recognize the legality of the court's jurisdiction. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar.
Milošević had a team in Belgrade that helped him, often sending him information available from the secret police files. Secret police (sometimes political police) are a Police agency which operates in Secrecy to maintain National security against internal Serbian insiders often supported Milošević's point of view, while Bosnian and Croatian witnesses have offered much testimony supporting the indictments.
The trial was a controversial issue and has featured many conflicting testimonies. For example:
The prosecution took two years to present its case in the first part of the trial, where they covered the wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo. Throughout the two-year period, the trial was being closely followed by the publics of the involved former Yugoslav republics as it covered various notable events from the war and included several high-profile witnesses.
Milošević became increasingly ill during this time (high blood pressure and severe flu), which caused intermissions and prolonged the trial by at least six months. In early 2004, when he finally appeared in court in order to start presenting his defense (announcing over 1,200 witnesses), the two ICTY judges decided to appoint him two defense lawyers in accordance with the medical opinions of the resident cardiologists. This action was opposed by Milošević himself and the pair of British lawyers appointed to him.
In October 2004, the trial was resumed after being suspended for a month to allow counsel Steven Kay, who complained Milošević was not cooperating, to prepare the defense. October 2004: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - A counsel or a counsellor gives advice more particularly in legal matters Steven Kay has since asked to be allowed to resign from his court appointed position, complaining that of the 1200 witnesses he has only been able to get five to testify. Many of the other witnesses refused to testify in protest of ICTY's decision not to permit Milošević to defend himself.
In late 2004, former Soviet Premier Nikolai Ryzhkov became the first high profile witness to testify for the defence. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov ( Russian: Николай Иванович Рыжков Nikolaj Ivanovič Ryžkov; born September 28, 1929) was
It was considered likely that, if allowed to present his case, Milošević would attempt to establish that NATO's attack on Yugoslavia was aggressive, thus being a war crime under international law and that, while supporting the KLA, were aware that they had practiced and intended to continue practicing genocide. If a prima facie case for either claim were established, the ICTY would be legally obliged under its terms of reference to prepare an indictment against the leaders of most of the NATO countries, even though the prosecutor had already concluded an "inquiry" against the NATO leaders. Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning "on its first appearance" or "by first instance"
A two-hour documentary entitled Milosevic on Trial documents the trial against Milošević. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another to " Document " reality Milosevic on Trial is a documentary by Danish director Michael Christoffersen which follows the trial against Slobodan Milošević
A great number of professors, writers and journalists, among them political scientist Michael Parenti in his book To Kill a Nation, have argued that the actions of Milošević, and of the Serbs more broadly, were systematically exaggerated by the Western media and politicians during the Bosnian War in order to provide justification for military intervention. Michael Parenti (born 1933) is an American Political scientist, Historian, and media critic. 
Adam Lebor, a biographer of Milošević, states that Milošević was not a dictator, suggesting that Serbia under Milošević was not a totalitarian regime. A dictatorship is usually defined as an autocratic Form of government in which the Government is ruled by a Dictator. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Lebor points out that the opposition continued to operate throughout his rule, and Slobodan even negotiated with and made concessions to a leader of student demonstrations on one occasion. LeBor also points out that when election results in Serbia were disputed, the government had called in international observers to evaluate the validity of the elections and accepted their verdict when it was judged that Milošević's Socialist Party had been involved in electoral fraud. Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an Election. 
Lebor also believes that Milošević's role in the Slovenian War was restricted to making weighty demands on the use of Slovene airports, and being a passive supporter of the Yugoslav military in the Ten Day War. The Ten-Day War (Desetdnevna vojna sometimes called the Slovenian Independence War (Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna was a brief military conflict between Slovenia Some had seen the conflict as the first of four wars that Milošević was responsible for. Many reports from the time do not mention Milošević at all .
In her book Fool's Crusade Paris-based journalist Diana Johnstone contends that Milošević's actions during the conflict in the Balkans were no worse than the crimes of the Croats or the Bosnian Muslims, asserting also that the massacre in Srebrenica has been exaggerated. Diana Johnstone (born 1934 is a Leftist political writer focusing primarily on European politics and Western foreign policy Srebrenica ( Cyrillic: Сребреница srɛbrɛnitsa is a Town and municipality in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Republika Srpska Political scientist Edward Herman endorsed Johnstone's findings in his review of Fool's Crusade in the Monthly Review . Edward S Herman (born 7 April 1925) is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media Monthly Review is an independent Marxist journal published in New York City.
In another book, The New Military Humanism, Noam Chomsky, who at times writes collaboratively with Herman, disagrees with Johnstone's views on Milošević, the Serbs, and Srebrenica in particular. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Srebrenica ( Cyrillic: Сребреница srɛbrɛnitsa is a Town and municipality in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Republika Srpska While Chomsky believes that the massacres at Srebrenica did occur, he does not believe that Milošević was involved, pointing to the Dutch report that claimed that he was horrified to hear of it.  He has described Milošević as a "terrible person", but still believes that he was not a dictator and that his crimes have been exaggerated while the crimes of the Kosovo Liberation Army have been ignored.  In a 1999 interview, Chomsky sparked controversy with his view that to call the deaths in Kosovo a "genocide" was "an insult to the victims of Hitler". 
Leadership of the International Committee to Defend Slobodan Milošević (ICDSM) includes: Professor Velko Valkanov (President of the Bulgarian Committee for Human Rights, Honorary President of the Bulgarian Antifascist Union, former Member of Parliament, and founder of ICDSM, Bulgaria); Ramsey Clark, former United States Attorney General; Professor Alexander Zinoviev, a Russian philosopher and writer; and Canadian lawyer Christopher Black, co-founder, vice-chairman, and chair of ICDSM's legal committee. William Ramsey Clark (born December 18 1927 is a lawyer and former United States Attorney General. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Zinovyev (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Зино́вьев October 29 1922 &ndash May 10 2006 was a well-known Russian logician Christopher Black is an international criminal lawyer and political activist based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In 2004 Clark wrote a letter to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan stating that "the Prosecution has failed to present significant or compelling evidence of any criminal act or intention of President Milošević" . Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations Those who have joined the ICDSM include (in 2001) playwright and Nobel Laureate Harold Pinter, who also signed the "Artists’ Appeal for Milošević" (Mar. /Apr. 2004), a statement protesting unfair and biased conduct of the Tribunal, asserting its failure to prove Milošević's guilt justly, and calling for his immediate release .
As to his personal characteristics, former acquaintances have said that in private Milošević was patriarchal and conservative, devoted to his family and wife. Patriarchy is the structuring of Society on the basis of Family units where fathers have primary responsibility for the welfare of hence authority over Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined His personality was marked by stubbornness—a trait of which he was proud; and his most devoted followers were older people, who had spent most of their lives in an era characterised by a moral code which they believed Milošević embodied. His stubbornness and unwillingness to compromise may be partly credited for the political problems and wars which marked his years in power, as well as his unrelenting defence in his trial. His lifelong devotion to his wife was reflected in the place of his burial, which is under the tree where they first kissed in 1958.
His defenders deny that Milošević was a nationalist; Jared Israel even offered a $500 reward for anyone to find incitements to racial hatred in any of his speeches.
Milošević was found dead in his cell on March 11, 2006, in the UN war crimes tribunal's detention center, located in the Scheveningen section of The Hague. The death of former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević in The Hague, where he was being tried for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Scheveningen (ˈsxeːfənɪŋə is one of the eight Districts of The Hague, as well as one of its subdistricts ( wijken)
Autopsies soon established that Milošević had died of a heart attack. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply He had been suffering from heart problems and high blood pressure. Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, HTN or HPN, is a medical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated However, many suspicions were voiced to the effect that the heart attack had been caused or made possible deliberately - by the ICTY, according to sympathizers, or by himself, according to critics. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 Shortly before his death, Milošević had requested to be treated in a Russian heart surgery center, but the Tribunal had refused to permit that, citing mistrust of Russian guarantees that an escape would be made impossible. At the same time, Milošević had expressed fears that he was being poisoned. A scandal emerged when it was found that, according to an earlier medical test from January 12, Milošević's blood contained rifampicin, an antibiotic that is normally used to treat leprosy and tuberculosis and which would have neutralized some of the effects of his medicines for his high blood pressure and heart condition. Rifampicin ( INN) (rɪˈfæmpəsɪn or rifampin ( USAN) is a Bactericidal Antibiotic drug of the Rifamycin group Leprosy (from the Greek lepi (λέπι meaning scales on a fish or Hansen's disease, is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i Milošević had complained about the presence of a leprosis drug in his blood in a letter to the Russian foreign ministry. After that fact was disclosed, some hypothesized that the Tribunal medical staff had administered the drug deliberately, while others believed that he had taken it himself to worsen his heart condition and thus force the Tribunal to let him travel to Russia and escape. It is, however, questionable that he would have been able to smuggle in such drugs, since all his visitors were searched at least once before gaining access to him in response to an incident in September 2005 in which he had taken medicine from a Serbian doctor without the approval of the Hague doctors. Blood tests conducted as part of his post mortem showed that it was unlikely that Milošević had ingested rifampicin in the last few days before his death.
Several medical experts, such as Leo Bokeria (the director of the Russian heart surgery centre, where Milošević had requested to be treated) and The Times' medical columnist Thomas Stuttaford, asserted that Milošević's heart attack could and should have been prevented easily by means of standard medical procedures. Dr Irving Thomas Stuttaford OBE, (born 4 May 1931) is a British doctor, Author, medical Columnist of
The reactions to the death were mixed: officials and sympathisers of the ICTY Prosecution lamented what they saw as Milošević's having remained unpunished, while opponents, mostly Serbian and Russian figures, stressed what they viewed as the responsibility of the Tribunal for what had happened. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991
ICTY Chief Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte made the following statement after his death :
I deeply regret the death of Slobodan Milosevic. Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947 in Lugano, Switzerland) is a former Chief Prosecutor of two United Nations International It deprives the victims of the justice they need and deserve. In the indictment which was judicially confirmed in 2001, Milosevic was accused of 66 counts of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo between 1991 and 1999. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan These crimes affected hundreds of thousands of victims throughout the former Yugoslavia. During the prosecution case, 295 witnesses testified and 5000 exhibits were presented to the court. This represents a wealth of evidence that is on the record. After the presentation of the prosecution case, the Trial Chamber, on 16 June 2004, rejected a defense motion to dismiss the charges for lack of evidence, thereby confirming, in accordance with Rule 98bis, that the prosecution case contains sufficient evidence capable of supporting a conviction on all 66 counts. The Defense was given the same amount of time as the prosecution to present its case. There were in total 466 hearing days. 4 hours per day. 'Only 40 hours were left in the Defense case, and the trial was likely to be completed by the end of the spring. It is a great pity for justice that the trial will not be completed and no verdict will be rendered. However, other senior leaders have been indicted for the crimes for which Slobodan Milosevic was also accused. Later this year, the trial of eight senior leaders accused of the Srebrenica genocide will begin. The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide, was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8000 Bosniak men and boys in the region of Srebrenica Furthermore, also this year, six most senior former Serbian leaders will be tried for crimes committed in Kosovo. But the most senior perpetrators are still at large. Now more than ever, I expect Serbia to finally arrest and transfer Ratko Mladic and Radovan Karadžic to The Hague as soon as possible. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Ratko Mladić (Ратко Младић râtkɔ mlǎːditɕ born March 12, 1942, was the Chief of Staff of the Army of Republika Srpska (the Bosnian Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић râdovaːn kâraʤiʨ born in Petnjica, SR Montenegro, SFR Yugoslavia) is a former Bosnian The death of Slobodan Milosevic makes it even more urgent for them to face justice. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. Finally, I would like to share a thought for Zoran Đinđic, his wife and his family. Exactly three years ago, he was murdered in Belgrade. He is the man who had the courage to bring Slobodan Milosevic to The Hague so that he could face justice.
A funeral was held in Milošević's home town Požarevac, after tens of thousands of supporters attended a farewell ceremony in Belgrade. Požarevac ( Serbian Cyrillic: Пожаревац is a city located in Serbia at. The return of the body of this former president but alleged war criminal to Serbia and of his widow (who had not traveled to Serbia to attend her husband's funeral, as she would have been arrested immediately upon her arrival due to current arrest warrant issued related to fraud charges) was very controversial, leading to great difficulties before their resolution.
Emblematic of Milošević's detractors was Miroslav Milošević (no relation), a former member of OTPOR and self-described vampire hunter, arrested in 2007 after leading a group who told police that they had driven "a three-foot-long wooden stake into the ground and through the late president's heart" to prevent him from "returning from the dead". Otpor! (Отпор! in English: Resistance!) was a youth movement in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which has been widely credited for leading the eventually A vampire hunter or vampire slayer is someone who specializes in finding and destroying Vampires In Dark It is unclear whether the group actually believed in vampires, or if the act was politically motivated. 
The last opinion poll taken in Serbia before Milošević's death listed him as the third most favorably rated politician in Serbia behind Serbian Radical Party chairman Tomislav Nikolić #1, and current Serbian President Boris Tadić #2. The Serbian Radical Party (Српска радикална странка or Srpska radikalna stranka, SRS is a Nationalist right-wing Political party Tomislav Nikolić ( Томислав Николић,) (born February 15, 1952) is a Serbian politician President of the Serbian Progressive Boris Tadić (Борис Тадић born January 15, 1958) is a Serbian politician and the current President of Serbia. 
In February 2007, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) cleared Serbia of genocide, but ICJ's president stated that Milošević was aware of the risk of massacres occurring and did not act to prevent them. February 2007 is the second month of the year It began on a Thursday and 28 days later ended on a Wednesday. 
BBC News, March 11, 2006
|Party political offices|
|Chairman of the League of Communists of Serbia|
1986 – 1989
President of Serbia
1989 – 1997
|President of Yugoslavia|
1997 – 2000
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||President of Serbia and Yugoslavia|
|DATE OF BIRTH||20 August 1941|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Požarevac, Kingdom of Yugoslavia|
|DATE OF DEATH||11 March 2006|
|PLACE OF DEATH||The Hague, Netherlands|