Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. Meyers Konversations-Lexikon was a major German Encyclopedia that existed in various editions from 1839 until 1984 when it merged with the Brockhaus Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Fiber or fibre is a class of Materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces similar to lengths of thread. This article describes textile weaving For other senses of this word see Weaving (disambiguation. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). A pupa ( Latin pupa for doll pl pupae or pupas) is the life stage of some Insects undergoing transformation A larva ( Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of Animal with indirect development, undergoing Metamorphosis (for example Sericulture, or silk farming, is the rearing of Silkworms for the production of raw Silk. The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers' triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles. In Optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat polished surfaces that refract Light. The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in
"Wild silks" are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and cannot be artificially cultivated. Caterpillars are the Larval form of a member of the order Lepidoptera (the Insect order comprising butterflies and Moths A variety of wild silks have been known and used in China, South Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National They differ from the domesticated varieties in color and texture, and cocoons gathered in the wild usually have been damaged by the emerging moth before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths. Commercially reared silkworm pupae are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, or by piercing them with a needle, allowing the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm.
There is some evidence that small quantities of wild silk were already being produced in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East by the time the stronger, cultivated silk from China began to be imported (Hill 2003, Appendix C).
Silks are produced by several other insects, but only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacture. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects that complete metamorphosis, but also by some adult insects such as webspinners. A larva ( Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of Animal with indirect development, undergoing Metamorphosis (for example Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four Webspinners or embiids ( order Embioptera) are a small group of mostly Tropical and Subtropical Insects classified Silk production is especially common in the Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants), and is sometimes used in nest construction. Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of Insects comprising the sawflies, Wasps Bees and Ants The name refers to Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea A wasp is any Insect of the order Hymenoptera and suborder Apocrita that is neither a Bee nor Ant. Ants are social Insects of the family Formicidae and along with the related families of Wasps and Bees belong to the order Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably various arachnids such as spiders (see spider silk). Arthropods are Animals belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, " Joint " Arachnids are a class ( Arachnida) of joint-legged Invertebrate Animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. Spiders are Predatory Invertebrate Animals that have two body segments, eight legs no chewing mouth parts and no wings Spider silk, also known as Gossamer, is a Protein Fiber spun by Spiders Spiders use their silk to make webs or other structures which function
Silk fabric was first developed in ancient China, possibly as early as 6000 BC and definitely by 3000 BC. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National During the 6th millennium BC, Agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. The 30th century BC is a Century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC Legend gives credit to a Chinese empress, Xi Ling-Shi (Hsi-Ling-Shih, Lei-tzu). Leizu ( was a legendary Chinese empress&mdashwife of the Yellow Emperor. Silks were originally reserved for the Kings of China for their own use and gifts to others, but spread gradually through Chinese culture both geographically and socially, and then to many regions of Asia. The Culture of China (traditional Chinese 中國文化 simplified Chinese 中国文化 is home to one of the world's oldest and most complex Civilizations covering a history Silk rapidly became a popular luxury fabric in the many areas accessible to Chinese merchants because of its texture and luster. Silk was in great demand, and became a staple of pre-industrial international trade. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. In July of 2007, archeologists discovered intricately woven and dyed silk textiles in a tomb in Jiangxi province, are dated to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, roughly 2,500 years ago. A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. ( Postal map spelling: Kiangsi is a southern province of the People's Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China.  Although historians have suspected a long history of a formative textile industry in ancient China, this find of silk textiles employing "complicated techniques" of weaving and dyeing provides direct and concrete evidence for silks dating before the Mawangdui-discovery and other silks dating to the Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD). Mawangdui ( is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. 
The first evidence of the silk trade is the finding of silk in the hair of an Egyptian mummy of the 21st dynasty, c. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. A mummy is a Corpse whose Skin and Flesh have been preserved by either intentional or Incidental exposure to Chemicals extreme 1070 BC . Ultimately the silk trade reached as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan This trade was so extensive that the major set of trade routes between Europe and Asia has become known as the Silk Road. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the
The Emperors of China strove to keep knowledge of sericulture secret to maintain the Chinese monopoly. The Emperor of China ( refers to any sovereign of Imperial China reigning since the founding of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC until the fall of In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient Nonetheless sericulture reached Korea around 200 BC, about the first half of the 1st century AD had reached ancient Khotan, and by AD 300 the practice had been established in India. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Events By place Seleucid Empire Antiochus III's forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria and Palestine. The 1st century was the Century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Julian calendar. Events By place Roman Empire The Franks penetrate into what is now northern Belgium (approximate date
Silk is produced in Thailand's most favorable climate by two types of silkworms, the cultured Bombycidae and wild Saturniidae, all the year round, mostly after the rice harvest by villagers from the southern and northeast parts of the country. Women traditionally weave silk on hand looms, and pass the skill on to their daughters as weaving is considered to be a sign of maturity and eligibility for marriage. Thai silk textiles often use complicated patterns in various colors and styles. Most regions of Thailand have their own typical silks.
Silk, known as Pattu or Reshmi in southern parts of India and Resham in Hindi/Urdu (from Persian), has a long history in India and is widely produced today. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Historically silk was used by the upper classes, while cotton was used by the poorer classes. Today silk is mainly used in Bhoodhan Pochampally (also known as Silk City), Kanchipuram, Dharmavaram, Mysore, etc. Bhoodhan Pochampally is a village in Nalgonda District. Nalgonda District in turn is a district in Andhra Pradesh in southern India. Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram is a city and a Municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of in South India and Banaras in the North for manufacturing garments and Sarees. Varanasi ( Sanskrit: वाराणसी Vārāṇasī, pronunciation) also commonly known as Benares ( or Banaras (बनारस Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent "Murshidabad silk", famous from historical times, is mainly produced in Malda and Murshidabad district of West Bengal and woven with hand looms in Birbhum and Murshidabad district. Another place famous for production of silk is Bhagalpur. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Bhagalpur is a city and Municipal corporation in the Bihar state of Eastern The silk from Kanchi is particularly well-known for its classic designs and enduring quality. The silk is traditionally hand-woven and hand-dyed and usually also has silver threads woven into the cloth. Most of this silk is used to make saris. The saris usually are very expensive and vibrant in color. Garments made from silk form an integral part of Indian weddings and other celebrations. In the northeastern state of Assam, three different types of silk are produced, collectively called Assam silk: Muga, Eri and Pat silk. Assam) ( Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous Silks produced in Assam &mdashgolden Muga white Pat and warm Eri silk Muga, the golden silk, and Eri are produced by silkworms that are native only to Assam. The heritage of silk rearing and weaving is very old and continues today especially with the production of Muga and Pat riha and mekhela chador, the three-piece silk saris woven with traditional motifs. chador]] (মেখেলা চাদৰ is the traditional Assamese dress worn by women for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent Mysore Silk Sarees, which are known for their soft texture, last many years if carefully maintained.
In the Odyssey, 19. The Tacuinum (sometimes Taccuinum) Sanitatis is a medieval handbook on wellness based on the Taqwin al‑sihha ar تقوين الصحة ("Tables The Odyssey ( Greek: Ὀδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. 233, it is mentioned that Odysseus wore a shirt "gleaming like the skin of a dried onion" (varies with translations, literal translation here). Some researchers proposed that the shirt was made of silk. The Roman Empire knew of and traded in silk. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial During the reign of emperor Tiberius, sumptuary laws were passed that forbade men from wearing silk garments, but these proved ineffectual. Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Tiberius I) born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16 42 BC – March 16 AD 37) was the second Roman Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuariae leges) are Laws which attempt to regulate habits of consumption  Despite the popularity of silk, the secret of silk-making only reached Europe around AD 550, via the Byzantine Empire. Events By place Byzantine Empire January 16 — Gothic War (535–552: The Ostrogoths, under King Totila Legend has it that monks working for the emperor Justinian I smuggled silkworm eggs to Constantinople in hollow canes from China. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS While they were there, they also observed the secret techniques of silk making from the Chinese. The Byzantines were as secretive as the Chinese, and for many centuries the weaving and trading of silk fabric was a strict imperial monopoly; all top-quality looms and weavers were located inside the Palace complex in Constantinople and the cloth produced was used in imperial robes or in diplomacy, as gifts to foreign dignitaries. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The remainder was sold at very high prices.
In Islamic teachings, Muslim men are forbidden to wear silk. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Many religious jurists believe the reasoning behind the prohibition lies in avoiding clothing for men that can be considered feminine or extravagant.  Despite injunctions against silk for men, silk has retained its popularity in the Islamic world because of its permissibility for women. The Muslim Moors brought silk with them to Spain during their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent
Venetian merchants traded extensively in silk and encouraged silk growers to settle in Italy. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest By the 13th century, Italian silk was a significant source of trade. Since that period, the silk worked in the province of Como has been the most valuable silk in the world. The Province of Como (Provincia di Como is a province in the north of the Lombardy region of Italy and borders the Swiss cantons of The wealth of Florence was largely built on textiles, both wool and silk, and other cities like Lucca also grew rich on the trade. Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on the Ligurian Sea Italian silk was so popular in Europe that Francis I of France invited Italian silk makers to France to create a French silk industry, especially in Lyon. Francis I (September 12 1494 &ndash March 31 1547 was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547 ||-||} Lyon, also known as Lyons in English is a city in east-central France. Mass emigration (especially of Huguenots) during periods of religious dispute had seriously damaged French industry and introduced these various textile industries, including silk, to other countries. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France (or French Calvinists) from the sixteenth to the eighteenth
James I attempted to establish silk production in England, purchasing and planting 100,000 mulberry trees, some on land adjacent to Hampton Court Palace, but they were of a species unsuited to the silk worms and the attempt failed. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Hampton Court Palace is a former royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London, England. British enterprise also established silk filature in Cyprus in 1928. Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía In England in the mid 20th Century silk was produced at Lullingstone Castle in Kent. Silkworms were raised and reeled under the direction of Zoe Lady Hart Dyke. Production started elsewhere later. In Italy, the Stazione Bacologica Sperimentale was founded in Padua in 1871 to research sericulture. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Stazione Bacologica Sperimentale This institution specialising in sericulture (silk-farming is in Padua, Italy Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. In the late 19th century, China, Japan, and Italy were the major producers of silk. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar The most important cities for silk production in Italy were Como and Meldola (Forlì). Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it Meldola is a town and comune near Forlì, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Forlì ( Latin: Forum Livii) is a Comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì In medieval times, it was common for silk to be used to make elaborate casings for bananas and other fruits.
Silk was expensive in Medieval Europe and used only by the rich. Italian merchants like Giovanni Arnolfini became hugely wealthy trading it to the Courts of Northern Europe. Giovanni di Nicolao Arnolfini (c 1400 – after 1452 was a Merchant from Lucca, a city in Tuscany, Italy.
James I of England introduced silk-growing to the American colonies around 1619, ostensibly to discourage tobacco planting. James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625 was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Only the Shakers in Kentucky adopted the practice. The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, known as the Shakers, was a Protestant religious denomination that originated in Manchester In the 1800s a new attempt at a silk industry began with European-born workers in Paterson, New Jersey, and the city became a US silk center, although Japanese imports were still more important.
World War II interrupted the silk trade from Japan. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Silk prices increased dramatically, and US industry began to look for substitutes, which led to the use of synthetics such as nylon. Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by Scientists to improve upon naturally occurring Animal and plant Overview Nylon is a Thermoplastic silky material first used commercially in a nylon- Bristled Toothbrush (1938 followed more famously by Synthetic silks have also been made from lyocell, a type of cellulose fiber, and are often difficult to distinguish from real silk (see spider silk for more on synthetic silks). Lyocell is a fiber made from Wood pulp Cellulose. It was first manufactured in 1987 by Courtaulds Fibres UK at their pilot plant S25 Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Spider silk, also known as Gossamer, is a Protein Fiber spun by Spiders Spiders use their silk to make webs or other structures which function
Silk fibers have a triangular cross section with rounded corners. This reflects light at many different angles, giving silk a natural shine. It has a smooth, soft texture that is not slippery, unlike many synthetic fibers. Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by Scientists to improve upon naturally occurring Animal and plant Its denier is 4. 5 g/d when dry and 2. 8-4. 0 g/d when wet.
Silk is one of the strongest natural fibers but loses up to 20% of its strength when wet. It has a good moisture regain of 11%. Its elasticity is moderate to poor: if elongated even a small amount it remains stretched. It can be weakened if exposed to too much sunlight. It may also be attacked by insects, especially if left dirty.
Silk is a poor conductor of electricity and thus susceptible to static cling.
Unwashed silk chiffon may shrink up to 8% due to a relaxation of the fiber macrostructure. So silk should either be pre-washed prior to garment construction, or dry cleaned. Dry cleaning may still shrink the chiffon up to 4%. Occasionally, this shrinkage can be reversed by a gentle steaming with a press cloth. There is almost no gradual shrinkage or shrinkage due to molecular-level deformation.
Silk is made up of the amino acids GLY-SER-GLY-ALA-GLY and forms Beta pleated sheets. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular Secondary structure in Proteins consisting of beta strands connected laterally Interchain H-bonds are formed while side chains are above and below the plane of the H-bond network.
The high proportion (50%) of glycine, which is small, allows tight packing and the fibers are strong and resistant to stretching. The tensile strength is due to covalent peptide bonds. Since the protein forms a Beta sheet, when stretched the force is applied to these strong bonds and they do not break.
Silk is resistant to most mineral acids but will dissolve in sulfuric acid. It is yellowed by perspiration.
Silk's good absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and while active. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin during cold weather. It is often used for clothing such as shirts, blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, negligees, pyjamas, robes, skirtsuits, sun dresses and underwear. A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body Originally an item of underwear worn exclusively by men it has become in American English a catch-all term for The word blouse most commonly refers to a woman's Shirt, although the term is also used for some men's military uniform jackets A dress (also frock, gown) is a garment consisting of a Skirt with an attached Bodice or with a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece The negligee (or négligée, literally meaning "careless" -- French négligé is a form of Womenswear intended for wear at night and in the Kids in pajamasjpg|thumb| Boys in pyjamas]] Pajamas or pyjamas (see also spelling differences) is a word with several different related meanings in A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. A robe is distinguished from a Cape or Cloak by the fact that it usually has Sleeves The English A skirt is a tube- or cone-shaped Garment that hangs from the Waist and covers all or part of the Legs In European culture, skirts are usually Undergarments are clothes worn under other clothes often next to the skin
Silk's elegant, soft luster and beautiful drape makes it perfect for many furnishing applications. The decorative arts are traditionally defined as ornamental and functional works in Ceramic, Wood, Glass, Metal, or Textile. It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, window treatments (if blended with another fiber), rugs, bedding and wall hangings. Upholstery is the work of providing Furniture, especially seats with Padding, springs Webbing, and fabric or Leather Bedding refers to the materials laid above the mattress of a bed for warmth
Silk is also used for parachutes, bicycle tires, comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags. A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. This article is about tires used on road Vehicles including pneumatic tires and solid tires. silk comforter (絲綿被 is a bed covering most often used as a Duvet, and also commonly referred to as a silk duvet silk quilt or silk blanket Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes Early bulletproof vests were made from silk in the era of blackpowder weapons until roughly World War I. A ballistic vest is an item of protective clothing that absorbs the impact from gun-fired Projectiles and shrapnel fragments from explosion Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All A special manufacturing process makes it suitable as non-absorbable surgical sutures. Chinese doctors have used it to make prosthetic arteries. Silk cloth is also used as a material on which to write.
The cultivation of silk is called sericulture. Over 30 countries produce silk, and the major ones are China (54%), India (14%) and Japan (11%). China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.
|Top Ten Cocoons(Reelable) Producers — 2005|
|Country||Production (Int $1000)||Footnote||Production (MT)||Footnote|
|People's Republic of China||259,679||C||77,000||F|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||5,059||C||1,500||F|
|No symbol = official figure,F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial figure, C = Calculated figure;|
Production in Int $1000 have been calculated based on 1999-2001 international prices
Silk moths lay eggs on specially prepared paper. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The eggs hatch and the caterpillars (silkworms) are fed fresh mulberry leaves. After about 35 days and 4 moltings, the caterpillars are 10,000 times heavier than when hatched, and are ready to begin spinning a cocoon. A straw frame is placed over the tray of caterpillars, and each caterpillar begins spinning a cocoon by moving its head in a "figure 8" pattern. Two glands produce liquid silk and force it through openings in the head called spinnerets. Liquid silk is coated in sericin, a water-soluble protective gum, and solidifies on contact with the air. Within 2-3 days, the caterpillar spins about 1 mile of filament and is completely encased in a cocoon. Most caterpillars are then killed by heat and some are allowed to metamorphose into moths to breed the next generation of caterpillars. Metamorphosis is a Biological process by which an Animal physically develops after Birth or hatching involving a conspicuous and relatively
Stifled cocoons are sorted by fiber size, fiber quality and defects, then are brushed to find filaments. Several filaments are gathered together and wound onto a wheel (reeling; see photograph). Each cocoon yields approximately 1000 yards (1 kilometer) of silk filament, known as raw silk, or silk-in-the gum, fiber. Several filaments are combined to form a yarn. As fibers are combined and wrapped into the reel, they can be twisted to stay together. This is called ‘throwing’ and resulting yarn is called thrown yarn. The type of yarn and amount of twist relate to the fabric produced. The simplest type of thrown yarn is a ‘single’, where 8 filaments are twisted together. Singles can have 2 or 3 twists per inch, and are used for filling yarns in silk fabrics.
Silk noils (silk waste) is produced from the inner portions of the cocoon. It is degummed (sericin is removed) and spun like other staple fiber. Or it can also be blended with another staple fiber and is spun into yarn.
Wild silk production is not controlled. Cocoons are harvested after the moth has matured, so silk cannot be reeled – it must be spun. Types of wild silk include Tussah (most common), Dupioni, Momme.
As the process of harvesting the silk from the cocoon kills the larvae, silk-culture has been criticized in the early 21st century by animal rights activists, especially since artificial silks are available. "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. Artificial silk or (as the term is used in the Textile industry Art silk is a synthetic manufactured Fiber which resembles Silk but  Others point out that silkworms would become extinct without humans to care for them. 
Mahatma Gandhi was also critical of silk production based on the Ahimsa philosophy. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - Ahimsa is part of the three millennial Jain philosophy of India, "not to hurt any living thing". Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. This led to development of a cotton spinning machine which Gandhi distributed and can be seen at the Gandhi Institute. Ahimsa Silk, made from the cocoons of wild and semi-wild silk moths, is promoted in parts of Southern India for those who prefer not to wear silk produced by killing silkworms.