|This article is part of|
the History of Singapore series
|Early history of Singapore (pre-1819)|
|Founding of modern Singapore (1819–1826)|
|Straits Settlements (1826–1867)|
|Crown colony (1867–1942)|
|Battle of Singapore (1942)|
|Japanese Occupation (1942–1945)|
|Sook Ching massacre (1942–1945)|
|Post-war period (1945–1955)|
|First Legislative Council (1948–1951)|
|Maria Hertogh riots(1950)|
|Second Legislative Council (1951–1955)|
Anti-National Service Riots (1954)
|Internal self-government (1955–1962)|
|Hock Lee bus riots (1955)|
|Chinese middle schools riots (1956)|
|Merger with Malaysia (1962–1965)|
|Merger referendum, 1962|
|Operation Coldstore (1963)|
|Race Riots of 1964|
|MacDonald House bombing (1965)|
|Republic of Singapore (1965–present)|
|1969 Race Riots of Singapore (1969)|
|Operation Spectrum (1987)|
|East Asian financial crisis (1997)|
|Embassies attack plot (2001)|
|See also: Timeline of Singaporean history|
|[edit this box]|
The Singapore embassies attack plot was a plan in 2001 by the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) to bomb the diplomatic missions and attack personnel of the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Israel based in Singapore. Singapore rose in importance during the 14th century under the rule of Srivijayan prince Parameswara and became an important port until it was destroyed by Portuguese raiders in 1613 The early history of Singapore refers to the History of Singapore before 1819 when the British established a trading settlement on the island and set in motion the history of The founding of modern Singapore in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles paved the way for Singapore to become a modern Port and established its status as Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the Singapore in the Straits Settlements refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1826 to 1942, during which Singapore was part of the The Battle of Singapore was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the Allied stronghold The Japanese occupation of Singapore was the period in the History of Singapore between 1942 and 1945 when Japanese forces occupied Singapore during The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺 was a systematic Extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military Post-war Singapore refers to a period in the History of Singapore from 1945 when the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies at the end of Singapore rose in importance during the 14th century under the rule of Srivijayan prince Parameswara and became an important port until it was destroyed by Portuguese raiders in 1613 The Maria Hertogh riots or Natrah riots, which started on 11 December, 1950 in Singapore, consisted of outraged Muslims who resented Singapore rose in importance during the 14th century under the rule of Srivijayan prince Parameswara and became an important port until it was destroyed by Portuguese raiders in 1613 1954 National Service Riots or Anti-National Service Riots is a riot in Singapore that occurred in 1954 due to the Communist influence The self-governance of Singapore was carried out in several stages The Hock Lee bus riots occurred on May 12 1955, in Singapore. The Chinese middle schools riots were a series of Riots that broke out in the Singaporean Chinese community in Singapore in 1956, resulting On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia The Singapore national referendum of 1962, or also commonly referred to as the Merger Referendum of Singapore was the first and only Referendum to Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store) was a security operation conducted by the Government of Singapore in February 1963 in which The 1964 Race Riots were a series of Riots that took place in Singapore during two separate periods in July and September between Chinese and Malay The MacDonald House bombing occurred on 10 March, 1965, at the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank building (now known as MacDonald House) along The history of the Republic of Singapore began when Singapore gained its Independence and became a Republic following a Secession from the The 1969 race riots of Singapore were the only riots encountered in post-independence Operation Spectrum was launched on May 21 1987 by Singapore 's Internal Security Department (ISD using its Internal Security Act (ISA The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of Financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown ( This is a Timeline of the history of Singapore. For more detailed annual listings see List of years in Singapore. Al-Qaeda, alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qa`ida or al-Qa`idah, ( Arabic:; ar-Latn ''al-qāʿidah'' Translation: The History The JI was established as a loose confederation of several Islamic groups A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Singapore There were also several other targets. The plot was uncovered in December 2001 and as many as 15 people were arrested in Singapore within a month. Further investigation and intelligence prompted the detention of another 26 persons from 2002 to 2005. As of 2006, 37 of them were still being detained without trial, under the Internal Security Act. The Internal Security Act ( ISA) of Singapore confers on the government the right to arrest and detain individuals without trial in certain defined circumstances Four had been released on restriction orders.
The Singapore JI branch was started as early as 1993, when Ibrahim Maidin underwent military training in Afghanistan and was subsequently appointed leader of JI in Singapore. By conducting religious classes, Maidin began recruiting other members into the JI organisation. 
At least eight of the sleeper cell members had received training in Afghanistan. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Riduan Isamuddin, the leader of JI who is better known as Hambali, had arranged their travels to Pakistan, using false documents and cover stories that they were accepted by a religious school for religious studies. Riduan Isamuddin also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the Nom de They stayed in an al-Qaeda safe house in Pakistan before travelling to Afghanistan, where they received training in the use of AK-47s, mortars, and military tactics. In law enforcement and intelligence jargon of Intelligence agencies and Police forces a secured location suitable for hiding witnesses agents or other persons The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's A mortar is a muzzle-loading Indirect fire weapon that fires shells at low velocities short ranges and high-arcing ballistic trajectories  Several members also attended a training camp in southern Philippines, known as Camp Hudaybiyya, set up by Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and run by Indonesian JI members. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front ( MILF) is a Muslim Separatist rebel group located in Southern Philippines. 
The Singapore branch of JI was organised into at least three groups. The first cell, which was called "Fiah Ayub" (first cell) and the second cell was called "Fiah Musa". The Singapore branch was headed by Ibrahim Maidin and Faiz bin Abi Bakar Bafana was the second in command. The Singapore branch was under the command of a Malaysia-based leadership structure called a regional shura (consultative council), within the larger network of JI organisation in Southeast Asia. Members of the cell did not attend local mosque or made little contact with other mainstream Islamic organisations in the country. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The group operated in tight secrecy and were using code words in their communication.
According to investigation, the cell had conducted survey for other targets as early as 1997, when the cell was planning to target the Yishun MRT Station, where American troops and their families used to take shuttle rides to an U. Yishun MRT Station (NS13 is a Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, built above ground level S. Navy site at Sembawang for recreation activities at a sports complex incidentally known as "Terror Club". Etymology The earliest reference to Sembawang is found in Franklin and Jackson's 1830 ''Map of Singapore'', which refers to the River Tambuwang  In 1999, a member of the Singapore cell, Khalim Jaffar travelled to Afghanistan and presented the plan to Al Qaeda's leaders. Mohammed Atef, a close aide of Osama bin Laden, gave JI the go-ahead for the attack, but the plan was not pursued for unknown reasons. Mohammed Atef ( محمد عاطف) (also transliterated as Muhammad Atef, Muhammed Atef, Muhammad ‘Āṭif and several other ways Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March 
In April 2001, a member of the cell, who was working at the Singapore Technologies Aerospace, took digital photographs of American military aircraft and personnel at Paya Lebar Airbase, and distributed them to other cell members. 
The cell had also surveyed other potential targets including water pipelines at the Johor-Singapore Causeway, Singapore Changi Airport, the radar station at Biggin Hill, and the Ministry of Defence at Bukit Gombak
On October 7, 2001, a 30-year old Indonesian using a false Filipino passport and a Kuwaiti on a false Canadian passport were sent to Singapore to activate the sleeper cell. The Johor-Singapore Causeway (Tambak Johor is a 1056-metre Causeway that links the city of Johor Bahru in Malaysia across the Straits of Johor Biggin Hill is a place and electoral ward in the London Borough of Bromley in London, England. The Ministry of Defence ( Abbreviation: MINDEF; Chinese: 新加坡囯防部; Malay: Kementerian Pertahanan Tamil: தற்காப்பு Bukit Gombak is a neighbourhood in the west-central area of the Southeast Asian City-state of Singapore. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP A passport is a document issued by a national government which certifies for the purpose of international travel the identity and nationality of its holder The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page  The two men that came, Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi, also known as Mike, and a man known as Sammy, directed the sleeper cell to conduct "final reconnaissance" and video recordings of potential targets. Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi (17 February 1971 in Indonesia – October 2003 in the Philippines) was a key operative and bomb-maker of the Islamic militant Jemaah Islamiya The two operatives gave instructions to the cell to prepare for attacks in Singapore. Among the targets were U. S. and Israeli Embassies, British and Australian High Commissions, and commercial buildings housing US firms. They plan to launch the attacks in December 2001/January 2002 or April/May 2002. 
Philippine authorities said that al-Ghozi, a bombmaker, had three Philippine passports and an Indonesian passport. Investigators later revealed al-Ghozi's ties with Abu Bakar Bashir, the alleged spiritual head of Jemaah Islamiyah. Abu Bakar Bashir (also Abubakar Ba'asyir, Abdus Somad, and Ustad Abu ("Teacher Abu" born August 17 1938 is an Indonesian Muslim History The JI was established as a loose confederation of several Islamic groups al-Ghozi had studied in Bashir's religious school in Indonesia for six years.  The other man, Sammy, was later identified as Mohd Mansour Jabarah, a Canadian national of Arab descent, who was in US custody (as of 2003) and sentenced to life in prison in 2008.
The cell members then set off to procure 17 tons of explosives, especially that of ammonium nitrate, along with trucks and chemicals. An explosive material is a material that either is chemically or otherwise Energetically unstable or produces a sudden expansion of the material usually accompanied The Chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the Nitrate of Ammonia with the chemical formula N[[Hydrogen H]]4 N[[Oxygen O]]3 This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. JI has close ties with Kumpulan Militan Malaysia (KMM), a militant group in Malaysia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Yazid Sufaat, a KMM member, had purchased 4 tons of ammonium nitrate which were already made available to the Singapore cell for the bombings. The Malaysian Yazid Sufaat (or Yazud bin Sufaat or Yazid Shufaat) was a member of the Islamist terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah from shortly
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, an informant told the Internal Security Department about Muhammad Aslam Yar Ali Khan, who is a Singaporean citizen of Pakistani descent and had made claims of having ties with Al-Qaeda. Internal Security Department (Abbreviation ISD; Chinese 新加坡内部安全局 is an agency of the Government of Singapore under the Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Khan was placed under surveillance, but he abruptly left Singapore for Pakistan on October 4. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas He was later captured by United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan officials. The United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan ( UIF, Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islami-yi Milli bara-yi Nijat-i Afghanistan) also known as the Northern His interrogation led investigators to the Singaporean cell.
Singapore authorities conducted the first raid on 9 December 2001, arresting six persons. Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. A total of 15 persons were arrested within a month. During the raids, the police seized documents of the attack plots and bomb making information, as well as photographs and surveillance video of the intended targets including the embassies. Fake passports and forged immigration documents were also found.
Soon after, a JI-made surveillance video was recovered among the rubbles of a house that was bombed by US coalition forces in Kabul, Afghanistan. } Kābul ( Persian and Pashto: کابل, IPA:) is the Capital and largest city of Afghanistan, with Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, It was the home of Mohammed Atef, a close aide of Osama bin Laden. Mohammed Atef ( محمد عاطف) (also transliterated as Muhammad Atef, Muhammed Atef, Muhammad ‘Āṭif and several other ways Osama bin Laden, with some spelling variations is the name used in English to refer to (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن born 10 March The video showed a narrator in Singapore, Hashim bin Abas, describing how bombs could be hidden to attack United States interests. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Besides the embassies, the plotters were also planning to target United States Air Force warplanes that were stationed at Paya Lebar Air Force Base, as well as several United States companies and businesses. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing Aircraft that is in the current employ of a Military power There were also plans to attack U. S. Navy warships along Singapore's coastlines, similar to the USS Cole bombing in Yemen in October 2000. A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. The USS Cole bombing was a Suicide bombing attack against the U Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya 
The JI group were also plotting to attack United States Navy personnel and their families who often traveled between the Yishun MRT Station and Sembawang Wharf via shuttle buses. Yishun MRT Station (NS13 is a Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, built above ground level Etymology The earliest reference to Sembawang is found in Franklin and Jackson's 1830 ''Map of Singapore'', which refers to the River Tambuwang A wharf is a landing place or Pier where ships may tie up and load or unload The video also detailed how bombs could be planted in the sewers and drains near the Yishun MRT Station in order to cause massive casualties when targeting United States personnel. The video also showed a man describing how explosive can be strapped on bicycles and be transported without raising suspicion.  Investigators in Singapore had found similar tapes at the residence of Mohamed Khalim bin Jaffar, one of arrested JI members. Singapore government presented these material as evidences of a direct link between the JI group and the Al-Qaeda. 
On 15 January 2002, Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi was arrested by authorities in the Philippines. Events 588 BC - Nebuchadrezzar II of Babylon lays siege to Jerusalem under Zedekiah 's reign See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Fathur Rahman al-Ghozi (17 February 1971 in Indonesia – October 2003 in the Philippines) was a key operative and bomb-maker of the Islamic militant Jemaah Islamiya He gave police information that led to a cache of rifles, explosive and bomb-making material in Southern Philippines.  These were believed to be part of the embassies attack plot.
In August 2002, ISD conducted another major security operation and arrested 18 persons, most of them were members of JI, while two were members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), a militant separatist group in the Philippines. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front ( MILF) is a Muslim Separatist rebel group located in Southern Philippines.
Following the arrests, the U. Counter-terrorism in Singapore is a series of measures implemented in Singapore to detect and prevent Terrorism, and to minimise damage from such terrorist acts should S. , British and Australian embassies in Singapore are placed on heightened alert.  Members of the elite Gurkha Contingent of the Singapore Police Force are posted at the embassies to enhance their security. The Gurkha Contingent ( Abbreviation: GC) or 辜加警察团,Nepali (गोरखालि is a line department of the Singapore Police Force. The Singapore Police Force ( Abbreviation: SPF; Chinese: 新加坡警察部队; Malay: Pasukan Polis Singapura Tamil
Timeline of plot, arrests and related incidents.