A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more persons nonviolently occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to events or situations sometimes in favor though more often opposed A sit-in is a form of nonviolence.
In a sit-in, protesters usually seat themselves and remain seated until they are evicted, usually by force, or until their requests have been met. Sit-ins have been a highly successful form of protest because they cause disruption that draws attention to the protest and by proxy the protesters' cause. The forced removal of protesters and sometimes the answer of non-violence with violence often arouses sympathy from the public, increasing the chances of the demonstrators reaching their goal. Sit-ins usually occur indoors at businesses or government offices. A business (also called firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.
A sit-in is similar to a sitdown strike. A sit-down strike is a form of Civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers usually employed at a factory or other centralized location take possession of However, whereas a sit-in involves protesters, a sitdown strike involves striking workers occupying the area in which they would be working and refusing to leave so they can not be replaced with scabs. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by Employees to perform work. The sitdown strike was the precursor to the sit-in.
Sit-ins were first widely employed by Mahatma Gandhi in Indian independence movement and were later expanded on by Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and others during the American Civil Rights Movement. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African In the 1960s, students used this method of protest during the student movements, such as the protests in Germany. For other events in May 1968 see 1968. The German student movement (also called 68er-Bewegung, movement of 1968, or soixante-huitaires) was a Protest movement that took place during The Young Lords in Chicago's Lincoln Park neighborhood used it successfully a whole week to win community demands for low income housing investment at the Mckormick Theological Seminary. The Young Lords, later Young Lords Organization and in New York (notably Spanish Harlem) Young Lords Party, was a Puerto Rican nationalist Lincoln Park may refer to several Towns Neighborhoods Parks and census-designated places in the United States and Canada, as well
Sit-ins were an integral part of the non-violent strategy of civil disobedience that ultimately ended racial segregation in the United States. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) conducted sit-ins as early as the 1940s. The Fellowship of Reconciliation ( FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious Nonviolent organizations particularly in English-speaking countries Ernest Calloway refers to Bernice Fisher as "godmother of the restaurant 'sit-in' technique. Bernice Fisher was a Civil Rights activist and union organizer " Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) labor delegates had a brief, spontaneous lunch counter sit-in in 1947 during their Columbus, Ohio convention. The Congress of Industrial Organizations, or CIO, proposed by John L .
With the encouragement of Melvin B. Tolson and James L. Farmer students from Wiley and Bishop Colleges organized the first sit-ins in Texas in the rotunda of the Harrison County Courthouse in Marshall, Texas. Melvin Beaunorus Tolson ( February 6, 1898 &ndash August 29, 1966) was an American Modernist poet, educator columnist Trade James Leonard Farmer Jr ( January 12, 1920 – July 9, 1999) was a Black civil rights activist who was one of the "big 4" leaders Wiley College is a four-year private, historically black, liberal arts college located on the west side of Marshall Texas. For the Anglican school in Colombo Sri Lanka see Bishop's College. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. A rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan often covered by a Dome. Harrison County is a County of the US state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 62110 Marshall is a city of the northeastern region of the US state of Texas. This sit-in directly challenged the oldest White Citizens Party in Texas and would culminate in the reversal of Jim Crow laws in the state and the desegregation of postgraduate studies in Texas by the Sweatt v. Painter (1950) verdict. The White Citizens Parties were autonomous local parties (often county based in the greater Southern United States, that served as the public face and often directly as what The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 Sweatt v Painter,, was a US Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the " Separate but equal " doctrine of Racial segregation
The first organized lunch-counter sit-in for the purpose of integrating segregated establishments began in July 1958 in Wichita Kansas at Dockum Drugs, a store in the old Rexall chain. In early August the drugstore became integrated. A few weeks later on August 19, 1958 in Oklahoma City a nationally recognized sit-in at the Katz Drug Store lunch counter occurred. Oklahoma City is the capital and largest city of the US state of Oklahoma. It was led by NAACP youth leader Clara Luper, a local high school teacher, and local students. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations It took years but she and her students integrated Oklahoma City eating establishments. Today, in downtown Wichita, Kansas, a statue depicting a waitress at a counter serving people honors the sit-in. Wichita (ˈwɪtʃɪtaː is the most populous City in the US state of Kansas, and the county seat of Sedgwick County. (It is located at Douglas and Broadway. )
Following the Oklahoma City sit-ins, the tactic of non-violent student sit-ins spread. The Greensboro Sit-In at a Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, on February 1, 1960 launched a wave of anti-segregation sit-ins across the South and opened a national awareness of the depth of segregation in the nation. The Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action in the African-American Civil Rights Movement, leading to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in American history The F W Woolworth Company (often referred to as Woolworth's) was a retail company that was one of the original American five-and-dime stores Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  Within weeks, sit-in campaigns had begun in nearly a dozen cities, primarily targeting Woolworth's and S. H. Kress and other stores of other national chains. S H Kress & Co was the trading name of a chain of " Five and dime " retail Department stores in the United States, which operated from 1896  Probably the best organized of these were the Nashville sit-ins which involved hundreds of participants and led to the successful desegregation of Nashville lunch counters. The Nashville sit-ins were part of a nonviolent Direct action campaign to end Racial segregation at lunch counters in Nashville Tennessee. A lunch counter is a small Restaurant, much like a Diner, where the patron sits on a stool on one side of the bar and the server serves from the other  Many of the participants in sit-ins were college students and Historically black colleges and universities played a critical role in implementing sit-ins. Historically black colleges and universities ( HBCUs) are institutions of Higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention