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Slavery (also called thralldom) is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to work. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Anthony Benezet, or Antoine Bénézet ( January 31, 1713 - May 3, 1784) was an American Educator and Abolitionist The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of Debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime and The issue of religion and slavery is an area of historical research into the relationship between the world's major Religions and the practice of Slavery. The Bible contains several references to slavery. The Hebrew Bible does not promote Slavery, but neither does it condemn it Christianity does not have a clear position regarding slavery, in favour or against The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of Slavery. Judaism has been influenced by the experience of slavery of the Hebrews in the land of Egypt, as narrated in the biblical story of The Exodus The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa The Arab Slave trade was the practice of Slavery in West Asia, North Africa, East Africa, and certain parts of Europe (such The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude Sexual slavery refers to the organised coercion of persons into various different sexual practices forced Prostitution single-owner sexual slavery Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Involuntary servitude is a United States legal and Constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another under some form The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Slavery is a social-economic system under which certain persons — known as slaves — are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services In Law legal status refers to the concept of individuals having a particular place in society relative to the law as it determines the laws which affect them The term person is used in Common sense to mean an individual Human being. Freedom, or the idea of being free is a broad concept that
Slaves are held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase, or birth, and are deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to receive compensation (such as wages) in return for their labor. Remuneration is pay or salary typically Monetary payment for services rendered as in an Employment. A wage is a compensation workers receive in exchange for their labor. As such, slavery is one form of unfree labor. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will
In its narrowest sense, the word slave refers to people who are treated as the property of another person, household, company, corporation or government. Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual This is referred to as chattel slavery.
Although outlawed in nearly all countries today, slavery is still practiced in some parts of the world.  According to a broad definition of slavery used by Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there are 27 million people (although some put the number as high as 200 million) in virtual slavery today, spread all over the world. Free the Slaves is an international Non-governmental organization and lobby group established to campaign against the modern practice of Slavery around the world Anti-Slavery International is a charity and lobby group based in the United Kingdom.  According to FTS, these slaves represent the largest number of people that has ever been in slavery at any point in world history and the smallest percentage of the total human population that has ever been enslaved at once.
FTS claims that present-day slaves have been sold for as little as US$40, in Mali, for young adult male laborers, or as much as US$1,000 in Thailand for HIV-free, young females, suitable for work in brothels. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is a Lentivirus (a member of the Retrovirus family that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome For the 2008 film of this name see The Brothel. For the television series of this name see Cathouse The Series. The lower limit represents the lowest price that there has ever been for a slave: the price of a comparable male slave in 1850 in the United States would have been about US$25,800 in present-day terms (US$1,000 in 1850). That difference, even allowing for differences in purchasing power, is significant. Purchasing power is the amount of value of a good/services compared to the amount paid with a Currency. It is probably due to the fact of today's greater population, making human life cheaper. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. As a result of the lower price, the economic advantages of present-day slavery are clear.
Although outlawed in most countries today slavery is, nonetheless, practised secretly in many parts of the world — with outright enslavement still taking place in parts of Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.  In June and July 2007, 570 people who had been enslaved by brick manufacturers in Shanxi and Henan were freed by the Chinese government. The 2007 Chinese slave scandal ( was a series of Forced labour cases in Shanxi, China. ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country  Of those rescued, 69 of them were children.  In response, the Chinese government assembled a force of 35,000 police to check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, sent dozens of kiln supervisors to prison, punished 95 officials in Shanxi province for dereliction of duty, and sentenced one kiln foreman to death for killing an enslaved worker. 
In Mauritania alone, it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour. Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods  Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007. Slavery in Africa continues today Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans - as did a slave trade that exported millions  In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon. Niger ( or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/) officially the Republic of Niger, is a Landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. A Nigerian study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population.  Child slavery has commonly been used in the production of cash crops and mining. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another According to the U.S. Department of State, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) in 'the worst forms of child labor' in 2002. Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Child labor is the employment of Children at regular and sustained labour 
In November 2006, the International Labour Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labour of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice. The International Labour Organization The State Peace and Development Council or Arr Nar Yuu Myar A Phwet ( nàiNŋàNdɔ̀ éiʤáN θàja yéi n̥ḭN pʰṵNpʰyo yéi kaùNsì abbreviated SPDC) is the official Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will See also International Commission of Jurists The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; Cour  According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labour in Myanmar. The International Labour Organization Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. 
Prior to the 10th century, words other than "slave" were used for all kinds of unfree labourers. Sergei Vasilyevich Ivanov (Сергей Васильевич Иванов (&ndash 16 August, 1910) was a Russian painter and graphic artist. For instance, the old Latin word servus was used for both serfs and chattel slaves. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
The word slave, in Modern English, originates from the Middle English sclave, the Old French esclave, the Medieval Latin sclavus and ultimately from the early Greek sklabos (from sklabenoi) meaning "Slavic people". Modern English is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift, completed in roughly 1550 Middle English is the name given by Historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of Old French was the Romance Dialect continuum spoken in territories which span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the Liturgical language of the medieval The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c  The term originally referred to various peoples from Eastern and Central Europe, as many Slavic and other people from these areas were captured and sold as slaves by the Vikings, and later a Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I (912–973), and his successors. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Holy Roman Emperor (Römischer Kaiser or Römisch-Deutscher Kaiser Romanorum Imperator was the elected monarch ruling over the many varying numbers of states Otto I the Great ( 23 November 912 &ndash 7 May 973) son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke
The 1926 Slavery Convention described slavery as ". The 1926 Slavery Convention or the Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery was an International treaty created under the auspices of the League . . the status and/or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised. . . " Slaves cannot leave an owner, an employer or a territory without explicit permission (they must have a passport to leave), and they will be returned if they escape. A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder Therefore a system of slavery — as opposed to the isolated instances found in any society — requires official, legal recognition of ownership, or widespread tacit arrangements with local authorities, by masters who have some influence because of their social and/or economic status and their lives. The International Labour Organization (ILO) defines forced labour as "all work or service which is extracted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily", albeit with certain exceptions of: military service, convicted criminals, emergencies and minor community services. The International Labour Organization 
The current usage of the word serfdom is not usually synonymous with slavery, because medieval serfs were considered to have rights, as human beings, whereas slaves were considered “things” — property. A right is a legal or moral Entitlement or Permission. Rights are of vital importance in theories of Justice and deontological ethics 
Slaves are people who are owned and controlled by others in a way that they have almost no rights or freedom of movement and are not paid for their labour, aside from food, clothing and shelter needed for basic subsistence.
The word slavery is often used as a pejorative to describe any activity one finds unpleasant or distasteful. On the one hand, this means the word slavery is applied in situations where it does not technically fit the definition. On the other hand, it also means that it is often not applied in situations that do fit the definition, but where the speaker feels that everyone has a duty to perform the action. Examples of the latter might include jury duty or military conscription, where a person is compelled to perform a job and is paid much less than one would have sought for a similar job in a free market.
The evidence for slavery predates written records. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history In Greek mythology, Andromache ( Ancient Greek:) was the wife of Hector and daughter of Eetion, and sister to Podes. Frederic Leighton 1st Baron Leighton PRA ( 3 December 1830 &ndash 25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor It can be found in almost all cultures and continents. Slavery can be traced to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia (~1800 BC), which refers to slavery as an already established institution. The Code of Hammurabi ( Codex Hammurabi) is the best-preserved ancient Law code, created ca Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding An important exception occurred under the reign of the Achaemenid Empire in Persia in 500 BC. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The forced labor of women in some ancient and modern cultures may also be identified as slavery. Slavery, in this case, includes sexual services.
Historically, most slaves were captured in wars or kidnapped in isolated raids, but some persons were sold into slavery by their parents, or by themselves, as a means of surviving extreme conditions. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment Most slaves were born into that status, to parents who were enslaved. Ancient Warfare often resulted in slavery for prisoners and their families, who were either killed, ransomed or sold as slaves. Ancient warfare is War as conducted from the beginnings of recorded History to the end of the ancient period Ransom is the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property to secure their release or it can refer to the sum of money involved Captives were often considered the property of those who captured them and were looked upon as a prize of war. Slavery may originally have been more humane than simply executing those who would return to fight if they were freed, but the effect led to widespread enslavement of particular groups of people. Those captured sometimes differed in ethnicity, nationality, religion, or race from their enslavers, but often were the same as the captors. Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos The term race or racial group usually refers to the concept of categorizing Humans into Populations or groups on the basis of various sets The dominant group in an area might take captives and turn them into slaves with little fear of suffering the like fate. The possibility always existed of reversals of fortune, as when Seneca warned, at the height of the Roman Empire, when powerful nations fought among themselves, anyone might find himself enslaved. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger; Σένεκας in Ancient Greek literature (c The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
Brief sporadic raids or kidnapping could mean enslavement of persons otherwise not at war. St. Patrick recounted in his Confession having been kidnapped by pirates. Saint Patrick (Patricius Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Roman Britain -born Christian Missionary and is the Patron saint Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering
Ancient societies characterized by poverty, rampant warfare or lawlessness, famines, population pressures, and cultural and technological lag are frequently exporters of slaves to more developed nations. Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and Endemic warfare is the state of continual low-threshold Warfare in a tribal Warrior society A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Today the illegal slave trade (mostly in Africa) deals with slaves who are rural people forced to move to cities, or those purchased in rural areas and sold into slavery in cities. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history Slavery in Africa continues today Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans - as did a slave trade that exported millions These moves take place due to loss of subsistence agriculture, thefts of land, and population increases. Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed the family and to pay taxes or feudal dues In the Common law, real property (or realty) refers to one of the two main classes of Property, the other class being Personal property ( In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology
In many ancient cultures, persons (often including their family) convicted of serious crimes could be sold into slavery. The proceeds from this sale were often used to compensate the victims. The Code of Hammurabi (~1800 BC) prescribes this for failure to maintain a water dam, to compensate victims of a flood. The Code of Hammurabi ( Codex Hammurabi) is the best-preserved ancient Law code, created ca The convicted criminal might be sold into slavery if he lacked the property to make compensation to the victims. Other laws and other crimes might enslave the criminal regardless of his property. Some laws called for the criminal and all his property to be handed over to his victim.
People have been sold into slavery so that the money could be used to pay off their debts. This could range from a judge, king or Emperor ordering a debtor sold with all his family, to the poor selling off their own children to prevent starvation. In times of dire need such as famine, people have offered themselves into slavery not for a purchase price, but merely so that their new master would feed and take care of them.
In most institutions of slavery throughout the world, the children of slaves became the property of the master. Local laws varied as to whether the status of the mother or of the father determined the fate of the child, but it was usually determined by the status of the mother. In many cultures, slaves could earn their freedom through hard work and buying their own freedom. This was not possible in all cultures.
According to the Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which legally recognizes, or which will enforce, a claim by a person to a right of property over another, the abolition of slavery does not mean that it ceased to exist. The Anti-Slavery Society was the everyday name of two different British organizations There are millions of people throughout the world — mainly children — in conditions of virtual slavery, as well as in various forms of servitude which are in many respects similar to slavery. " It further notes that slavery, particularly child slavery, was on the rise in 2003. It points out that there are countless others in other forms of servitude (such as peonage, bonded labor and servile concubinage) which are not slavery in the narrow legal sense. The words peon and peonage are derived from the Spanish peón (pe'on Critics claim they are stretching the definition and practice of slavery beyond its original meaning, and are actually referring to forms of unfree labour other than slavery. Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations especially in modern or early modern history in which people are employed against their will
The type of work slaves did depended on the time period and location of their slavery. In general, they did the same work as everyone else in the lower echelons of the society they lived in but were not paid for it beyond room and board, clothing etc. The most common types of slave work are domestic service, agriculture, mineral extraction, army make-up, industry, and commerce. A domestic worker, domestic, servingman, servingwoman, or servant is one who works and often also lives within the employer's household Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer  Prior to about the 18th century, domestic services were acquired in some wealthier households and may include up to four female slaves and their children on its staff. The chattels (as they are called in some countries) are expected to cook, clean, sometimes carry water from an outdoor pump into the house, and grind cereal. Most hired servants to do the same tasks.
Many slaves were used in agriculture and cultivation from ancient times through the 1800s. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it The strong, young men and women were sometimes forced to work long days in the fields, with little or no breaks for water or food. Since slaves were usually considered valuable property, they were usually taken care of in the sense that minimally adequate food and shelter were provided to maintain good health, and that the workload was not excessive to the point of endangering health. However, this was not always the case in many countries where they worked on land that was owned by absentee owners. The overseers in many of these areas literally worked the slaves to death.
In mineral extraction, the majority of the work, when done by slaves, was done nearly always by men. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body In some places, they mined the salt that was used during extensive trade in the 19th century. 
Some of the men in ancient civilizations who were bought into chattel slavery were trained to fight in their nation's army and other military services. Chattel slaves were occasionally trained in artisan workshops for industry and commerce. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing A workshop is a room or Building which provides both the area and Tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair For other uses of this term see Industry (disambiguation An industry (from Latin industrius, "diligent industrious" Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer  The men worked in metalworking, while the females normally worked in either textile trades or domestic household tasks. Metalworking is craft and practice of working with Metals to create individual parts assemblies or large scale structures A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. The majority of the time, the slave owners did not pay the chattels for their services beyond room and board, clothing etc.
However, not all slaves were manual laborers or servants. In some societies slaves sometimes attained highly responsible positions. In the Bible, Joseph, for instance, was sold into slavery in Egypt by his brothers, who were jealous of his vanity (and his many-colored coat), but rose to become vizier to the Pharaoh. Joseph or Yosef (יוֹסֵ Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄, يوسف Yusuf; "He A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods And the ranks of the Mamelukes, who ruled Egypt until being defeated by Napolean in 1798, were filled by slaves from the Caucasus who were allowed to rule Egypt in exchange for maintaining its military defense. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East
Female slaves were long traded to the Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab traders and sold into sexual slavery to work as concubines or prostitutes. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Sexual slavery refers to the organised coercion of persons into various different sexual practices forced Prostitution single-owner sexual slavery Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status Prostitution is the act of performing Sexual activity in exchange for Money. Typically, females were sold at a lower price than their male counterparts, with one exception being when (predominantly) Irish women captured in Viking raids were sold to the Middle East in the 800-1200 period. The Irish people ( Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European Ethnic group who originate A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas
In the West, slavery ended during the Medieval period, only to be revived after the Renaissance and its appreciation of the organization of classical society (i. e. ancient Greece and Rome). 
Trafficking in human beings, sometimes called human trafficking, or sex trafficking (as the majority of victims are women or children forced into prostitution), is not the same as people smuggling. Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude A smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is free; the trafficking victim is enslaved. Victims do not agree to be trafficked: they are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into it. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims. Whilst the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, forced into prostitution, other victims include men, women and children forced into manual labour. Due to the illegal nature of trafficking, the exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2003, estimates that 800,000-900,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally.
Economists have attempted to model during which circumstances slavery (and milder variants such as serfdom) appear and disappear. One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for land owners when land is abundant but labour is not, so paid workers can demand high wages. If labour is abundant but land is scarce, then it becomes more costly for the land owners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages due to the competition. Thus first slavery and then serfdom gradually decreased in Europe as the population grew. It was reintroduced in the Americas and in Russia (serfdom) as large new land areas with few people become available.
Another observation is slavery is more common when the labour done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large scale growing of a single crop. It is much more difficult and costly to check that slaves are doing their best and with good quality when they are doing complex tasks. Thus, slavery tends to decrease with technological advancements requiring more skilled people, even as they are able to demand high wages. 
It has also been argued that slavery tends to retard technological advancement, since the focus is on increasing the number of slaves rather than improving the efficiency of labor. Because of this, theoretical knowledge and learning in Greece—and later in Rome—was largely separated from physical labour and manufacturing.  Some Russian scholars have argued that the Soviet Union's technological development was hindered by Stalin's use of slave labor.
Since 1945, debate about the link between economic growth and different relational forms (most notably unfree social relations of production in Third World agriculture) occupied many contributing to discussions in the development decade (the 1960s). Slavery in Africa continues today Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans - as did a slave trade that exported millions This continued to be the case in the mode of production debate (mainly about agrarian transition in India) that spilled over into the 1970s, important aspects of which continue into the present (see the monograph by Brass, 1999, and the 600 page volume edited by Brass and van der Linden, 1997). Central to these discussions was the link between capitalist development and modern forms of unfree labour (peonage, debt bondage, indenture, chattel slavery). The words peon and peonage are derived from the Spanish peón (pe'on Debt bondage or bonded labor is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods An Indenture is a legal Contract between two parties particularly for indentured labour or a term of Apprenticeship but also for certain land Within the domain of political economy it is a debate that has a very long historical lineage, and - accurately presented - never actually went away. Unlike advocacy groups, for which the number of the currently unfree is paramount, those political economists who participated in the earlier debates sought to establish who, precisely, was (or was not) to be included under the rubric of a worker whose subordination constituted a modern form of unfreedom. This element of definition was regarded as an epistemologically necessary precondition to any calculations of how many were to be categorized as relationally unfree. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge
There are three general types of slavery today: wage slaves, contract slaves, and slaves in the traditional sense.
A combination of wage and contract slavery is found in Sarawak mining towns among Indonesian Dayak immigrants looking for work. They have to buy the tools they need to work with, but often don't have the required money, so they need to buy them on a loan. Then they discover that local food is so expensive that all their wages are spent on that, so they can't pay off the loan and are forced by law to keep working for no gain.
Slavery still exists today all across the world. Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group, Anti-Slavery International and Free the Slaves, the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to rid the world of slavery. The American Anti-Slavery Group (AASG is a coalition of Abolitionist organizations engaged in political activism to abolish Slavery in the world today Anti-Slavery International is a charity and lobby group based in the United Kingdom. Free the Slaves is an international Non-governmental organization and lobby group established to campaign against the modern practice of Slavery around the world The Anti-Slavery Society was the everyday name of two different British organizations
On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Membership For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly see General Assembly members The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais Article 4 states:
Since 1997, the United States Department of Justice has, through work with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers, prosecuted six individuals on charges of slavery in the agricultural industry. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department The Coalition of Immokalee Workers (CIW is "a community-based worker organization" whose members are "largely Latino Haitian and Mayan Indian immigrants working in low-wage These prosecutions have led to freedom for over 1000 slaves in the tomato and orange fields of South Florida.
This is only one example of the contemporary fight against slavery worldwide, which is especially pervasive in agriculture, apparel and the sex industry.
In the contemporary United States, the mantle of "abolitionist" has been widely embraced by those who seek to abolish the death penalty, those advocating immigration rights, and anarchists seeking to abolish the state. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population.
Slavery has existed, in one form or another, through the whole of recorded human history — as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies According to the Biblical Book of Exodus, Moses led Israelite slaves out of ancient Egypt — possibly the first written account of a movement to free slaves. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ See also History of ancient Israel and Judah According to the Bible, the Israelites were the dominant group living in the Land of Israel. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Later Jewish laws (known as Halacha) prevented slaves from being sold out of the Land of Israel, and allowed a slave to move to Israel if he so desired. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. The Cyrus Cylinder, inscribed about 539 BC by the order of Cyrus the Great of Persia, abolished slavery and allowed Jews and other nationalities who had been enslaved under Babylonian rule to return to their native lands. The Cyrus cylinder, also known as the Cyrus the Great cylinder, is a document issued by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great in the form of a clay The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Abolitionism should be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history
There were celebrations in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Abolition of the slave trade in the United Kingdom. William Wilberforce received much of the credit although the groundwork was an anti-slavery essay by Thomas Clarkson. William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 – 29 July 1833 was a British Politician, a Philanthropist Thomas Clarkson ( 28 March 1760 &ndash 26 September 1846) abolitionist, was born at Wisbech, Cambridgeshire Wilberforce was also urged by his close friend, Prime Minister William Pitt, to make the issue his own. After the abolition act was passed these campaigners switched to encouraging other countries to follow suit, notably France.
Abolitionist pressure in the United States produced a series of small steps forward. After January 1, 1808, the importation of slaves into the United States was prohibited, but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the international slave trade externally. Legal slavery persisted; and those slaves already in the U. S. would not be legally emancipated for another 60 years.
On May 21, 2001, the National Assembly of France passed the Taubira law, recognizing slavery as a crime against humanity. Events 878 - Syracuse Italy is captured by the Muslim sultan of Sicily. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) Christiane Taubira (born February 2, 1952, Cayenne, French Guiana) is a French politician In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of At the same time the British, Spanish, Dutch and Portuguese delegations declined to give an apology for the slave trade and limited to give a "regret. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. " This is probably due to the legal implications of such a statement. It is worth to mention that it is uncertain whether the apology of these four nations are for "slave trade" or "slavery". Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, also remain an open issue since slavery was practiced in Africa even before the first Europeans arrived and the Atlantic slave trade was performed with a high degree of involvement of several African societies. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World The black slave market was supplied by well-established slave trade networks controlled by local African societies and individuals.  Indeed, as already mentioned in this article, slavery persists in several areas of West Africa until the present day.
"There is adequate evidence citing case after case of African control of segments of the trade. Several African nations such as the Ashanti of Ghana and the Yoruba of Nigeria had economies depended solely on the trade. Ashanti, or Asante, are a major Ethnic group of Ashanti Region in Ghana. The Republic of Ghana is a country in West Africa. It borders Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast to the west Burkina Faso to the north Togo to the Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history African peoples such as the Imbangala of Angola and the Nyamwezi of Tanzania would serve as middlemen or roving bands warring with other African nations to capture Africans for Europeans. The Imbangala or Mbangala were 17th century groups of Angolan warriors and marauders whom founded the kingdom of Kasanje. Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central The Nyamwezi (originally and also Wanyamwezi) are the second-largest of over 120 ethnic groups in Tanzania. Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism "
Several historians have made important contributions to the global understanding of the African side of the Atlantic slave trade. The Atlantic Slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the Colonies of the New World By arguing that African merchants determined the assemblage of trade goods accepted in exchange for slaves, many historians argue for African agency and ultimately a shared responsibility for the slave trade. 
The issue of an apology is linked to reparations for slavery and is still being pursued by a number of entities across the world. For example, the Jamaican Reparations Movement approved its declaration and action Plan.
In September, 2006, it was reported that the UK Government may issue a "statement of regret" over slavery, an act that was followed through by a "public statement of sorrow" from Tony Blair on November 27, 2006. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
On February 25, 2007 the state of Virginia resolved to 'profoundly regret' and apologize for its role in the institution of slavery. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Unique and the first of its kind in the U. S. , the apology was unanimously passed in both Houses as Virginia approached the 400th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, where the first slaves were imported into North America in 1619. The James Settlement was the first permanent English settlement in North America. 
On August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstone of London, England apologized publicly for Britain's role in colonial slave trade. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945 is a British Socialist Politician. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history "You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said pointing towards the financial district. He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Jesse Jackson praised Mayor Livingstone, and added that reparations should be made. Jesse Louis Jackson Sr (born October 8 1941 is an American Civil rights activist and Baptist minister. 
Sporadically there have been movements to achieve reparations for those formerly held as slaves, or sometimes their descendants. Reparations for Slavery is a proposal by some in the United States that some type of compensation should be provided to the descendants of enslaved people in Claims for reparations for being held in slavery are handled as a civil law matter in almost every country. Private law (Civil law is that part of a Legal system that involves relationships between individuals This is often decried as a serious problem, since former slaves' relative lack of money means they often have limited access to a potentially expensive and futile legal process. Mandatory systems of fines and reparations paid to an as yet undetermined group of claimants from fines, paid by unspecified parties, and collected by authorities have been proposed by advocates to alleviate this "civil court problem". Since in almost all cases there are no living ex-slaves or living ex-slave owners these movements have gained little traction. In nearly all cases the judicial system has ruled that the statute of limitations on these possible claims has long since expired.
Nonetheless, from time to time misinformation is circulated (often through e-mail) to United States residents describing a $5000 "slavery tax credit", supposedly passed into law under President Bill Clinton's administration during the 1990s, but never announced to the public. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States No such credit exists, and persons attempting to promote or take advantage of the alleged credit are subject to prosecution. (See Slavery reparations scam for further information. The "Slave Reparations Act" (also called the Slavery Reparation Tax Credit, Black Tax Credit or Black Inheritance Tax Refund) is a Tax fraud ) A similar scam involves a "tax credit" available to Native Americans. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States
Some argue that the Bible condones slavery in Ancient Israelite society by failing to condemn the widespread existing practice present in other cultures. The issue of religion and slavery is an area of historical research into the relationship between the world's major Religions and the practice of Slavery. Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin  It also explicitly states that under certain circumstances, slavery is morally acceptable.  Nonetheless the Bible was used, before and during the American Civil War, by both slaveholders and abolitionists to justify their views. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South A significant theme in the Bible is deliverance from slavery, as in the Exodus story and in the sense of deliverance from sin. A familiar quotation from the Christian Bible appears in both Isaiah 61:1-2 and Luke 4:17-19:
"And there was delivered unto Him the book of the prophet Isaiah. And when He [Jesus] had opened the book, He found the place where it was written, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me to preach the gospel to the poor; He hath sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord. "