|Assumed office |
8 May 2008
|Preceded by||Romano Prodi|
11 June 2001 – 17 May 2006
|President||Carlo Azeglio Ciampi|
|Preceded by||Giuliano Amato|
|Succeeded by||Romano Prodi|
27 April 1994 – 17 January 1995
|President||Oscar Luigi Scalfaro|
|Preceded by||Carlo Azeglio Ciampi|
|Succeeded by||Lamberto Dini|
6 January 2002 – 14 November 2002
|Preceded by||Renato Ruggiero|
|Succeeded by||Franco Frattini|
3 July 2004 – 16 July 2004
|Preceded by||Giulio Tremonti|
|Succeeded by||Domenico Siniscalco|
10 March 2006 – 17 May 2006
|Preceded by||Francesco Storace|
|Succeeded by||Livia Turco|
|Assumed office |
21 April 1994
|Constituency||XIX - Campania I|
|Born||29 September 1936 |
|Political party||Forza Italia (People of Freedom)|
|Spouse||Carla Dall'Oglio (1965)|
Veronica Lario (1985)
Pier Silvio Berlusconi
|Alma mater||University of Milan|
|Net Worth||$9. These are some of the honorifics used in Italy Nobility As part of the republican constitution that became effective in Italy on 1 January 1948, In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Giorgio Napolitano (born June 29 1925) is an Italian Politician and former lifetime senator, the eleventh and current President of the Italian (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker He was Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was President from 1999 Giulio Tremonti (born August 18, 1947) is an Italian politician and economist Gianfranco Fini (born January 3 1952 is an Italian Politician, President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies and current leader of National Alliance Marco Follini (born on 26 September 1954) is an Italian centre-wing politician Giuliano Amato (born May 13, 1938) is an Italian politician He was Prime Minister of Italy twice first from 1992 to 1993 and then (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Baron Oscar Luigi Scalfaro ˈskalfaro (born September 9, 1918) is an Italian Politician and magistrate member of the Christian Democracy Roberto Maroni (born March 15, 1955) is an Italian politician from Varese. (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker He was Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was President from 1999 (born March 1, 1931) is an Italian politician and economist former Prime Minister and Foreign Minister. As in most countries in Italy the Minister of Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Renato Ruggiero (born April 9, 1930) is an Italian politician Franco Frattini (born 14 March 1957 in Rome) is an Italian politician currently serving as Italy's Foreign Minister in the This is a list of Italian Ministers of Economy and Finance since the creation of this Ministry in 2001 Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Giulio Tremonti (born August 18, 1947) is an Italian politician and economist Domenico Siniscalco born in 1954 took office as the Italian Minister of Economy and Finance on July 16, 2004 until September 22, This is the list of Italian Ministers of Health Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Francesco Storace ( Cassino, 25 January 1959) is an Italian politician Livia Turco (born 13 February 1955 in Cuneo) is an Italian politician member of the Democrats of the Left party and currently The Italian Chamber of Deputies ( Camera dei Deputati) is the Lower house of the Parliament of Italy. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio The People of Freedom ( Il Popolo della Libertà, PdL is a liberal-conservative History Premises Following the run-up to the Veronica Lario (born on 19 July 1956 as Miriam Raffaella Bartolini) is an Italian actress currently the wife of Italian Prime Marina Berlusconi ( Maria Elvira Berlusconi, born August 10, 1966 in Milan) is the daughter of Silvio Berlusconi, Italy's current billionaire Arcore is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 20 km northeast of Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The University of Milan (Università degli Studi di Milano UNIMI is one the largest universities in Italy, with about 62801 Students a teaching and research A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A businessperson (also businessman or businesswoman) is someone who is employed at usually a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically someone 4 billion USD |
29 September 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, media proprietor, and Prime Minister of Italy (President of the Council of Ministers of Italy), a position he has held three times; 1994-1995, 2001-2006 and since 2008. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The politics of Italy take place in a framework of a parliamentary, democratic Republic, and of a Multi-party system. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome A media proprietor is a person who controls either through personal ownership or a dominant position in a Public company, a significant part of the Mass media. In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common  He is the leader of the Forza Italia political movement, a centre-right party he founded in 1993. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote individuals political parties or organizations (such as Think tanks whose views Before the 2008 Italian general election he announced his intention to establish a new political party, People of Freedom, to be constituted by the merging of Forza Italia with the National Alliance party, and several other conservative parties later in 2008. A snap general election was held in Italy on 13 April and 14 April 2008. The People of Freedom ( Il Popolo della Libertà, PdL is a liberal-conservative History Premises Following the run-up to the National Alliance ( Alleanza Nazionale, AN is a conservative Italian political party. His victory in the 2008 general election paved the way for the fourth term as prime minister.(born
Berlusconi is the founder and main shareholder of Fininvest, among the ten largest Italian privately-owned companies, operating in media and finance including three national TV channels. A mutual shareholder or stockholder is an Individual or company (including a Corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of Fininvest is a financial Holding company controlled by Silvio Berlusconi's family Together these account for nearly half the Italian TV market. He owns three (out of seven) national television channels as well as some of the country's most important newspapers. Under his presidency it has won a number of national and international trophies. According to Forbes magazine, Berlusconi is Italy's third richest person, with personal assets worth $9. Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly 4 billion (USD) in 2008. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been  preceded only by Michele Ferrero and Leonardo Del Vecchio. This article is about the Italian chocolate maker for the priest see Michele Ferrero (priest. Leonardo Del Vecchio (born in Milano / May 221935 is the founder and chairman of Luxottica, a $3 billion (sales designer and manufacturer
His rise in the political arena was rapid and surrounded by controversy. He was elected President of the Council of Ministers following the March 1994 elections, when Forza Italia gained a relative majority a mere three months after having been officially launched. He formed the first right-wing administration in 34 years. However, his cabinet collapsed after seven months, due to internal disagreements in the centre-right coalition. In the 1996 elections, he ran for Prime Minister again but was defeated by centre-left candidate Romano Prodi. An early national general election was held in Italy on April 21, 1996 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May From 1996 to 2001 he was the leader of the parliamentary opposition. In the 2001 elections, he was again the centre-right candidate for Prime Minister and won against the centre-left candidate Francesco Rutelli. A national general election was held in Italy on May 13, 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic Francesco Rutelli MP (born June 14 1954) is an Italian politician formerly Mayor of Rome, and former president of the Berlusconi then formed his second and third governments, which together lasted five years.
Berlusconi was leader of the centre-right coalition in the May 2006 election, which he lost by a very narrow margin, his counterpart being again Romano Prodi. In the Italian general election 2006 for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy held on April 9 and April 10, 2006 (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May On 17 May 2006 he was formally succeeded by Prodi. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. He was re-elected with a large majority in the April 2008 parliamentary election and sworn in again as prime minister on 8 May 2008. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
Berlusconi was raised in an upper middle-class family in Milan. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. His father Luigi (1908 - 1989) worked with increasing responsibilities at Banca Rasini, a bank long suspected by magistrates to be linked to the Sicilian Mafia.  His mother was Rosa Bossi (1911 - 2008). Silvio was the first of three children; his siblings are Maria Francesca Antonietta Berlusconi (born 1943) and Paolo Berlusconi (born 1949), now both entrepreneurs.
After completing his secondary school education at a Salesian college, he studied law at the Università Statale in Milan, graduating cum laude with a thesis on the legal aspects of advertising in 1961. This article is about the Roman Catholic saint For churches named after him see Saint Francis de Sales church. Law is a system of rules enforced through a set of Institutions used as an instrument to underpin civil obedience politics economics and society The University of Milan (Università degli Studi di Milano UNIMI is one the largest universities in Italy, with about 62801 Students a teaching and research Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an Academic degree was earned Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand As the first-born child in his family, Berlusconi was not required to serve the standard one-year stint in the Italian army which was compulsory at the time. The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano is the ground defense force of the Military of Italy.
In 1965 he married Carla Elvira Dall'Oglio, and they had two children: Maria Elvira, better known as Marina (born 1966) and Pier Silvio (b. 1968). By 1980, Berlusconi had established a relationship with the actress Veronica Lario (born Miriam Bartolini), with whom he subsequently had three children: Barbara (b. Veronica Lario (born on 19 July 1956 as Miriam Raffaella Bartolini) is an Italian actress currently the wife of Italian Prime 1984), Eleonora (b. 1986) and Luigi (b. 1988). He was divorced from Dall'Oglio in 1985, and married Lario in 1990. At this time, Berlusconi was a well-known entrepreneur, and his wedding was a notable social event. One of his best men was former Prime Minister and leader of Italian Socialist Party Bettino Craxi. Participants in wedding ceremonies, also known as the wedding party, include the bride and groom (or bridegroom) the maid of honor Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party
Berlusconi's business career began in the building construction business in the 1960s. In the late 1960s, he had the idea of developing Milano 2, a garden city of around 3,500 flats. It was built at Segrate on the eastern outskirts of Milan beneath the flight path of aircraft taking off from nearby Linate airport. Segrate is a town and municipality ( Comune) located in the Province of Milan in the Lombardy region of northern Italy. Flights were diverted to a new airport, greatly increasing the value of his investment. How Berlusconi managed to finance the project remains a mystery. From the outset, in September 1968. his name disappears from all relevant legal documents, replaced by nominal proprietors of humble means, and only resurfaces in 1975. The financing is lost in a series of offshore company transactions and financial Chinese boxes investigating magistrates and historians have never managed to untangle, though The Economist estimates that some 93. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London 9 billion lira of unknown origin poured into the 22 companies that made up Berlusconi's holding. A holding company is a company that owns part all or a majority of other companies' outstanding Stock. 
He first entered the media world in 1973 by setting up a small cable television Telemilano to service units built on his Segrate properties. It began transmitting in September the following year, and, after buying two further channels, Berlusconi relocated the station to central Milan in 1977, and began broadcasting over the airwaves. 
In 1978 Berlusconi formed his first media group, Fininvest, which in the five years leading up to 1983 earned 113,000,000,000 lire (the equivalent of about 260,000,000 euro at 1997 values). Fininvest is a financial Holding company controlled by Silvio Berlusconi's family Please update other articles as well to avoid contradiction within Wikipedia e The funding sources are still unknown because of the complex system of holding companies that makes them impossible to trace, despite investigations conducted by various state attorneys. A holding company is a company that owns part all or a majority of other companies' outstanding Stock. Among the banks involved in this transfer of funds was Banca Rasini, identified by Michele Sindona as the mafia's bank in Milan. Michele Sindona ( May 8 1920 - March 22 1986) was an Italian Banker and convicted Felon. 
Fininvest expanded into a country-wide network of local TV stations which had similar programming, forming, in effect, a single national network. A television network is a distribution network for Television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many Television stations This was seen as breaching the public broadcaster RAI's statutory monopoly on creating a national network which was later abolished. Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian public service broadcaster, and is considered In 1980 Berlusconi founded Italy's first private national network Canale 5, followed shortly thereafter by Italia 1 which was bought from the Rusconi family in 1982, and Rete 4 which was bought from Mondadori in 1984. Canale 5 is an Italian Television station of Mediaset network the media branch of Fininvest (controlled by Silvio Berlusconi) Italia 1 is an Italian commercial Television station on the Mediaset network Rete 4 (also known as Retequattro) is an Italian television station belonging to the Mediaset network Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, ( Borsa Italiana: MNDI is the second biggest Publishing company in Italy. By this time, judges in Turin, Pescara and Rome, enforcing a law which then restricted nation-wide broadcasting to RAI, ordered these private networks to cease transmitting. Tim Parks, from On the Beach Italian Style on Daily Telegraph, 6 January 2007 |The genius of Pescara Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Berlusconi was assisted in his successful effort to create the first and only Italian commercial TV empire by his connections to Bettino Craxi, secretary-general of the Italian Socialist Party and also prime minister of Italy at that time, who passed an emergency decree legalizing the nation-wide broadcasting transmissions made by Berlusconi's television stations. Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa After some political turmoil in 1985 the decree was approved definitively. But for some years, Berlusconi's three channels remained in a legal limbo, and were not therefore allowed, for instance, to broadcast news and political commentary. They were fully elevated to national TV channels in 1990 with the so-called Mammì law.
In 1995, Berlusconi sold a portion of his media holdings, first to the German media group Kirch (now bankrupt) and then by public offer. Leo Kirch (born 21 October 1926 in Volkach, Bavaria) is a German media Entrepreneur who founded the Kirch In 1999 Berlusconi expanded again in the media business in a partnership with Kirch called the Epsilon MediaGroup. 
Berlusconi's main company Mediaset, comprises three national television channels, which hold approximately half the national viewing audience, and Publitalia, the leading Italian advertising and publicity agency. Mediaset is the main Italian commercial Television network with headquarters in Milan, Lombardy. He also owns Arnoldo Mondadori, the largest Italian publishing house, whose publications include Panorama, one of the most popular news magazine in Italy. Arnoldo Mondadori ( November 2, 1889 - June 8 1971) was a noted Italian publisher Panorama is a Right wing Italian Newsmagazine. It was founded in 1962, and is currently owned by Italian Prime Minister Silvio He has interests in cinema and home video distribution firms (Medusa and Penta), insurance and banking (Mediolanum) and a variety of other activities. Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was an important Celtic and then Roman centre His brother, Paolo Berlusconi, owns and operates Il Giornale, a centre-right newspaper which provides a strong pro-Berlusconi slant on Italy and its politics. Il Giornale is a Daily newspaper published in Milan, Italy Characterized from its birth by strong opposition to the left-wing parties of its
Berlusconi also owned the nationally and internationally successful football club AC Milan and has made an important contribution to his continuing political success. Associazione Calcio Milan, commonly referred to by the abbreviation Milan, is an Italian professional football club based in Milan, Lombardy "Forza Italia" meaning "Go Italy!" was before the party of the same name was founded had been most associated with football supporters of the Italian national football team. The Italian national football team is controlled by the Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio (FIGC and represents Italy in international football competition 
In the early 1990s, the two dominant governing parties, Christian Democracy (Democrazia Cristiana) and the Italian Socialist Party, lost much of their electoral strength almost overnight due to a large number of judicial investigations concerning the financial corruption of many of their foremost members (see the Mani Pulite affair). Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa Mani pulite ( Italian for clean hands) was a nationwide Italian judicial investigation into Political corruption held in the 1990s following This led to a general expectation that upcoming elections would be won by the Democratic Party of the Left, the heirs to the former Italian Communist Party, and their Alliance of Progressives coalition unless there was a strong alternative. The Democratic Party of the Left ( Partito Democratico della Sinistra, PDS was a post- communist democratic-socialist political party in Italy The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) The Alliance of Progressives ( Alleanza dei Progressisti) was a left-wing electoral coalition in Italy in 1994 Berlusconi publicly announced on 26 January 1994 his decision to enter politics ("entering the field", in his own words) on a platform focused on defeating the Communists. Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The timing of his announcement raised some questions, however. Shortly before he decided to enter into politics, investigators into the Mani Pulite affair were said to be close to issuing warrants not only for his arrest but also for the chief executives of his business group. Tangentopoli ( Italian for bribesville) was the name used to indicate the corruption -based system in politics that had its heyday in Italy
According to journalist Marco Travaglio, Berlusconi entered politics to save his companies from bankruptcy and himself from convictions. Marco Travaglio (born 13 October 1964) is an Italian investigative journalist, Writer and commenter Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against In Law, a conviction is the Verdict that results when a Court of law finds a Defendant guilty of a Crime.  From the very beginning he said it clearly to his associates. Berlusconi's supporters hailed him as the "new man", an outsider who was going to bring a new efficiency to the public bureaucracy and reform the state from top to bottom. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government
While investigating these matters, three journalists23 noted the following facts:
The Economist, an influential London-based financial weekly magazinenewspaper has published several lengthy articles about Berlusconi's business activities. (see below). (born 29 September 1936 is an Italian politician, Entrepreneur, Real estate and Insurance Tycoon, Bank and Media proprietor
Berlusconi founded Forza Italia only two months before the 1994 elections. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio He formed two separate electoral alliances: Pole of Freedoms (Polo delle Libertà) with the Northern League (Lega Nord) in northern Italian districts, and another, the Pole of Good Government (Polo del Buon Governo), with the post-fascist National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale; heir to the Italian Social Movement) in central and southern regions. The Pole of Freedoms ( Polo delle Libertà) was a center-right electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 Lega Nord (Northern League LN whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for Independence of Padania) is an Italian The Pole of Good Government ( Polo del Buon Governo) was a centre-right electoral coalition in Italy, launched by Silvio Berlusconi in 1994 National Alliance ( Alleanza Nazionale, AN is a conservative Italian political party. The Italian Social Movement, later Italian Social Movement–National Right ( Movimento Sociale Italiano–Destra Nazionale, MSI-DN was a neo-fascist In a shrewd pragmatic move, he did not ally with the latter in the North because the League disliked them. As a result, Forza Italia was allied with two parties that were not allied with each other.
Berlusconi launched a massive campaign of electoral advertisements on his three TV networks. He subsequently won the elections, with Forza Italia raking in 21% of the popular vote, the highest percentage of any single party. One of the most significant promises that he made in order to secure victory was that his government would create "one million more jobs". He was appointed Prime Minister in 1994, but his term in office was short because of the inherent contradictions in his coalition: the League, a regional party with a strong electoral base in northern Italy, was at that time oscillating between federalist and separatist positions, and the National Alliance was a nationalist party that had yet to renounce neo-fascism at the time. The term " federalist " describes several political beliefs around the world Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation This page specifically pertains to fascism after World War II
In December 1994, following the communication of a new investigation from Milan magistrates that was leaked to the press, Umberto Bossi, leader of the Lega Nord, left the coalition claiming that the electoral pact had not been respected, forcing Berlusconi to resign from office and shifting the majority's weight to the centre-left side. Umberto Bossi (born September 19, 1941) is an Italian politician leader of the Northern League, a party seeking autonomy or Lega Nord also resented the fact that many of its MPs had switched to Forza Italia, allegedly lured by promises of more prestigious portfolios.
Berlusconi remained as caretaker prime minister for a little over a month until his replacement by a technocratic government headed by Lamberto Dini. (born March 1, 1931) is an Italian politician and economist former Prime Minister and Foreign Minister. Dini had been a key minister in the Berlusconi cabinet, and Berlusconi said the only way he would support a technocratic government would be if Dini headed it. In the end, however, Dini was only supported by most opposition parties but not by Forza Italia and Lega Nord. In 1996, this coalition was replaced, after a new election, by a centre-left government lead by Romano Prodi. (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May 
In 2001 Berlusconi again ran as leader of the centre-right coalition House of Freedoms (Casa delle Libertà), which included the National Alliance, United Christian Democrats, Northern League and other parties. Casa delle Libertà ( CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms) was a major Italian Center-right Political alliance led by The United Christian Democrats ( Cristiani Democratici Uniti, CDU was a christian-democratic party in Italy. Berlusconi's success in this election led to him becoming Prime Minister once more, with the coalition receiving 45. 4% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies and 42. The Italian Chamber of Deputies ( Camera dei Deputati) is the Lower house of the Parliament of Italy. 5% for the Senate. The Italian Senate ( Italian: Senato della Repubblica, 'Senate of the Republic' is the Upper house of the Parliament of Italy.
In a TV show during the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani (contract with the Italian people), an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from Newt Gingrich's 1994 manifesto in the United States in 1994 which was widely considered to be a creative masterstroke in his campaign bid for office. Newton "Newt" Leroy Gingrich, (born Newton Leroy McPherson on June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author who served as the Speaker In this solemn agreement, Berlusconi claimed he could improve several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Firstly, he undertook to simplify the complex tax system by introducing just two tax rates (33% for those earning over 100,000 euros, and 23 for the anyone earning less than that figure: anyone earning less than 11,000 euros a year would not be taxed); secondly, he promised to half the unemployment rate; thirdly, he undertook to finance and develop a massive new public works program. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to 516 euros; and fifthly, he would suppress the crime wave by introducing policemen to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities.  Berlusconi undertook to refrain from putting himself up for re-election in 2006, were he to fail to honour at least 4 of these 5 promises.
Opposition parties claim Berlusconi was not able to achieve the goals he promised in his Contratto con gli Italiani. His partners in government, the National Alliance and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats have admitted the Government fell short of the promises made in the agreement, attributing the failure to an unforeseeable downturn in global economic conditions. The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats ( Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e di Centro, UDC is a christian-democratic Italian political party. Italian GDP grew very slowly, almost not at all, during Berlusconi's Government, while public debt rose quickly. Berlusconi himself has consistently asserted that he achieved all the goals of the agreement, and said his Government provided un miracolo continuo (a continuous miracle) that made all 'earlier governments pale' (by comparison). He attributed the widespread failure to recognize these achievements to a campaign of mystification and vilification in the printed media, asserting that 85% of newspapers were opposed to him.  An independent analyst, towards the end of the 2001-2006 legislature, held that Berlusconi had managed to maintain only one promise out of five, the one concerning minimum pension levels. The other four promises would in all likelihood not, in Luca Ricolfi’s view, be honoured. In particular, the undertakings on the tax simplification and the reduction of crime could not be kept by the end of Berlusconi’s premiership. Ricolfi thus concluded: ‘Therefore, if Berlusconi really does want to honour the contract with the Italians, he should at the least renounce the idea of recandidating himself in the forthcoming political elections’. 
House of Freedoms did not do as well in the 2003 local elections as it did in the 2001 national elections. Casa delle Libertà ( CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms) was a major Italian Center-right Political alliance led by In common with many other European governing groups, in the 2004 elections of the European Parliament, gaining 43. 37% support. Forza Italia's support was also reduced from 29. 5% to 21. 0% (in the 1999 European elections Forza Italia had 25. 2%). As an outcome of these results the other coalition parties, whose electoral results were more satisfactory, asked Berlusconi and Forza Italia for greater influence in the government's political line.
In the 2005 Local Elections (3 April/4 April 2005), the candidates backed by the The Union coalition (successor of The Olive Tree) won in 12 out of 14 regions where control of local governments and governorships were at stake. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Union ( Italian: L'Unione) was an Italian Centre-left Political party coalition led by Romano Prodi, the The Olive Tree ( L'Ulivo) was a denomination used for several successive Centre-left Italian political coalitions from 1995 to 2007 Berlusconi's coalition kept only two of the regional bodies (Lombardy and Veneto) up for re-election. Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the Veneto or Venetia ( Vèneto) is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Two parties, Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC) and New Italian Socialist Party, threatened to withdraw from the Berlusconi government. The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats ( Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e di Centro, UDC is a christian-democratic Italian political party. The New Italian Socialist Party ( Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano, NPSI is a small Italian party which professes a social-democratic ideology and Berlusconi, after some hesitation, then presented to the President of the Republic a request for the dissolution of his government on 20 April 2005. This is the list of Presidents of the Italian Republic with the title it '''''Presidente della Repubblica''''' since 1948 Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On 23 April he formed a new government with the same allies, reshuffling ministers and amending the government program. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at A key point required by the UDC (and to a minor extent by National Alliance) for their continued support was that the strong focus on tax reduction central to the government's ambitions be changed. National Alliance ( Alleanza Nazionale, AN is a conservative Italian political party.
Operating under a new electoral law written unilaterally by the government over strong opposition from the parties in the minority, the 2006 elections were held. The results of the 2006 Parliamentary Elections handed Prodi's bloc (Berlusconi's opposition) the majority (49. In the Italian general election 2006 for the renewal of the two Chambers of the Parliament of Italy held on April 9 and April 10, 2006 8% against 49. 7% for the ruling centre-right in the Lower House and a two-senator lead in the Senate, 158 vs 156). A lower house is one of two chambers of a Bicameral Legislature, the other chamber being the Upper house. This situation gave Prodi the chance to form a new cabinet, because of the recent modification to electoral rules introduced by Berlusconi's cabinet. The Parliament of Italy ( Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy.
The centre-left coalition The Union, with a margin of 25,224 votes (out of over 38 million voters), nevertheless won 348 seats (versus 281 for House of Freedoms) as a result of a majority premium given to whichever party totalled more votes. The Union ( Italian: L'Unione) was an Italian Centre-left Political party coalition led by Romano Prodi, the Casa delle Libertà ( CDL; Italian for House of Freedoms) was a major Italian Center-right Political alliance led by Ironically, the same electoral law that Berlusconi had forced through shortly before the election, and for which he had been accused of changing the law so that he would win anyway, caused his defeat. The Court of Cassation has validated the voting procedures and determined that the election process was constitutional.
Centrist parties like UDC immediately conceded The Union's victory, while more right-wing elements, like Berlusconi's Forza Italia and the Northern League, refused to accept its validity, right up until 2 May 2006, when Berlusconi submitted his resignation to President Ciampi. Events 1194 - King Richard I of England gives Portsmouth its first Royal Charter. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
Berlusconi scored strong victories in both houses of the Italian Parliament, despite a strong final sprint by his main rival, Walter Veltroni, in the general election held on 13/14 April 2008. The Parliament of Italy ( Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of Italy. Walter Veltroni (born July 3, 1955) is an Italian Writer, Journalist and Politician, leader of the Democratic Events 43 BC - Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Julius Caesar 's assassin Decimus Junius Brutus in 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
In the 315-member Senate of the Republic, Berlusconi was projected to control 174 seats to Veltroni's 134. In the Chamber of Deputies, Berlusconi's conservative bloc was leading by a margin of 9%, or 46. 5% percent of the vote to 37. 5%. Berlusconi capitalized on discontent over the nation's stagnating economy and the unpopularity of Prodi's government. The economy of Italy has changed dramatically since the end of World War II. His declared top priorities are the cleaning of piles of trash in the streets of Naples and the improvement of the Italian economy which underperformed the rest of the Eurozone for years. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Euro Enlargement of the He also asserted to be open to work with the opposition, and pledged to fight tax evasion, reform justice and reduce public debt. Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law He intended to reduce the number of Cabinet ministers to 12. The Prodi II Cabinet was the Cabinet of the government of Italy from 17 May 2006 to 8 May 2008.  Berlusconi and his ministers (Berlusconi IV Cabinet) were sworn in on 8 May 2008. The Berlusconi IV Cabinet has been the Cabinet of the government of Italy since 8 May 2008. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
As he founded his Forza Italia party and entered politics, Berlusconi expressed support for "freedom, the individual, family, enterprise, Italian tradition, Christian tradition and love for weaker people".  Forza Italia officially joined the European People's Party in 1999. The European People's Party (EPP is a Christian democratic and Liberal conservative European political party. Forza Italia has never held a formal party congress to formulate its rules, procedures, and democratic ballotting for candidates and issues. There are no known dissenting factions. At present three party conventions have been held, all of them resolved to support Berlusconi, and his re-election by acclamation. Some allies of Berlusconi, especially the Lega Nord, push for controls on immigration. Lega Nord (Northern League LN whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for Independence of Padania) is an Italian Berlusconi himself has shown some reluctance to pursue such policies as strongly as his allies might like.  A number of measures have been taken, with controversial results. The government, after introducing a controversial immigration law (the "Bossi-Fini", from the names of Lega Nord and National Alliance leaders) is searching for the cooperation of both European and other Mediterranean countries to face the emergency of the large number of immigrants trying to reach Italian coasts on old and overloaded ferries and fishing boats, risking (and, often, losing) their lives. Immigration law refers to national Government policies which control the phenomenon of Immigration to their country National Alliance ( Alleanza Nazionale, AN is a conservative Italian political party.
The Berlusconi governments have had a strong tendency to support American foreign policies despite the policy divide between the U. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the S. and many other founding members of European Union (Germany, France, Belgium), a break from the traditional Italian foreign policy. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Italy, with Berlusconi in office, became a substantial ally to the United States due to his support of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia
Berlusconi, in his meetings with United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and U. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations S. President George W. Bush, said that he pushed for "a clear turnaround in the Iraqi situation" and for a quick hand-over of sovereignty to the government chosen by the U. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. N. Italy had some 3,200 troops deployed in Southern Iraq, the third largest contingent there after the American and British forces. Italian troops were gradually withdrawn from Iraq in the second half of 2006 with the last soldiers leaving the country in December of the same year.
A key point in Berlusconi's government program was a planned reform of the Italian Constitution, which Berlusconi considered to be 'inspired by [the] Soviets', an issue the coalition parties themselves initially had significantly different opinions about. The Lega Nord insisted on a federalist reform (devolution of more power to the Regions) as the condition itself for remaining in the coalition. Alleanza Nazionale pushed for the so-called 'strong premiership' (more powers to the executive), intended as a counterweight to any federalist reform, in order to preserve the integrity of the State. The UDC asked for a proportional electoral law that would not damage small parties and was generally more willing to discuss compromises with the moderate wing of the opposition.
Difficulties in arranging a mediation caused some internal unrest in the Berlusconi government in 2003, but then they were mostly overcome and the law (comprising power devolution to the regions, Federal Senate and "strong premiership") was passed by the Senate in April 2004; it was slightly modified by the Chamber of Deputies in October 2004, and again on October 2005 and finally approved by the Senate on 16 November 2005. Events 534 - A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The opposition Union coalition collected more than 500,000 signatures in order to call a referendum, which was held on the 25th and 26 July 2006 and resulted in the rejection of the constitutional reform, refused by 61. Events 657 - Battle of Siffin. 811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 3% of the voters.
Berlusconi's government passed many pieces of legislation, among which:
Other legislation by Berlusconi's governments include:
Berlusconi has forced through the Parliament reforms designed to strengthen the power of the Prime Minister. In January 2006, the reform was approved by the Parliament, but the popular referendum on June 2006 stopped this reform into becoming law. In October 2005, Berlusconi forced a "reform" of electoral law through Parliament. The First Past the Post system, which had been approved by popular vote in a 1993 referendum was abandoned, returning to the proportional representation system. The plurality voting system is a Single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member
Other pieces of legislation included:
In the last few days of his term, Berlusconi's parliamentary majority approved many controversial laws, sometimes combining some into unrelated ones. For example, a bill about the Winter Olympics also included controversial provisions tightening penalties for drugs use and peddling. The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years
One of the last bills was a penal code reform forbidding prosecutors to appeal against acquittals (defendants could still appeal, though). In Law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision In Criminal law, an acquittal is a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict This law was not signed by President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi for being clearly anti-constitutional, since the constitution of Italy provides for equal rights for prosecutors and defendants. (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker He was Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was President from 1999 The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62 The law will have to go through both houses of parliament again. The law was since enacted and declared unconstitutional by Italy's Constitutional Court.
One of Berlusconi's strongest critics in the media outside Italy is the British weekly The Economist (nicknamed by Berlusconi "The Ecommunist"), which in its issue of the 26 April 2001 carried a title on its front cover, 'Why Silvio Berlusconi is unfit to lead Italy'. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London  The war of words between Berlusconi and The Economist has gained notoriety, with Berlusconi taking the publication to court in Rome and The Economist publishing letters against him.  The newspaper claims that the documentation contained in its articles proves that Berlusconi is 'unfit' for office because of his numerous conflicts of interest.
According to The Economist, Berlusconi, while Prime Minister of Italy, retained effective control of 90% of all national television broadcasting.  This figure included stations he owns directly as well as those over which he had indirect control by dint of his position as Prime Minister and his ability to influence the choice of the management bodies of these stations. The Economist has also alleged that Berlusconi is corrupt and self-serving. A key journalist for The Economist, David Lane, has set out many of these accusations in his book Berlusconi's Shadow. 
Lane points out that Berlusconi has not defended himself in court against the main charges, but has relied upon political and legal manipulations, most notably by changing the statute of limitation to prevent charges being completed in the first place. In order to publicly prove the truth of the documented accusations contained in their articles, the newspaper has publicly challenged Berlusconi to sue The Economist for libel.
Berlusconi's extensive control over the media has been widely criticised by both analysts and press freedom organisations, who allege Italy's media has limited freedom of expression. Freedom of the press is a constitutional right in Italy, secured in 1947 The Freedom of the Press 2004 Global Survey, an annual study issued by the American organization Freedom House, downgraded Italy's ranking from 'Free' to 'Partly Free'  due to Berlusconi's influence over RAI, a ranking which, in "Western Europe" was shared only with Turkey (2005). Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Reporters Without Borders states that in 2004, "The conflict of interests involving prime minister Silvio Berlusconi and his vast media empire was still not resolved and continued to threaten news diversity".  In April 2004, the International Federation of Journalists joined the criticism, objecting to the passage of a law vetoed by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi in 2003, which critics believe is designed to protect Berlusconi's reported 90% control of the Italian national media. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> International Federation of Journalists, IFJ, is Global union (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker He was Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was President from 1999 
Berlusconi's influence over RAI became evident when in Sofia, Bulgaria he expressed his views on journalists Enzo Biagi and Michele Santoro , and comedian Daniele Luttazzi. Sofia (София ˈsɔfija is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1395568 in the Capital Municipality Enzo Biagi ( August 9, 1920 &ndash November 6, 2007) was an Italian journalist and writer Michele Santoro (born July 2, 1951) is an Italian journalist broadcaster and anchorman Daniele Luttazzi (born January 26 1961 real name Daniele Fabbri, is an Italian comedian writer Satirist, illustrator and singer/songwriter Berlusconi said that they "use television as a criminal mean of communication". They lost their jobs as a result.  The TV broadcasting of a satirical program called Raiot was censored in November 2003 after the comedienne Sabina Guzzanti, made outspoken criticism of the Berlusconi media empire. Sabina Guzzanti (born July 25, 1963) is an Italian actress devoted to comedy and satire  Mediaset, one of Berlusconi's companies, sued RAI over Guzzanti's program, demanding 20 million euros for "damages"; in November 2003 the show was cancelled by the president of RAI, Lucia Annunziata. The details of the event were made into a Michael Moore-style documentary called Viva Zapatero!, which was produced by Guzzanti. Michael Francis Moore (born April 23 1954 is an Academy Award -winning American filmmaker author and liberal Political commentator. Viva Zapatero! is a documentary by Sabina Guzzanti telling her side of the story regarding the conflict with Silvio Berlusconi over a late-night TV political
Mediaset, Berlusconi's television group, has stated that it uses the same criteria as the public (state-owned) television RAI in assigning a proper visibility to all the most important political parties and movements (the so-called 'Par Condicio') - which has been since often disproved. Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian public service broadcaster, and is considered However, the majority of national press, which includes the three largest Italian printed dailies, La Repubblica, Il Corriere della Sera and La Stampa, tend to be either independent of Berlusconi, or, as in the case of La Repubblica, to be actively critical of him. la Repubblica (meaning "the Republic" is as of 2006 the largest circulation Italian daily general-interest newspaper. Corriere della Sera ("Evening Courier" is an Italian daily Newspaper (first in sales) published in Milan. La Stampa (literally “The Press” is one of the best-known and most widely sold Italian daily Newspapers Published in Turin, it is distributed In March 2006, on the Rai Tre, in a television interview with Lucia Annunziata, he stormed out of the studio because of a disagreement with the host journalist regarding the economic consequences of his government. Rai Tre is part of RAI, the Italian government broadcasting agency which owns other channels such as Rai Uno and Rai Due (amongst others Lucia Annunziata ( Sarno, August 8, 1950) is an Italian Journalist. 
To understand the controversies over a conflict of interest between Berlusconi's personal business empire and his political functions, one must examine the structure of governmental control over the state media. The law allowed the two presidents of the Lower and Upper Houses to nominate the president of RAI and its board of directors. Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian public service broadcaster, and is considered In practice, the decision is a political one, which generally results in some opposition representatives becoming directors, while appointments are made by the government to secure a majority by allocating top managerial posts to people sympathetic to the existing government. It was normal to have two directors and the president for the parliamentary majority, and two directors for the opposition. A parliamentary supervisory commission also exists, whose president, by tradition, is a member of the opposition. During the Baldassarre presidency of RAI, the two opposition directors and the one closer to the UDC left over internal disagreements that mainly regarded issues of censorship. RAI continued to be run by a two-man team (mockingly nicknamed by the opposition the Japanese after the Japanese soldiers who kept fighting on in the Pacific Ocean after the end of World War II). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
The former Italian Left coalition under Prodi had been often criticized for not approving a law to regulate the potential conflict of interest that might arise between media ownership and the holding of political office, despite having governed Italy for an entire legislature. In the early 1990s, Berlusconi's Media Group was close to bankruptcy, partly due to competition from the public broadcaster RAI. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources Rai - Radiotelevisione Italiana, known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian public service broadcaster, and is considered Berlusconi said that the only way out was to make a deal with RAI to end competition (essentially, to make a cartel), lower both costs and the quality of programs, and fix audience share to about 45% each. A cartel is a formal (explicit agreement among firms Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve In 2002, Luciano Violante, a prominent member of the Left, said the following in a speech in Parliament:
Honourable Anedda, I invite you to ask the honourable Berlusconi, because he certainly knows that he received a full guarantee in 1994, when the government changed — that TV stations would not be touched. Luciano Violante (born 25 September 1941) is an Italian judge and politician deputy since 1979 The Italian Chamber of Deputies ( Camera dei Deputati) is the Lower house of the Parliament of Italy. He knows it and the Honourable Letta knows it
The authors of the book Inciucio26 cite this sentence as evidence for the idea that the Left made a deal with Berlusconi in 1994, in which a promise was made not to honour a law in the Constitutional Court of Italy that would have required Berlusconi to give up one of his three TV channels in order to uphold pluralism and competition. Gianni Letta (born April 15, 1935 in Avezzano) is an Italian politician member of the Forza Italia party The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana is a Supreme court of Italy, the other being the Court of Cassation According to the authors, this would be an explanation of why the Left, despite having won the 1996 elections, didn't pass a law to solve the conflicts of interest between media ownership and politics.
Controversy concerning Berlusconi's conflicts of interest are normally centered around the use of his media and marketing power for political gain. However, there is also controversy regarding his financial gains. When RAI was being run by a two-man team appointed by the presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate (both in Berlusconi's coalition), the state broadcaster increased its viewers, but lost a significant share of its advertising revenue to the rival Mediaset group, owned and run by the Berlusconi family, which has led to large personal gain. Berlusconi has many financial interests, and much of his legislation had a direct financial impact on his fortune.
His government has passed some laws that have shortened statutory terms for tax fraud. Berlusconi responded to critics by saying that he would not take advantage of these himself, but later did. Romano Prodi, who defeated Berlusconi in 2006, claimed that these were ad personam laws, meant to solve Berlusconi's problems and defend his interests. (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May
Berlusconi is notorious for his questionable sense of humor. In February of 2002, at a European Union summit of foreign ministers, Berlusconi, present since the replacement of his previous foreign minister, Renato Ruggiero, had not yet been appointed, made a vulgar gesture (the "corna") behind the head of the Spanish foreign minister, Josep Piqué, intimating he was a cuckold during an official photoshoot. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the Foreign policy of a sovereign nation Renato Ruggiero (born April 9, 1930) is an Italian politician Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Josep Piqué ( February 21, 1955) is a politician of the right-wing Spanish People's Party who represented Barcelona. A cuckold is a married man whose wife has sex with other men In current usage it sometimes refers to non-married couples in committed relationships as well although the traditional meaning This is a common joke among Italian children, but many felt it was utterly out of place in an international meeting. He later explained that he 'was just kidding', and was trying to create a relaxed atmosphere, that this sort of meeting was meant to 'create friendship, cordiality, fondness and kind relationships' between the participants, and that he wanted to amuse a small group of Boy Scout bystanders. The Scout Movement in Italy consists of about 40 different associations and federations with about 220000 Scouts and Guides. 
On 2 July 2003, one day after taking over the rotating presidency of the EU Council of Ministers, he was heavily criticised by the German SPD Member of the European Parliament Martin Schulz because of his domestic policy and his alleged links to the Mafia. Events 310 - Pope Miltiades is elected 626 - In fear of assassination Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The word presidency is often used to describe the administration or the executive, the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in A Member of the European Parliament ( English abbreviation MEP) is a member of the European Union 's legislative body the European Parliament. Martin Schulz (born on 20 December 1955 in Hehlrath) is a German Politician and Member of the European Parliament Berlusconi responded: 'Mr Schulz, I know a movie producer in Italy who is making a movie about Nazi concentration camps. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial I suggest you play the role of a Kapo. Kapo was a term used for certain prisoners who worked inside Nazi concentration camps during World War II in various lower administrative positions You are perfect for the part!'. Berlusconi insisted that he was only joking, but soon after accused Martin Schulz and others leftish MEPs to be "bad-willing tourists of democracy". His comparisons with the Nazis caused a brief cooling of Italy's relationship with Germany.
In 2003, during an interview with Nicholas Farrell and Boris Johnson, then editor of The Spectator magazine, Berlusconi claimed that Mussolini "had been a benign dictator who did not murder opponents but sent them “on holiday”. Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964 is a British Politician and Journalist. For other uses see Spectator. The Spectator is a weekly British Magazine first published on 6 July 
In mid-May 2005, while opening the European Food Safety Authority in Parma (preferred over a Finnish location, after Berlusconi made an assertion of Finns "not knowing what prosciutto is"), Berlusconi claimed that he had to "dust off my playboy skills" with the Finnish president, Tarja Halonen, to convince her to locate the EFSA in Parma. The European Food Safety Authority ( EFSA) is an Agency of the European Union that provides independent scientific advice and clear communication on existing and emerging Parma is a City in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna near Modena famous for its Architecture and the fine countryside around it Prosciutto (proˈʃutːo pronounced "pro-shoo-toe" is the Italian word for ham. Tarja Kaarina Halonen ( pronounced) (born 24 December 1943 is the current President of Finland. This caused criticism from both Italy and Finland, with the Italian ambassador in Finland being summoned by the Finnish foreign minister. An ambassador is the highest ranking Diplomat who represents their country  Berlusconi later 'retracted' the comment by saying that "anyone who had seen a picture of Halonen must have been aware that he had been joking". Before that, speaking to a group of Wall Street traders, he listed a series of reasons to invest in Italy. The first of them was that "we have the most beautiful secretaries in the world". This resulted in uproar in Italy, where, for a day, female deputies in Parliament took part in a cross-party protest.
In March 2006, Berlusconi defended accusations he made that the "Chinese Communists used to eat children", by responding with claims that ". The Communist Party of China ( CPC) ( also known as the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP) is the founding and ruling political party of the . . read the Black Book of Communism and you will discover that in the China of Mao, they did not eat children, but had them boiled to fertilise the fields". The Black Book of Communism Crimes Terror Repression is a book which describes a history of Repressions both Political and Civilian, by Mao Zedong ( 26 December 1893 – 9 September 1976) was a Chinese Military and political leader who led He later admitted, "[I]t was questionable irony . . . because this joke is questionable. But I did not know how to restrain myself. " His political opponent, Romano Prodi, told the press, "The damage caused to Italy by an insult to 1. (born 9 August 1939 is an Italian politician and statesman He served as President of the Council of Ministers (prime minister of Italy twice from 17 May 3 billion people is by all means a considerable one", and that Berlusconi's comments were "unthinkable". 
On 4 April 2006, less than a week before the upcoming political elections in Italy, during a speech given at the National Chamber for Trade, Berlusconi stated that he holds "too high esteem of the Italians' intelligence to think that there are so many coglioni [literally "testicles", a vulgar term often used about people considered stupid] around voting against their interest". Events 1581 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. He later apologized for the "rude but effective language". 
At an awards dinner in January 2007, Berlusconi was quoted as saying, "If I wasn't already married, I would marry you right away," and "With you, I'd go anywhere" to Mara Carfagna, a representative of Forza Italia and former showgirl. Maria Rosaria Carfagna (born December 18 1975 is an Italian politician and former Showgirl. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio These flirtatious comments prompted his wife Veronica to demand an apology in a front-page letter to the Italian newspaper La Repubblica, one of Berlusconi's rival publications. la Repubblica (meaning "the Republic" is as of 2006 the largest circulation Italian daily general-interest newspaper. In a statement released through his political party, he begged for forgiveness and stated that he would "always protect [Veronica's] dignity. " Mara Carfagna is now serving under him as minister for Equal Opportunities. Maria Rosaria Carfagna (born December 18 1975 is an Italian politician and former Showgirl.
In the run up to the 2008 Italian general election, Berlusconi claimed that right-wing female politicians were better looking than their left-wing counterparts. A snap general election was held in Italy on 13 April and 14 April 2008. Berlusconi was quoted as telling local media that the left had "no taste" in women. His remarks provoked an angry reaction from Italian centre-left parties, which accused him of being sexist. He promised to name at least four women in his cabinet if he was elected as prime minister for a third time. Berlusconi was quoted as saying that when he looked round parliament, he found that female politicians from the right were "more beautiful" and that "The left has no taste, even when it comes to women". 
Since the 2008 general election, Berlusconi has already begun to court controversy on the European level. He has publicly criticized the current composition of the Council of Ministers of the Government of the Kingdom of Spain as being too "pink" by virtue of the fact that it has (once the President of the Council, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, is counted) an equal number of men and women. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960 better known by his maternal surname Zapatero (literally "shoemaker" in Spanish is the current He also stated that he doubted that such a composition would be possible in Italy given the "prevalence of men" in Italian politics. 
Silvio Berlusconi has an extensive record of indictments, as various criminal charges have been made against him and his companies over the years (see also the following subsection on Berlusconi's trials), including mafia collusion, false accounting, tax fraud, corruption and bribery of police officers and judges. Some of Berlusconi's close collaborators, friends and firm managers have been found guilty of related crimes, notably his brother, Paolo, who in 2002 agreed to pay 52,000,000 euros as a plea bargain for various charges including corruption. Silvio Berlusconi has never been convicted in any trial. The Italian legal system allows the statute of limitations to continue to run during the course of the criminal trial. Consequently, the delaying tactics adopted by Berlusconi's attorneys (including repeated motions for change of venue) served to nullify a pending charge in one case.
In 1981, a scandal arose after the police discovery of Licio Gelli's secret freemasonry lodge Propaganda Due (P2), which aimed to change the Italian political system to a more authoritarian regime to oppose communism. Propaganda Due or P2 was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1877 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn Licio Gelli (born in Pistoia, Tuscany, April 21, 1919) is an Italian Financier, chiefly known for his role in the Propaganda Due or P2 was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1877 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The list of people involved in P2 included members of the secret services and some prominent characters from political arena, business, military and media. Silvio Berlusconi, who was then just starting to gain popularity as the founder and owner of "Canale 5" TV network, was listed as a member of P2.  The P2 lodge was dissolved by the Italian parliament in December 1981 and a law was passed declaring similar organizations illegal, but no specific crimes were alleged against individual members of the P2 lodge. .
Berlusconi later (in 1989) sued three journalists for libel for writing articles hinting at his involvement in financial crimes. In court, he declared that he had joined the P2 lodge "only for a very short time before the scandal broke" and "he had not even paid the entry fee". Such statements conflicted with the findings of the parliamentary inquiry commission appointed to investigate the lodge's activity, with material evidence, and even with previous testimony of Berlusconi, all of which showing that he had actually been a member of P2 since 1978 and had indeed paid a 100,000 Italian liras entry fee. Because of this a court of appeal condemned him for perjury in 1990, but this conviction was expunged by the 1989 amnesty. Court of Appeal, Court of Appeals, and Appellate Division redirect here for a list of specific courts using those titles see Court of Appeal Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under Oath or Affirmation in a Amnesty (from the Greek amnestia, oblivion is a legislative or executive act by which a state restores those who may have been guilty of an offense against it to
Some critics claim that Berlusconi's electoral programme followed the P2 plan.
Berlusconi's career as an entrepreneur is also often questioned by his detractors. The allegations made against him generally include suspicions about the extremely fast increase of his activity as a construction entrepreneur in years 1961-63, hinting at the possibility that in those years he received money from unknown and possibly illegal sources. These accusations are regarded by Berlusconi and his supporters as empty slander, trying to undermine Berlusconi's reputation of a self-made man. Frequently cited by opponents are also events dating to the 1980s, including supposed "favor exchanges" between Berlusconi and the former Socialist prime minister Bettino Craxi, indicted in 1992-94 for various corruption charges. Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Berlusconi acknowledges a personal friendship to Craxi.
On some occasions, which raised a strong upheaval in the Italian political opposition, laws passed by the Berlusconi administration have effectively delayed ongoing trials on him, allowing the statute of limitations to expire, or stopped them entirely. Relevant examples are the law reducing punishment for all cases of false accounting; the new law on international rogatories, which made his Swiss bank records unusable in court against him 6; the law on legitimate suspicion, which allowed defendants to request their cases to be moved to another court if they believe that the local judges are biased against them 7,8; and most importantly the lodo Maccanico law, passed in June 2003, which granted the highest five state officers, including the Prime Minister, immunity from prosecution while in office2. This law froze Berlusconi's position in the SME-Ariosto trial in which he was accused of having corrupted judges in previous legal rulings regarding his participation in the public auction of the state-owned food company SME in the 1980s.
The trial was not frozen for other defendants, and former Italian defence minister Cesare Previti was sentenced to 5 years although the crime was reduced from corruption of judges to simple corruption 9,10. In January 2004 the Lodo Maccanico was nullified by the Constitutional court as it was ruled to be in conflict with the Italian constitution. Subsequently Berlusconi declared his intent to re-introduce the law using the correct procedure for constitutional modification. Because of these legislative acts, political opponents accuse Berlusconi of passing ad personam laws, to protect himself from legal charges; Berlusconi and his allies, on the other hand, maintain that such laws are consistent with everyone's right to a rapid and just trial, and with the principle of presumption of innocence (garantismo); furthermore, they claim that Berlusconi is being subjected to a political "witch hunt", orchestrated by certain (allegedly left-wing) judges 11.
For such reasons, Berlusconi and his government have an ongoing quarrel with the Italian judiciary, which reached its peak in 2003 when Berlusconi commented to a foreign journalist that judges are "mentally disturbed" and "anthropologically different from the rest of the human race", remarks that he later claimed he meant to be directed to specific judges only, and of a humorous nature12. More seriously, the Berlusconi administration has long been planning a judiciary reform intended to limit the flexibility currently enjoyed by judges and magistrates in their decision-making, but which, according to its critics, will instead limit the magistrature's independence, by de facto subjecting the judiciary to the executive's control. This reform has met almost unanimous dissent from the Italian judges 13,14 and, after three years of debate and struggle, was passed by the Italian parliament in December 2004, but was immediately vetoed by the Italian President, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 15, who said some of the passed laws were "clearly unconstitutional". (born 9 December 1920) is an Italian politician and banker He was Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was President from 1999 Presently (February 2005) the law is in process of being re-examined by the parliament, taking into account the President's objections on its constitutionality.
Berlusconi has also been indicted in Spain for charges of tax fraud and violation of anti-trust laws regarding the private TV network Telecinco, but his status as a member of the European Parliament allowed him to gain immunity from prosecution 16. Gestevisión Telecinco SA, ( is a Spanish Television station, one of the leading Spanish private TV companies created by Silvio Berlusconi.
Several Mafia turncoats have alleged Berlusconi had connections with the Sicilian Mafia. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century The accusations arise mostly from the hiring of Vittorio Mangano, charged for Mafia association, as a gardner and stable man at Berlusconi's Villa San Martino in Arcore, a small town near Milan. Vittorio Mangano ( Palermo, August 18 1940 - Palermo 23 July 2000) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia or Arcore is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 20 km northeast of It was Berlusconi's friend Marcello Dell'Utri (convicted of extortion in association with Cosa Nostra in 2004) who introduced Mangano to Berlusconi in 1973. Marcello Dell'Utri (born 11 September 1941 in Palermo, Sicily) is an influential Italian politician and senior advisor to former Prime Mangano's real job is alleged to have been to deter kidnappers from targeting the tycoon's children.  Berlusconi denied any ties to the Mafia.
Heated debate on this issue emerged again in 2004 when Dell'Utri, the manager of Berlusconi's publishing company Publitalia 80 and a Forza Italia senator was sentenced to nine years by a Palermo court on charge of "external association to the Mafia", a sentence describing Dell'Utri as a mediator between the economical interests of Berlusconi and members of the criminal organization. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Berlusconi refused to comment the sentence.
In 1996, a Mafia supergrass, Salvatore Cancemi, declared that Berlusconi and Dell'Utri were in direct contact with Salvatore Riina, head of the Sicilian Mafia in the 1980s and 90s. Salvatore Cancemi (Palermo March 19, 1942) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia. Salvatore Riina, also known as Totò Riina (born November 16, 1930, Corleone) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia who The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century Cancemi disclosed that Fininvest, through Marcello Dell'Utri and mafioso Vittorio Mangano, had paid Cosa Nostra 200 million lire (100 000 euro) annually. Fininvest is a financial Holding company controlled by Silvio Berlusconi's family Vittorio Mangano ( Palermo, August 18 1940 - Palermo 23 July 2000) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia or The alleged contacts, according to Cancemi, were to lead to legislation favourable to Cosa Nostra, in particular the harsh 41-bis prison regime. The underlying premise was that Cosa Nostra would support Berlusconi's Forza Italia party in return for political favours. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio  After a two-year investigation, magistrates closed the inquiry without charges. They did not find evidence to corroborate Cancemi’s allegations. Similarly, a two-year investigation, also launched on evidence from Cancemi, into Berlusconi’s alleged association with the Mafia was closed in 1996. 
According to yet another mafia turncoat, Antonino Giuffrè – arrested on 16 April 2002 – the Mafia turned to Berlusconi's Forza Italia party to look after the Mafia's interests, after the decline in the early 1990s of the ruling party Christian Democracy, whose leaders in Sicily looked after the Mafia's interests in Rome. Antonino "Nino" Giuffrè (born July 21, 1945) is an Italian mafioso from Caccamo in the Province of Palermo, Sicily Events 1178 BC - A Solar eclipse may have marked the return of Odysseus, legendary King of Ithaca, to his kingdom See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Forza Italia (Forward Italy FI is a Christian-democratic, liberal and liberal-conservative Italian political party led by Silvio Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise The Mafia's fall out with the Christian Democrats became clear when Salvo Lima was killed in March 1992. Salvatore Lima ( January 23, 1928, Palermo - March 12, 1992, Palermo) was an Italian Politician "The Lima murder marked the end of an era," Giuffrè told the court. "A new era opened with a new political force on the horizon which provided the guarantees that the Christian Democrats were no longer able to deliver. To be clear, that party was Forza Italia. " 
Dell'Utri was the go-between on a range of legislative efforts to ease pressure on mafiosi in exchange for electoral support, according to Giuffrè. "Dell'Utri was very close to Cosa Nostra and a very good contact point for Berlusconi," he said.  Mafia boss Bernardo Provenzano told Giuffrè that they "were in good hands" with Dell'Utri, who was a "serious and trustworthy person". Bernardo Provenzano (born January 31, 1933 in Corleone, Italy) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia ( Cosa Nostra Provenzano stated that the Mafia's judicial problems would be resolved within 10 years after 1992, thanks to the undertakings given by Forza Italia. 
Giuffrè said that Berlusconi himself used to be in touch with Stefano Bontade, a top Mafia boss, in the mid 1970s. Stefano Bontade (Palermo April 23, 1939 – Palermo April 23, 1981) was a powerful member of the Sicilan Mafia. At the time Berlusconi still was just a wealthy real estate developer and started his private television empire. Bontade visited Berlusconi's villa in Arcore through his contact Vittorio Mangano. Arcore is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 20 km northeast of Vittorio Mangano ( Palermo, August 18 1940 - Palermo 23 July 2000) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia or  Berlusconi's lawyer dismissed Giuffrè's testimony as "false" and an attempt to discredit the Prime Minister and his party. Giuffrè said that other Mafia representatives who were in contact with Berlusconi included the Palermo Mafia bosses Filippo Graviano and Giuseppe Graviano. Giuseppe Graviano (Palermo September 30, 1963) is an Italian mafioso from the Brancaccio quarter in Palermo.  The Graviano brothers allegedly treated directly with Berlusconi through the business-man Gianni Ienna, somewhere between September/October 1993. The alleged pact with the Mafia fell apart in 2002. Cosa Nostra had achieved nothing. There were no revisions of Mafia trials, no changes in the law of asset seizures and no changes in the harsh Article 41-bis prison regime. The article 41-bis of the Italian Penitentiary Act allows the Minister of Justice or the Minister of the Interior to suspend certain prison regulations 
Dell'Utri's lawyer, Enrico Trantino, dismissed Giuffrè’s allegations as an "anthology of hearsay". He said Giuffrè had perpetuated the trend that every new turncoat would attack Dell'Utri and the former Christian Democrat prime minister Giulio Andreotti in order to earn money and judicial privileges. Christian Democracy ( Democrazia Cristiana, DC the Christian democratic party of Italy, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise Giulio Andreotti (born 14 January 1919 in Rome) is an Italian Politician of the centrist Christian Democratic party 
Berlusconi describes the work of prosecutors pursuing him and his associates as a politically-motivated vendetta and attributes their current attentions to the 2008 elections. The Tessa Jowell financial allegations are a series of allegations surrounding Tessa Jowell, the then United Kingdom Over the years, there have been many such accusations but none seem to have made a lasting mark on him. Consequently, the link between him and the difficulties of British Culture Secretary, Tessa Jowell, has attracted less media attention in Italy than in the United Kingdom, where the media has sensed a whiff of something scandalous (or at least hypocritical and embarrassing) for the government. The Secretary of State for Culture Media and Sport is a UK cabinet position with responsibility for the Department for Culture Media and Sport. Tessa Jowell (born 17 September 1947 in London) is a British Politician. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located David Mills, lawyer husband of the British cabinet minister in the Blair government, had acted for Berlusconi in the early 1990s and has been accused by Italian prosecutors of money laundering and of accepting a gift from Berlusconi in return for friendly evidence given as a prosecution witness against Berlusconi. David Mills may refer to several people David Mills (author, atheist and author David Mills (Canadian politician David Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to However, Mills has asserted that the money in question did not come from Berlusconi but from another client. No formal indictment has yet been issued but on 10 March 2006 it was reported that prosecuting magistrates in Italy had submitted evidence to a judge, seeking an indictment for bribery against Berlusconi and Mills27: all parties vehemently deny wrong-doing and Berlusconi commented that the timing showed that the prosecution is political. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Berlusconi denied meeting Mills. The British media have not yet unearthed anything to warrant Jowell's resignation or which proves the guilt of Mills, Berlusconi or their intermediaries. Mills separated from his wife around this time.
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
|Prime Minister of Italy|
1994 – 1995
|Prime Minister of Italy|
2001 – 2006
|Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy|
|Minister of Economy and Finance of Italy|
|Minister of Health of Italy|
|Minister of Public Function of Italy|
|Prime Minister of Italy|
2008 – present
|Party political offices|
|New political party||President of Forza Italia|
1994 – present
|Chair of the G8|
|Chair of the G8|
|Order of precedence|
President of the Chamber of Deputies
|Italian order of precedence|
President of the Constitutional Court
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||29 September 1936|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milan, Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|