|President||Raffaele Lombardo, (2008-)|
|- Ranked||1st (8. The flag of Sicily was first adopted in 1282, after the Sicilian Vespers of Palermo. Article 116 of the Italian Constitution contemplates that five of the 20 regions of Italy shall benefit of particular conditions of Autonomy Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Raffaele Lombardo (born on 29 October 1950 in Catania) is an Italian Politician, President of Sicily and Member of In Italy, a Province (in Italian provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between Municipality ( Comune Agrigento ( Provincia di Agrigento; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Girgenti) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily The Province of Caltanissetta ( Italian: Provincia di Caltanissetta; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Caltanissetta) is a province Catania ( Provincia di Catania; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Catania) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily Enna ( Provincia di Enna; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy Messina (Italian Provincia di Messina; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Missina) is a province in the autonomous island region The Province of Palermo ( Provincia di Palermo; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Palermu) is a province in the Autonomous region The Province of Ragusa ( Provincia di Ragusa; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Rausa) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily The Province of Syracuse ( Provincia di Siracusa; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Sarausa) is a province in the autonomous island region Trapani ( Provincia di Trapani; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Tràpani) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. Population figures are from 2001 5 %)|
|Population (2006 est. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology )|
|- Ranked||4th (8. These are ranked lists of the regions of Italy. Population figures are from 2001 5 %)|
To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is not to have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything
Sicily (Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy, Europe. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Sicilian (scn '''''lu sicilianu''''' lingua siciliana, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language. Article 116 of the Italian Constitution contemplates that five of the 20 regions of Italy shall benefit of particular conditions of Autonomy Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Of all the regions of Italy, Sicily covers the largest surface area with 25,708 km² and currently has five million inhabitants. It is also the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, though several much smaller islands surrounding it are also considered part of Sicily.
Throughout much of its history, Sicily has been considered a crucial strategic location due in large part to its importance for Mediterranean trade routes.  The area was highly regarded as part of Magna Graecia, with Cicero describing Siracusa as the greatest and most beautiful city of all Ancient Greece. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca 
Although a region of Italy today, Sicily was once its own country as the Kingdom of Sicily, ruled from Palermo. The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in The kingdom originally ruled over the island, the southern Italian peninsula and Malta before the Sicilian Vespers. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I of Naples, who had taken control It later became a part of the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons, with the capital in Naples rather than Sicily. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Since that time the Italian unification has taken place and Sicily is now a fully fledged part of Italy. Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian
Sicily is considered to be highly rich in its own unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, cuisine, architecture and even language. The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. Cuisine (from French cuisine, "cooking culinary art kitchen" ultimately from Latin coquere, "to cook" is a specific set Sicilian Baroque is the distinctive form of Baroque architecture that took hold on the island of Sicily Sicilian (scn '''''lu sicilianu''''' lingua siciliana, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language. The Sicilian economy is largely based on agriculture (mainly orange and lemon orchards); this same rural countryside has attracted significant tourism in the modern age as its natural beauty is highly regarded. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel  Sicily also holds importance for archeological and ancient sites such as the Necropolis of Pantalica and the Valley of the Temples. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The Necropolis of Pantalica is a large Necropolis in Sicily with over 5000 tombs dating from the 13th to the 7th centuries BC.
The original inhabitants of Sicily were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy. The history of Sicily has seen it usually controlled by greater powers&mdash Roman, Vandal, Byzantine, Islamic, Hohenstaufen, Ancient peoples of Italy are all those peoples that lived in Italy (including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia) before the Roman domination The most prominent and by far the earliest of which was the Sicani, who according to Thucydides arrived from the Iberian Peninsula (perhaps Catalonia). The Sicani ( Greek Sikanoi) or Sicanians were one of three ancient peoples of Sicily present at the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain.  Important historical evidence has been discovered in the form of cave drawings by the Sicani, dated from the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, around 8000 BC. The Pleistocene ('plaɪstəsin is the epoch from 18 million to 10000 years BP covering the world's recent period  The Elymians, thought to be from the Aegean, were the next tribe to migrate to join the Sicanians on Sicily. The Elymians ( Greek Elymoi, Latin Elymi) were an ancient people who inhabited the western part of Sicily during the Bronze Etymology In ancient times there were various explanations for the name Aegean.  Although there is no evidence of any wars between the tribes, when the Elymians settled in the north-west corner of the island, the Sicanians moved across eastwards. From mainland Italy, thought to originally have been Ligures from Liguria came the Sicels in 1200 BC; forcing the Sicanians to move back across Sicily settling in the middle of the island. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek:) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions The Sicels ( Latin: Siculi; Greek: Σικελοί 
About 750 BC, the Greeks began to colonize Sicily, establishing many important settlements. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area The most important colony was Syracuse; other significant ones were Akragas, Gela, Himera, Selinunte, and Zancle. Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Agrigento ( Girgenti in Sicilian) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy, and capital of the Province of Agrigento for the village in Tibet China see Gela Tibet Gela is a town in the Province of Caltanissetta in the south of Sicily, Himera ( Greek:) was an important ancient Greek city of Sicily, situated on the north coast of the island at the mouth of the river of the same name Selinunte ( Greek:; Latin: Selinus) is an ancient Greek archaeological site situated on the south coast of Sicily between The native Sicani and Sicel peoples were absorbed by the Hellenic culture with relative ease, and the area was part of Magna Graecia along with the rest of Southern Italy, which the Greeks had also colonized. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel Sicily was very fertile, and the introduction of olives and grape vines flourished, creating a great deal of profitable trading; a significant part of Greek culture on the island was that of Greek religion and many temples were built across Sicily, such as the Valley of the Temples at Agrigento. The Olive is the Fruit of the Olive tree (Olea europaea and is a major component of the Agriculture and Gastronomy of many countries Vitis is a genus of about 60 species of vining plants in the Flowering plant family Vitaceae. Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. Agrigento ( Girgenti in Sicilian) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy, and capital of the Province of Agrigento  Politics on the island was intertwined with that of Greece; Syracuse became desired by the Athenians, who during Peloponnesian War set out on the Sicilian Expedition. Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Athens (ˈæθənz Αθήνα Athina,) the Capital and largest city of Greece, dominates the Attica periphery as one of the world's The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Syracuse gained Sparta and Corinth as allies, as a result the Athenian army and ships were destroyed, with most of the survivors being sold into slavery. The city of Sparta ( Doric Σπάρτα Attic Σπάρτη Corinth, or Korinth ( Greek Κόρινθος ( is a city in Greece. 
While Greek Syracuse controlled much of Sicily, there were a few Carthaginian colonies in the far west of the island. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers When the two cultures began to clash, the Sicilian Wars erupted. The Sicilian Wars were a series of conflicts fought between Carthage and the Greek city-states of Magna Grecia, headed by Syracuse, over  Greece began to make peace with the Roman Republic in 262 BC and the Romans sought to annex Sicily as its empire's first province. The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Annexation ( Latin ad, to and nexus, joining is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous Rome intervened in the First Punic War, crushing Carthage so that by 242 BC Sicily had become the first Roman province outside of the Italian Peninsula. The First Punic War ( 264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. Th Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the three Peninsulas of Southern Europe  The Second Punic War, in which Archimedes was killed, saw Carthage trying to take Sicily from the Roman Empire. The Second Punic War (referred to as "The War Against Hannibal" by the Romans lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer They failed and this time Rome was even more unrelenting in the annihilation of the invaders; during 210 BC the Roman consul M. Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected Political office of the Roman Republic and the Empire. Valerian, told the Roman Senate that "no Carthaginian remains in Sicily". The Roman Senate was a political institution in Ancient Rome. 
Sicily served a level of high importance for the Romans as it acted as the empire's granary, it was divided into two quaestorships in the form of Syracuse to the east and Lilybaeum to the west. A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or Animal feed. In ancient or primitive granaries Pottery is the most Quaestors were originally appointed by the Consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action Marsala is a seaport city located in the Province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy.  Although under Augustus some attempt was made to introduce the Latin language to the island, Sicily was allowed to remain largely Greek in a cultural sense, rather than a complete cultural Romanisation. Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Romanization may also refer to linguistics see Romanization. Romanization was a gradual process of Cultural assimilation, in which  When Verres became governor of Sicily, the once prosperous and contented people were put into sharp decline, in 70 BC noted figure Cicero condemned the misgovernment of Verres in his oration In Verrem. Gaius Verres (c or in 120 BC &ndash 43 BC was a Roman Magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman In Verrem is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC during the corruption and Extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the  The religion of Christianity first appeared in Sicily during the years following 200 AD, between this time and 313 AD when Constantine the Great finally lifted the prohibition, a significant number of Sicilians became martyrs such as Agatha, Christina, Lucy, Euplius and many more. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom For communities named after St Agatha see Sainte-Agathe. Saint Agatha of Sicily or Saint Agatha (died 251 is a Christian Saint Christina or Christine is the name of several recognized saints the most recent of whom is Christina the Astonishing (1150–1224 whose feast This article is about the Catholic saint For other meanings see Saint Lucia (disambiguation Saint Lucy of Syracuse also known as Saint Lucia Saint Euplius (Euplus (Sant' Euplo Sant' Euplio (d ca AD 304 is venerated as a Martyr and Saint by the Catholic Church.  Christianity grew rapidly in Sicily during the next two centuries, the period of history where Sicily was a Roman province lasted for around 700 years in total. 
As the Roman Empire was falling apart, a Germanic tribe known as the Vandals took Sicily in 440 AD under the rule of their king Geiseric. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Geiseric the Lame (c 389 &ndash January 25, 477) also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric, was the King of the Vandals The Vandals had already invaded parts of Roman France and Spain, inserting themselves as an important power in western Europe. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  However, they soon lost these newly acquired possessions to another East Germanic tribe in the form of the Goths. The Germanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of Migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s  The Ostrogothic conquest of Sicily (and Italy as a whole) under Theodoric the Great began in 488; although the Goths were Germanic, Theodoric sought to revive Roman culture and government and allowed freedom of religion. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of  The Gothic War took place between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. See Gothic War (376-382 for the war on the Danube The Gothic War was a war fought in Italy and the adjoining regions of Dalmatia, Sardinia Sicily was the first part of Italy to be taken under general Belisarius who was commissioned by Eastern Emperor Justinian I. Flavius Belisarius (Βελισάριος (505(? – 565 was one of the greatest Generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or  Sicily was used as a base for the Byzantines to conquer the rest of Italy, with Naples, Rome, Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna falling within five years. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.  However, a new Ostrogoth king Totila, drove down the Italian peninsula, plundering and conquering Sicily in 550. Totila (died Jul 1 552) was king of the Ostrogoths from 541 until his death Looting ( Hindi lūṭ akin to Sanskrit luṭhati steals also Latin latro, latronis Totila, in turn, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Taginae by the Byzantine general Narses in 552. At the Battle of Taginae (also known as the Battle of Busta Gallorum) in June/July 552, the forces of the Byzantine Empire under Narses broke For other historical figures with similar names see Narses (disambiguation. 
Byzantine Emperor Constans II decided to move from the capital Constantinople to Syracuse in Sicily during 660, the following year he launched an assault from Sicily against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then occupied most of Southern Italy. Constans II ( Greek: Κώνστας Β' Kōnstas II) also called "Constantine the Bearded" ( Kōnstantinos Pogonatos) ( November 7 Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the The Duchy and later Principality of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno  The rumours that the capital of the empire was to be moved to Syracuse, along with small raids probably cost Constans his life as he was assassinated in 668.  His son Constantine IV succeeded him, a brief usurpation in Sicily by Mezezius being quickly suppressed by the new emperor. Constantine IV ( Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Δ' Kōnstantinos IV) (652&ndash685 sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatos, "the Bearded" Mezezius (also known as Mecetius) was a Byzantine usurper in Sicily from 668 to 669 Contemporary accounts report that the Greek language was widely spoken on the island during this period. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly 
In 826, Euphemius the commander of the Byzantine fleet of Sicily forced a nun to marry him. Euphemius was a Byzantine admiral Probably born in Messina, he fought against the Byzantine power and after some military successes toward 823 he procaimed Emperor Michael II caught wind of the matter and ordered that general Constantine end the marriage and cut off Euphemius' nose. Michael II the Amorian ( Greek: Μιχαήλ Β' Mikhaēl II) also called Traulos or Psellos (Τραυλός Ψηλλος Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine and then occupied Syracuse; he in turn was defeated and drove out to North Africa. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan  He offered rule of Sicily over to Ziyadat Allah the Aghlabid Emir of Tunisia in return for a place as a general and safety; an Islamic army of Arabs, Berbers, Spaniards, Cretans and Persians was sent. Ziyadat Allah I (زيادة الله الأول (d838 was the third Aghlabid Emir in Ifriqiya (817-838 Abu Muhammand Ziyadat Allah I succeeded The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox  The conquest was a see-saw affair: with considerable resistance and many internal struggles, it took over a century for Byzantine Sicily to be conquered. A seesaw (also known as a teeter-totter) is a long narrow board suspended in the middle so that as one end goes up the other goes down Syracuse held for a long time, Taormina fell in 902, and all of the island was eventually conquered by 965. Taormina ( Sicilian: Taurmina; Greek: - Tauromenion; Latin Tauromenium) is a Comune and small town 
Throughout this reign, continued revolts by Byzantine Sicilians happened especially in the east and part of the lands were even re-occupied before being quashed. Agricultural items such as oranges, lemons, pistachio and sugar cane were brought to Sicily. An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants The pistachio ( Pistacia vera L Anacardiaceae or sometimes Pistaciaceae) is a small Tree native to mountainous regions of Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae  As dhimmis, the native Christians were allowed freedom of religion but had to pay an extra tax to their rulers. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish Freedom of religion is the freedom of an individual or community in public or private to manifest religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic However, the Emirate of Sicily began to fragment as inner-dynasty related quarrels took place between the Muslim regime. The Emirate of Sicily was an Islamic state on the island of Sicily from 965 to 1072.  By the 11th century mainland southern Italian powers were hiring ferocious Norman merecenaries, who were Christian descendants of the Vikings based in the Duchy of Normandy; it was the Normans under Roger I who freed Sicily from the Muslims. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish ( from the Danelaw) invasions of Roger I (1031 &ndash June 22, 1101) called Bosso and the Great Count, was the Norman Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101  After taking Apulia and Calabria, he occupied Messina with an army of 700 knights. Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of In 1068, Roger Guiscard and his men defeated the Muslims at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily being completely in Norman control by 1091. Roger I (1031 &ndash June 22, 1101) called Bosso and the Great Count, was the Norman Count of Sicily from 1071 to 1101 Misilmeri is a town and commune in the Province of Palermo, Sicily, Italy. 
Palermo continued on as the capital under the Normans. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. Roger's son, Roger II of Sicily, was ultimately able to raise the status of the island to a kingdom in 1130, along with his other holdings which included the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria and the Maltese Islands. Roger II ( 22 December 1095 &ndash 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily, son of Roger I of Sicily and successor to his This is a list of Counts and Dukes of Apulia and Calabria in Southern Italy from the 11th century to the 12th century  During this period the Kingdom of Sicily was prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europe; even wealthier than England. The Kingdom of Sicily (Regnum Siciliae or Sicilie Regno di Sicilia, commonly abbreviated Regno) was a state that existed in the south of Italy England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland  Significantly, immigrants from Northern Italy and Campania arrived during this period and linguistically the island became Latinised, in terms of church it would become completely Roman Catholic, previously under the Byzantines it had been more Eastern Christian. Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy Campania is a region of Southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5 In literature Latinisation is the practice of writing a name in a Latin style when writing in Latin so as to more closely emulate Latin authors or to present a more impressive 
After a century the Norman Hauteville dynasty died out, the last direct descendent and heir of Roger; Constance married Emperor Henry VI. The family of the Hauteville ( French: Maison de Hauteville, Italian: Casa d'Altavilla) was a petty baronial Norman family from the Constance of Sicily (1154 &ndash November 27, 1198) was the heiress of the Norman kings of Sicily and the wife of Henry VI Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (November 1165 – 28 September 1197) was King of Germany from 1190 to 1197 Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 to 1197 and King  This eventually led to the crown of Sicily been passed on to the Hohenstaufen Dynasty who were Germans from Swabia. Swabia, Suabia, or Svebia ( German: Schwaben, Schwabenland or Ländle) is both a historic and linguistic Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king of both Sicily and Naples. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi was Pope from June 28, 1243 to December 7, 1254. The Capetian House of Anjou, or the Second Angevin dynasty, was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, established by Charles Count of Anjou Charles I ( 21 March 1226 &ndash 7 January 1285) commonly called Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest  Strong opposition of the French officialdom due to mistreatment and taxation saw the local peoples of Sicily rise up, leading in 1282 to an insurrection known as the War of the Sicilian Vespers, which eventually saw almost the entire French population on the island killed. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution The War of the ( Sicilian) Vespers started with the insurrection of the Sicilian Vespers against Charles of Anjou in 1282 and finally ended with  During the war the Sicilians turned to Peter III of the Kingdom of Aragon for support after being rejected by the Pope. Peter the Great ( Catalan: Pere el Gran, Spanish: Pedro el Grande; 1239 &ndash 2 November 1285) was the King of Aragon The Kingdom of Aragon was an old kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon ( Peter gained control of Sicily from the French though the French retained control of the Kingdom of Naples. The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the Polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of the southern Italian The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII. The Peace of Caltabellotta, signed on August 19, 1302, was the last of a series of treaties including those of Tarascon and Anagni, designed Frederick II or III ( 13 December 1272 &ndash 25 June 1337) was the Regent (from 1291 and subsequently King of Sicily Charles II, known as "the Lame" ( French le Boiteux, Italian lo Zoppo; 1254 &ndash 5 May 1309) was Pope Boniface VIII (c 1235 &ndash October 11, 1303) born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294  Sicily was ruled as an independent kingdom by relatives of the kings of Aragon until 1409 and then as part of the Crown of Aragon. The Crown of Aragon was a permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. 
The Spanish Inquisition in 1492 saw Ferdinand I decreeing the expulsion of every single Jew from Sicily. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain Ferdinand I (Ferran - Catalan (Medina del Campo Castile 27 November 1380 &ndash Igualada Catalonia 2 April 1416) called of Antequera PLEASE TAKE NOTE************  The island was hit by two very serious earthquakes in the east in both 1542 and 1693, just a few years before the latter earthquake the island was struck by a ferocious plague.  There were revolts during the 17th century, but these were quelled with significant force especially the revolts of Palermo and Messina.  The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 saw Sicily assigned to the House of Savoy, however this period of rule lasted only seven years as it was exchanged for the island of Sardinia with Emperor Charles VI of the Austrian Habsburg Dynasty. The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Charles VI (German Karl VI) ( October 1, 1685 &ndash October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich 
While the Austrians were concerned with the War of the Polish Succession, a Bourbon prince, Charles from Spain was able to conquer Sicily and Naples. The War of the Polish Succession ( 1733 - 1738) was sparked by a Polish Civil war over the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland The House of Bourbon is an important European Royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Charles III ( January 20, 1716 – December 14, 1788) was King of Spain 1700–88 (as Carlos III King of Naples and Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  At first Sicily was able to remain as an independent kingdom under personal union, while the Bourbons ruled over both from Naples. A personal union is the combination by which two different States are governed by the same Monarch, while their boundaries their laws and their interests remain distinct However the advent of Napoleon's First French Empire saw Naples taken at the Battle of Campo Tenese and Bonapartist Kings of Naples were instated. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Empire of the French (1804-1814 also known as the Empire of France, Greater French Empire, First French Empire, French Empire, or The Battle of Campo Tenese was a battle on 10 March 1806 between the II Corps of Napoleon 's Army of Naples under General Reynier and the The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples. Ferdinand III the Bourbon was forced to retreat to Sicily which he was still in complete control of with the help of British naval protection. Ferdinand I ( Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto, January 12, 1751 &ndash January 4, 1825) The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service)  Following this Sicily joined the Napoleonic Wars, after the wars were won Sicily and Naples formally merged as the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( Regno delle Due Sicilie) commonly known as just the Two Sicilies, was the name of a Kingdom in Europe. Major revolutionary movements occurred in 1820 and 1848 against the Bourbon government with Sicily seeking independence; the second of which, the 1848 revolution was successful and resulted in a sixteen month period of independence for Sicily, until the armed forces of the Bourbons regained control by May 1849. A revolutionary when used as a noun is a person who either actively engages in some kind of Revolution, or advocates the revolution with recognition from some government or The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts 
After the Expedition of the Thousand led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, Sicily became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860 as part of the risorgimento. The Expedition of the Thousand was a military campaign led by the revolutionary general Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860, in which a force of volunteers defeated the Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom Italian Unification ( Italian: il Risorgimento, or "The Resurgence" was the political and social movement that unified different states of the Italian  The conquest started at Marsala and was finally completed with the Siege of Gaeta where the final Bourbons were expelled and Garibaldi announced his dictatorship in the name of Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. Marsala is a seaport city located in the Province of Trapani on the island of Sicily in Italy. For other sieges of this city at different dates see Siege of Gaeta. Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy ( Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of Kingdom of Sardinia, also known as Piedmont-Sardinia or Sardinia-Piedmont, was the name given to the possessions of the House of Savoy in 1720 when the An anti-Savoy revolt pushing for Sicilian independence erupted in 1866 at Palermo: this was quelled brutally by the Italians within just a week. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in  The Sicilian (and the wider mezzogiorno) economy collapsed, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel The term Italian Diaspora refers to the large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy in the period roughly between the unification of Italy in 1861 and the beginning of  Organisations of workers and peasants known as the Fasci Siciliani, who were leftist and separatist groups rose and caused the Italian government to impose martial law again in 1894. The Fasci Siciliani (1891-1894 was a popular movement of Democratic and Socialist inspiration which arose in Sicily between the years 1891 Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy 
The Mafia, a loose confederation of organised crime networks, grew in influence in the late 19th century; the Fascist regime began suppressing them in the 1920s with some success. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century The term Italian Fascism denotes the totalitarian Fascismo political movement that ruled Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini  There was an allied invasion of Sicily during World War II starting on July 10, 1943, the invasion of Sicily was one of the causes of the July 25 crisis; in general the Allied victors were warmly embraced by the Sicilian population. The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.  Italy became a Republic in 1946 and as part of the Constitution of Italy, Sicily was one of the five regions given special status as an autonomous region. The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) is a key event of Italian contemporary history. The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947 with 453 votes in favour and 62 An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority  Both the partial Italian land reform and special funding from the Italian government's Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (Fund for the South) from 1950 to 1984, helped the Sicilian economy improve. Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government The Cassa per il Mezzogiorno ( English: Register or Fund for the South) was a public effort by the government of Italy to stimulate economic 
Sicily is directly adjacent to the Italian region of Calabria, via the Strait of Messina to the east. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of The Strait of Messina ( Strittu di Missina in Sicilian) is the narrow section of water between the eastern tip of Sicily and the southern The early Roman name for Sicily was Trinacria, alluding to its triangular shape. For Trinacria as a place-name in Greek mythology see Thrinacia. Sicily has been noted for two millennia as a grain-producing territory. Citrons, oranges, lemons, olives, olive oil, almonds, and wine are among its other agricultural products. The Citron of Diamante which is also known as citrus medica cv An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees The Almond ( Prunus dulcis, syn Prunus amygdalus Batsch Amygdalus communis L Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The mines of the Enna and Caltanissetta district became a leading sulfur-producing area in the 19th century but have declined since the 1950s. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Enna is also a genus of spiders ( Trechaleidae) Enna ( Sicilian: Castrugiuvanni; Greek Caltanissetta ( Nissa or Cartanissetta in Sicilian) is a city located on the western interior of Sicily, capital of the Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16
Administratively Sicily is divided into nine provinces; Agrigento, Caltanissetta, Catania, Enna, Messina, Palermo, Ragusa, Syracuse and Trapani. Agrigento ( Provincia di Agrigento; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Girgenti) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily The Province of Caltanissetta ( Italian: Provincia di Caltanissetta; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Caltanissetta) is a province Catania ( Provincia di Catania; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Catania) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily Enna ( Provincia di Enna; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy Messina (Italian Provincia di Messina; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Missina) is a province in the autonomous island region The Province of Palermo ( Provincia di Palermo; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Palermu) is a province in the Autonomous region The Province of Ragusa ( Provincia di Ragusa; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Rausa) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily The Province of Syracuse ( Provincia di Siracusa; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Sarausa) is a province in the autonomous island region Trapani ( Provincia di Trapani; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Tràpani) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily Also part of various Sicilian provinces are small surrounding islands: Aeolian Islands of Messina, isle of Ustica (Palermo), Aegadian Islands (Trapani), isle of Pantelleria (Trapani) and Pelagian Islands (Agrigento). The Aeolian Islands ( Italian Isole Eolie) are a Volcanic Archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily. Ustica is the name of a small island about 9 km across situated 52 km north of Capo Gallo, Italy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Aegadian Islands ( Italian: Isole Egadi; Latin: Aegates Insulae) are a group of small mountainous islands in the Mediterranean Pantellaria redirects here For the Brachiopod Genus, see Pantellaria (brachiopod. The Pelagie Islands, from the Greek pelaghi meaning high sea are the three small islands of Lampedusa, Linosa, and Lampione, located
The island of Sicily is drained by several rivers, most of which flow through the central area and enter the sea at the south of the island. Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area The Salso River flows through parts of Enna and Caltanissetta before entering the Mediterranean Sea at the port of Licata. The River Salso, also known as the Imera Meridionale ( Greek:; Latin Himera) is a River of Sicily. Licata ( Greek:; Latin: Phintias or Plintis; formerly also Alicata) is a city located on the south coast of Sicily, at To the east the Alcantara in the province of Messina, it exits at Giardini-Naxos. Santa Domenica Vittoria, Randazzo, Mojo Alcantara, Castiglione di Sicilia, Francavilla di Sicilia, Motta Camastra, The other two main rivers on the island are to the south-west with Belice and Platani. The Belice is a river 77 km in length of western Sicily. From its main source near Piana degli Albanesi it runs south and west for 45 Acquaviva Platani is a hill Town of the Province of Caltanissetta.
Sicily and its small surrounding islands are highly significant in the area of volcanology. Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of Volcanoes, Lava, Magma, and related geological and Geophysical phenomena Mount Etna is the only volcano on mainland Sicily located in the east; with a height of 3,320 m (10,900 ft) it is the tallest active volcano in Europe and one of the most active in the world. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the As well as Etna, there are several non-volcanic mountain ranges in Sicily, Sicani to the west, Eeri in the central era and Iblei in the south-east. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak Across the north of Sicily there are three other mountains Madonie, Nebrodi and Peloritani. The Nebrodi (Monti Nebrodi a mountain range that runs along the north east of Sicily. The Peloritani (Monti Peloritani are a mountain range of north-eastern Sicily, in southern Italy, extending for some 65 km from Capo Peloro to the Nebrodi
The Aeolian Islands to the north-east are volcanically significant with Stromboli currently active, also in the Tyrrhenian Sea are the three dormant volcanos of Vulcano, Vulcanello and Lipari. The Aeolian Islands ( Italian Isole Eolie) are a Volcanic Archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily. Stromboli (Strongyle is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno is part of the Mediterranean Sea off of the western coast of Italy. Vulcano is a small volcanic island ( in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km north of Sicily and the southernmost of the Aeolian Islands. Vulcano is a small volcanic island ( in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km north of Sicily and the southernmost of the Aeolian Islands. Lipari ( Latin: Lipara; Ancient Greek: Meligunis; Italian: Lipari Sicilian: Lìpari is the largest of the Aeolian Off the Southern coast of Sicily, the underwater water volcano of Ferdinandea, which is part of the larger Empedocles last erupted in 1831. Ferdinandea is a submerged volcanic island which forms part of the newly discovered underwater volcano Empedocles, 30 km south of Sicily. Empedocles is a large underwater Volcano located 40 km off the southern coast of Sicily named after the Greek philosopher Empedocles It is located between the coast of Agrigento and the island of Pantelleria (which itself is a dormant volcano), on the Phlegraean Fields of the Strait of Sicily. Agrigento ( Girgenti in Sicilian) is a city on the southern coast of Sicily, Italy, and capital of the Province of Agrigento Pantellaria redirects here For the Brachiopod Genus, see Pantellaria (brachiopod. The Strait of Sicily is the Strait between Sicily and Tunisia.
Sicily's position means that it enjoys a Mediterranean climate with mild to warm, wet winters and warm to hot, dry summers. A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the Climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide
|Weather averages for Sicily|
|Average high °C (°F)||15 (59)||15 (59)||16 (61)||18 (64)||22 (72)||25 (77)||28 (82)||29 (84)||27 (81)||23 (73)||19 (66)||16 (61)||20 (68)|
|Average low °C (°F)||10 (50)||10 (50)||11 (52)||13 (55)||16 (61)||20 (68)||23 (73)||24 (75)||22 (72)||18 (64)||14 (57)||11 (52)||16 (61)|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||72 (2. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric 8)||65 (2. 6)||60 (2. 4)||44 (1. 7)||26 (1)||12 (0. 5)||5 (0. 2)||13 (0. 5)||42 (1. 7)||98 (3. 9)||94 (3. 7)||80 (3. 1)||611 (24. 1)|
|Source: The Sicily Site 2008-02-19|
The most prominent Sicilian roads are the motorways (known as autostrade) running through the northern section of the island, this includes the A19 Palermo-Catania, the A20 Palermo-Messina, the A29 Palermo-Trapani-Mazara del Vallo and the toll road A18 Messina-Catania. Motorway is a term for both a type of Road and a classification or designation Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Catania ( Greek: &ndash Katánē; Latin: Catăna and Catĭna; Arabic: Trapani ( Tràpani in Sicilian) is a city on the west coast of Sicily in Italy. Mazara del Vallo is a town in southwestern Sicily, Italy, which lies mainly on the left bank at the mouth of the Mazaro river administratively A toll road, (also known as a tollway, turnpike, pike, or toll highway, especially if it is constructed to Freeway standards Much of the motorway network is elevated by columns due to the mountainous terrain of the island.  The Sicilian public is served by a network of railway services, linking to most major cities and towns; this service is operated by Trenitalia. "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. Trenitalia is the primary operator of trains within Italy. Trenitalia is owned by Ferrovie dello Stato, itself owned by the Italian Government. There are services to Naples and Rome; this is achieved by the trains being loaded onto ferries which cross to the mainland. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 A train is a connected series of vehicles that move along a track ( Permanent way) to transport freight or passengers from one place to another See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and 
Plans for a bridge linking Sicily to the mainland have been around since 1865. In the modern age, there are plans to link the railway to the mainland via the world's longest suspension bridge, the Strait of Messina Bridge, however planning for the project has been started, stopped and re-started during the 2000s; as of 2008 it is currently on course for planning. This article is concerned with a particular type of suspension bridge the suspended-deck type The Strait of Messina Bridge is a planned Suspension bridge that would cross the Strait of Messina, a narrow section of Water between the eastern tip Some have criticised the plans particularly environmentalist Sicilians, leftists who argue the money should be spent elsewhere and the local ferry operators.  In two of the main cities there are underground railway services; these feature in the cities of Palermo and Catania. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway
Mainland Sicily has three airports which fly to numerous European destinations; to the east is the Catania-Fontanarossa Airport which is the busiest on the island (and one of the busiest in all of Italy). An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land Catania-Fontanarossa Airport ( Aeroporto di Catania-Fontanarossa) is located 5 km /3 miles south of Catania, the second largest city on the Italian Palermo hosts the Palermo International Airport, which is also substantially large, the third airport actually on the island is the Trapani-Birgi Airport which is smaller. Palermo International Airport, also known as Falcone-Borsellino Airport and Punta Raisi Airport is located at Punta Raisi, about 35 km (20 miles Vincenzo Florio Airport, also known as Trapani-Birgi Airport and Birgi Airport, is an Airport located in Trapani, Italy. There are also two small airports on smaller islands which are considered part of Sicily; Lampedusa Airport and Pantelleria Airport. Lampedusa Airport is an airport in Lampedusa, Italy. It is located a few hundred meters away from the city centre and reaches its trafficks peaks in the summer Pantelleria Airport is an airport in Pantelleria, Italy. It is distant 5 km from the town centre and runs both regular and charter flights from and to Sicily By sea, Sicily is served by several ferry routes most of which are to Sicily's small surrounding islands and mainland Italy (as well as Sardinia), there is also a daily service between Malta and Pozzallo. This article is about the body of water For other uses see SEA and Seas. See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and Sardinia (sɑrˈdɪnɪə Sardegna Sardigna or Sardinnya is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily) Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands Pozzallo (Puzzaddu is a town in the Province of Ragusa, Sicilia, Italy. 
. . . your only mistake was saying 'the Sicilians must want to improve'. . . the Sicilians never want to improve for the simple reason that they think themselves perfect; their vanity is stronger than their misery. . .
The people of Sicily are often portrayed as very proud of their island, identity and culture and it is not uncommon for people to describe themselves as the regional focusing Sicilian, before the more national description of Italian. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  Despite the existence of major cities such as Palermo, Catania, Messina and Syracuse popular stereotypes of Sicilians commonly allude to ruralism, for example the coppola is one of the main symbols of Sicilian identity; it is derived from the flat cap of rural Northern England which arrived in 1800 when Bourbon king Ferdinand I had fled to Sicily and was protected by the British Royal Navy. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in Catania ( Greek: &ndash Katánē; Latin: Catăna and Catĭna; Arabic: Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time The Coppola is a traditional kind of Flat cap typically worn in Sicily. A flat cap is a rounded Cap generally male worn especially in England, with a small brim in front and a somewhat stiff peak in the back Northern England, The North, The North of England or (less commonly The North Country refers to the parts of England north of an ill-defined line Ferdinand I ( Ferdinando Antonio Pasquale Giovanni Nepomuceno Serafino Gennaro Benedetto, January 12, 1751 &ndash January 4, 1825) The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) 
Throughout history Sicily has had various different rulers, from various different cultures, who have contributed elements to the overall culture of the island, especially from a gastronomical and architectural point of view. The cuisine of Sicily shows traces of all the cultures which established themselves on the island over the last two millennia The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Sicilian people tend to most closely associate themselves with other southern Italians, who they have the most common history with. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel Of the ethnicities outside of Italy itself, Sicilians and other southern Italians tend to associate most closely with the Greeks, especially due to the Magna Græcia and Greco-Roman cultures. The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions In modern Olympic and amateur Wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation This is exemplified in the saying "una faccia, una razza", meaning "one face, one race", a phrase Greeks and Southern Italians sometimes use in reference to each other.  Modern methods of genetic testing show that aside from other Italians, Greeks are indeed the closest genetically, while other former rulers gene flows are very limited. Genetic testing allows the genetic Diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited Diseases, and can also be used to determine a person's Ancestry. 
The island of Sicily itself has a population of approximately five million, and there are an additional ten million people of Sicilian descent around the world, mostly in North America, Argentina, Australia and other European countries. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Like the rest of Southern Italy, immigration to the island is very low compared to other regions of Italy because workers tend to head to Northern Italy instead, due to better employment and industrial opportunities. Geography Southern Italy forms the lower "boot" of the Italian peninsula containing the ankle (Abruzzo and Molise and southern Lazio the toe (Calabria and the heel Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy The most recent ISTAT figures show around 74 thousand immigrants out of the total five million population; Tunisians with 14 thousand make up the most immigrants, followed by Moroccans, Sri Lankans, Albanians and other Eastern Europeans. The majority (98%) of modern Tunisians are considered Arab, and are speakers of Tunisian Arabic. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora refers to the global Diaspora of the people of Sri Lankan Tamil origin } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. 
In Sicily there are fifteen cities and towns which have a population level above 50,000 people, these are;
The island has a long history of producing a variety of noted cuisines and wines, to the extent that Sicily is sometimes nicknamed God’s Kitchen because of this. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice  The ingredients are typically rich in taste while remaining affordable to the general populance.  The savory dishes of Sicily are viewed to be healthy, implementing fresh vegetables and fruits, such as tomatos, artichokes, olives (including olive oil), citrus, apricots, aubergines, onions, beans, raisins commonly coupled with sea food, freshly caught from the surrounding coastlines, including tuna, sea bream, sea bass, cuttlefish, swordfish, sardines and others. A healthy diet is one that is arrived at with the intent of improving or maintaining optimal Health. The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family The Globe Artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus) Globe Artichokes are known to have been cultivated at Naples around the middle of the 9th century and The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive ( Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with Lilacs Jasmine and ash trees Citrus is a common term and Genus of Flowering plants in the family Rutaceae, originating in tropical and subtropical southeast regions of The Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca, "Armenian plum" in Latin syn The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades Organicsalsajpg||thumb|right|Onions used in salsa.]]Cooked onions in frying pan Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal Raisins are dried Grapes They are produced in many regions of the world such as the United States, Australia, Chile, Seafood is any Sea Animal or Seaweed that is served as Food, or is suitable for eating particularly saltwater animals such Tuna, are several Species of ocean-dwelling Fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. The Sparidae is a family of Fish, included in the order Perciformes. For other fish called "seabass" see Sea bass. The European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, also known as Morone labrax Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes Squid, Octopuses Swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) are large highly migratory Predatory Fish characterized by a long flat bill. For the hide and seek-like game see Hide and seek. Sardines, or pilchards, are a group of several types of small Oily 
Perhaps the most well known part of Sicilian cuisine is the rich sweet dishes including ice creams and pastries. Sweet is one of the five Basic tastes and is almost universally regarded as a pleasurable experience Ice cream or ice-cream (originally iced cream) is a frozen dessert made from Dairy products such as Milk and Cream, combined This article describes Pastry in food For the Distributed Hash Table system see Pastry_(DHT. Cannoli, a tube-shaped shell of fried pastry dough filled with a sweet filling usually containing ricotta cheese, is in particular strongly associated with Sicily worldwide. Cannoli, Cannola (plural in Sicilian are Sicilian Pastry Desserts The singular is cannolo meaning “little tube” with the Ricotta (pronounced in Italian) is an Italian Sheep milk Whey cheese.  Biancomanfiare, biscotti ennesi (cookies native to Enna), braccilatte a Sicilian version of doughnuts, buccellato, ciarduna, pignoli, frutta martorana, cassata, pignolata, granita and cuccìa are amongst some of the most notable sweet dishes. Enna is also a genus of spiders ( Trechaleidae) Enna ( Sicilian: Castrugiuvanni; Greek A doughnut (also spelled "donut" is a sweet Deep-fried piece of Dough or batter. Buccellato is a Sicilian circular Cake given by Godparents to the godchild and family on the Christening day Ciarduna is a type of Italian Pastry. Ciarduna siciliana is a traditional sweet Pastry from the province of Palermo, Sicily ( Pignoli are a Sicilian cookie They are a very popular cookie in all of Southern Italy. Frutta martorana (also frutta di Martorana) are traditional Marzipan sweets in the form of fruits and vegetables from the province of Palermo, Sicily Cassata or Cassata siciliana is a traditional sweet from the area of Palermo, Sicily ( Italy) Pignolata is a Sicilian pastry and is also common in Calabria. Granita (in Italian also granita siciliana) is a semi-frozen dessert of sugar water and flavorings originally from Sicily, although available all over Italy Cuccìa is a traditional Sicilian dish containing boiled Wheat berries which is eaten on Saint Lucy 's feast day ( December 13) 
Like the cuisine of the rest of southern Italy, pasta plays an important part in Sicilian cuisine, as does rice; for example with arancini. Pasta ( Italian for "dough" is a generic term for Italian variants of Noodles. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Arancini are a typical speciality of Sicilian cuisine They are fried or less commonly baked Rice balls having a diameter of 8-10 cm filled usually with  As well as using some other cheeses, Sicily has spawned some of its own, using both cows and sheeps milk, such as pecorino and caciocavallo. Cheese is a Food made from Milk, usually the milk of cows, Buffalo, Goats or sheep, by coagulation. Pecorino Siciliano is an origin-protected firm Sheep milk Cheese from the Italian island and region of Sicily. Caciocavallo (Kaçkavall Bulgarian and Macedonian Кашкавал ( Kashkaval) Caşcaval; Качкаваљ  Spices used include saffron, nutmeg, clove, pepper, and cinnamon which were introducted by the Arabs. Saffron ( Kurdish/Persian زَعْفَرَان is a Spice derived from the dried Stigma of the Flower of the saffron crocus ( Crocus sativus The nutmegs Myristica are a Genus of Evergreen Trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia This article is about the Spice; for other meanings see Clove (disambiguation. Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum, synonym C zeylanicum) is a small Evergreen Tree 10–15 metres (32 Although commonly associated with sea food cuisines, meat dishes including goose, lamb, goat and turkey are also found in Sicily, it was the Normans and Hohenstaufen who first introduced a fondness for meat dishes to the island. Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. 
Sicily has long been associated with the arts; many poets, writers, philosophers, intellectuals, architects and painters have roots on the island. The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines. POETS day is a term used by workers in England and Australia, to jocularly refer to Friday as the last day of the Work week. A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e The history of prestige in this field can be traced back to Greek philosopher Archimedes, a Syracuse native who has gone on to become renowned as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics.  Gorgias and Empedocles are two other highly noted early Sicilian-Greek philosophers, while the Syracusan Epicharmus is held to be the inventor of comedy. Gorgias ( Greek: Γοργίας ca 487-376 BC Greek Sophist, Pre-socratic philosopher and Rhetorician was a native Empedocles ( Greek:, ca 490–430 BC was a Greek Pre-Socratic Philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek colony in Epicharmus is considered to have lived within the hundred year period between c Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and  The golden age of Sicilian poetry began in the early 13th century with the Sicilian School, which was highly influential. The Sicilian School was a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court Some of the most noted figures in the area of Sicilian poetry and writing are Luigi Pirandello, Salvatore Quasimodo, Antonio Veneziano and Giovanni Verga. Luigi Pirandello ( June 28, 1867 — December 10, 1936) was an Italian Dramatist Novelist, and short Salvatore Quasimodo ( August 20, 1901 - June 14, 1968) was an Italian author Did not Homer who was Greek write in Greek or Horace who was Roman write in latin? And if Petrarch who is Tuscan does not resile from writing in Tuscan why should I be restrained being a Giovanni Verga ( 2 September 1840 - 27 January 1922) was an Italian realist Writer, best known for his depictions On the political side notable Sicilian philosophers include: Giovanni Gentile who wrote The Doctrine of Fascism and Julius Evola. Giovanni Gentile (dʒoˈvɑnni dʒenˈtile May 30, 1875 April 15, 1944) was an Italian neo- Hegelian Idealist " The Doctrine of Fascism " (" La dottrina del fascismo " is a seminal essay signed by Benito Mussolini and officially attributed to him although Julius Evola, also known as Baron Giulio Cesare Evola, ( May 19, 1898 &ndash June 11, 1974) was an Italian Philosopher
|“||Give me a lever and a place to stand and I will move the Earth!||”|
Terra cotta ceramics from the island are well known, the art of ceramics on Sicily goes back to the original ancient peoples named the Sicanians, it was then perfected during the period of Greek colonisation and is still prominent and distinct to this day. Archimedes of Syracuse ( Greek:) ( c. 287 BC – c 212 BC was a Greek mathematician, Physicist, Engineer Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction Ceramics and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired to form a ceramic. The Sicani ( Greek Sikanoi) or Sicanians were one of three ancient peoples of Sicily present at the time of Phoenician and Greek colonization  There are two prominent folk art traditions on Sicily, both draw heavily from Norman influence; Sicilian cart is the painting of wooden carts with intricate decorations of scenes from the Norman romantic poems, such as The Song of Roland. Folk art describes a wide range of objects that reflect the Craft traditions and traditional social values of various social groups The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. The Sicilian cart (or carretto Siciliano in Italian and carrettu Sicilianu in Sicilian or carretti (plural is an ornate The Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland is the oldest remaining major work of French literature.  The same tales are told in traditional puppet theatres which feature hand-made wooden marionettes, this is especially popular in Acireale. A puppet is a representational figure manipulated by a Puppeteer. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs A marionette is a Puppet controlled from above using strings a marionette's puppeteer is called a manipulator. Acireale ( Aciriali in Sicilian; often shortened to Aci) is a coastal city in the north-east of the Province of Catania, Sicily  Famous Sicilian painters include Renaissance artist Antonello da Messina, Renato Guttuso and Greek born Giorgio de Chirico who is commonly dubbed the "father of Surrealist art" and founder of the metaphysical art movement. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio (c Renato Guttuso ( 26 December 1911 – 18 January 1987) was one of the major Italian painters of the twentieth century Giorgio de Chirico ( July 10, 1888 &ndash November 20, 1978) was an influential pre-Surrealist and then Surrealist Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Metaphysical art (Pittura metafisica is the name of an Italian Art movement, created by Giorgio de Chirico and Carlo Carrà. 
Palermo hosts the Teatro Massimo, which is the largest opera house in Italy and the third largest in all of Europe. Palermo ( Sicilian: Palermu, Greek: Panormus, al-Madinah during Muslim rule is a historic City in The Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele is an Opera house and opera company located on the Piazza Verdi in Palermo, Sicily. An opera house is a theater building used for Opera performances that consists of a stage an orchestra pit audience seating and backstage facilities for costumes  Sicilian composers vary from Vincenzo Bellini, Sigismondo d'India, Giovanni Pacini and Alessandro Scarlatti, to contemporary composers such as Salvatore Sciarrino. Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini ( November 3, 1801 &ndash September 23, 1835) was a Sicilian Opera Composer Sigismondo d'India (c 1582 &ndash before April 19, 1629) was an Italian composer of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras Giovanni Pacini ( February 2, 1796. – December 6, 1867) was an Italian Composer, best known for his Operas Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2 1660 &ndash October 24 1725 was an Italian Baroque Composer especially famous for his Operas and chamber Cantatas Salvatore Sciarrino (born Palermo, Sicily, on April 4, 1947) is an Italian composer of Contemporary classical music. Many award winning and acclaimed films of Italian cinema have been filmed in Sicily, amongst the most noted of which are; Visconti's "La Terra Trema" and "Il Gattopardo", Rosi's "Salvatore Giuliano" and Antonioni's "L'avventura". Visconti was the family name of two important Italian noble dynasties of the Middle Ages. La Terra trema ( English: The Earth Trembles) ( 1948) is an Italian Black-and-white dramatic film The Leopard (Il Gattopardo is a Novel by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa that chronicles the changes in Sicilian life and society during the Francesco Rosi (born November 15, 1922 in Naples) is an Italian Film director. Salvatore Giuliano is a 1962 Italian film directed by Francesco Rosi. Michelangelo Antonioni, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI ( September 29 1912 &ndash July 30 2007) was an Italian Modernist L'avventura ( The Adventure) is a 1960 Italian film written and directed by Michelangelo Antonioni.
Many Sicilians are bilingual in Italian and Sicilian, an entirely separate Romance language which is not derived from Italian and has a sizeable vocabulary with at least 250,000 words. Sicilian (scn '''''lu sicilianu''''' lingua siciliana, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. Sicilian (scn '''''lu sicilianu''''' lingua siciliana, also known as Siculu or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all Some of the words are loan words with slight changes, taking influence from Greek, Latin, Catalan, Arabic, Spanish and others. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one Language from another with little or no translation Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language  The Sicilian language is also spoken to some extent in Calabria and Apulia, it had a significant influence on the Maltese language. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Maltese (Maltese Malti is the National language of Malta, and a co-official language of the country alongside English, In the modern age as Italian is taught in schools and is the language of the media, especially in some of the urban areas Sicilian is now a secondary language amongst much of the youth.
The Sicilian language was an early influence in the development of the first Italian standard, although its use remained confined to an intellectual élite. This was a literary language in Sicily created under the auspices of Frederick II and his court of notaries, or Magna Curia, which, headed by Giacomo da Lentini also gave birth to the Sicilian School, widely inspired by troubadour literature. Frederick II ( December 26, 1194 &ndash December 13, 1250) of the Hohenstaufen dynasty was a Pretender to the title Giacomo da Lentini, also known as Jacopo ( il) Notaro, was an Italian poet of the 13th century. The Sicilian School was a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court Its linguistic and poetic heritage was later assimilated into the Florentine by Dante Alighieri, the father of modern Italian who, in his De Vulgari Eloquentia claims that "In effect this vernacular seems to deserve a higher praise than the others, since all the poetry written by Italians can be called Sicilian". De vulgari eloquentia ( On Eloquence in the vernacular) is the title of an essay by Dante Alighieri, written in Latin and initially meant to consist  It is in this language that appeared the first sonnet, whose invention is attributed to Giacomo da Lentini himself. The sonnet is one of the poetic forms that can be found in Lyric poetry from Europe.
There is also a couple of less common, unofficial languages spoken on the island. In around five small Palermitan villages, Arbëreshë dialect of the Albanian language has been spoken since a wave of refugees settled there in the 15th century; these people are predominantly Byzantine Catholics and chant Greek at local Byzantine liturgy. Arbëreshë are an ethnic community living in Italy, especially the regions of Calabria and Sicily. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church is a Sui iuris Particular Church within the Catholic Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A liturgy is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group according to their particular traditions  There are also several Ennese towns where dialects of the Lombard language of the Gallo-Italic family are spoken. Enna ( Provincia di Enna; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Enna) is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy Lombard is a language spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions notably the eastern side of Piedmont Northern Italian (traditional name in Romance linguistics Padanian (recent name or Cisalpine (rare name is a linguistic set with different definitions  Much of these two groups of people are tri-lingual, being able to also speak Italian and Sicilian.
The best known and most popular sport on the island of Sicily is football, which was introduced in the late 1800s under the influence of the English. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The English people (from the adjective in Englisc) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to England who predominantly speak English Some of the oldest football clubs in all of Italy are Sicilian: the three most successful are Palermo, Messina and Catania, who have all, at some point, played in the prestigious Serie A. Unione Sportiva Città di Palermo is an Italian football club from Palermo, Sicily which currently plays in Serie A, the top level of Italian Football Club Messina Peloro are an Italian football club based in Messina, Sicily originally founded in 1900 Calcio Catania is an Italian football club founded in 1908 and are based in Catania, Sicily. Serie A (officially known as the Lega Calcio Serie A TIM for Sponsorship reasons is a professional league competition for football clubs located To date, no Sicilian side has ever won Serie A, however football is deeply embeded in local culture, all over Sicily each town has its own representative team. 
Palermo and Catania have a heated rivalry and compete in the Sicilian derby together: to date Palermo is the only Sicilian team to have played on the European stage, in the UEFA Cup. The Sicilian derby ( Italian language: Derby di Sicilia, Derby siciliano) is a Local derby between Italian football clubs The UEFA Cup is a football competition for European club teams organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA. The most noted Sicilian footballer is Salvatore Schillaci who won the Golden Boot at the 1990 FIFA World Cup with Italy. Salvatore Schillaci (born December 1, 1964 in Palermo) commonly referred to by his nickname Totò, is an Italian former At the end of each FIFA World Cup final tournament several awards are attributed to the players and teams which have distinguished from the rest in different aspects of the game The Italian national football team is controlled by the Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio (FIGC and represents Italy in international football competition  Other noted Sicilian players include Giuseppe Furino, Pietro Anastasi, Francesco Coco, Christian Riganò and Roberto Galia. Giuseppe Furino (born on July 5, 1946 in Palermo) is a retired football player. Pietro Anastasi (born April 7, 1948) nicknamed Petruzzu 'u turcu by fans was an Italian former footballer, playing in Francesco Coco (born January 8, 1977 in Paternò) is a retired Italian football defender. Christian Riganò (born 25 May 1974 in Lipari, Province of Messina) is an Italian football striker who  There have also been some noted managers from the island, such as Carmelo Di Bella and Franco Scoglio. Carmelo Di Bella ( January 30, 1921 - September 9, 1992) was an Italian football player and manager Francesco "Franco" Scoglio ( May 2, 1941 - October 3, 2005) was an Italian football coach
Although football is by far the most popular sport in Sicily, the island also has participants in other fields. Amatori Catania compete in the top Italian national rugby union league called Super 10, they have even participated at European level in the European Challenge Cup. Amatori Catania is an Italian Rugby union club currently competing in Super 10. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short The Super 10 is the highest tier of the national Rugby union competition in Italy. The European Challenge Cup in Rugby union, known as the Parker Pen Shield from 2001 to 2003 and Parker Pen Challenge Cup from 2003 to 2005 is the junior competition to Competing in the basketball variation of Serie A is Orlandina Basket from Capo d'Orlando in the province of Messina, the sport has a reasonable following. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m In Italian professional Basketball, the Serie A or Lega A Basket is the highest level club competition where play determines the national champion History Following its foundation the club played mostly in regional leagues before being acquired in 1996 by the current management Capo d'Orlando is a Comune in the Province of Messina, Sicily, Italy. Messina (Italian Provincia di Messina; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Missina) is a province in the autonomous island region Various other sports which are played to some extent includes volleyball, handball and water polo. Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Water polo is a team water sport A team consists of six field players and one Goalkeeper. Previously, in motorsport Sicily held the prominent Targa Florio sports car race, that took place in the Madonie Mountains, with the start-finish line in Cerda. The Targa Florio was an open road Endurance automobile race held near Palermo Sicily. Cerda is a Comune (municipality in the Province of Palermo in the Italian region Sicily, located about 45 km southeast  The event was started in 1906 by Sicilian industrialist and automobile enthusiast Vincenzo Florio, and ran until it was cancelled due to safety concerns in 1977. Vincenzo Florio Jr ( March 18 1883 - January 6 1959] was an Italian industrialist in the Wine industry of Sicily 
Noto, Ragusa, and particularly Acireale contain some of Italy's best examples of Baroque architecture, carved in the local red sandstone. Noto (Latin Neetum and Netum; Notu in Sicilian, Nuotu in the local dialect is a city Ragusa ( Raùsa in Sicilian) is a city in southern Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Acireale ( Aciriali in Sicilian; often shortened to Aci) is a coastal city in the north-east of the Province of Catania, Sicily Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains.
The Sicilian Defence is a Chess opening that begins with the moves 1