The Sicambri (var. Sicambers, Sicambres, Sigambrer, Sugumbrer, or Sugambri) were a Germanic people living in what is now called the Netherlands at the turn of the first millennium. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Originating in the Germanic-Celtic contact zone (c. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts f. Nordwestblock), they had become Frankish by the 4th century, associated with the Low Franconian Salians. The Nordwestblock (English "North-West Block" is a hypothetical cultural region that several 20th century scholars propose as a Prehistoric culture thought to The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Low Franconian, or Low Frankish, is a group of several West Germanic Languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium ( Salians redirects here for the eleventh-century dynasty see Salian dynasty, for Roman priests see Salii.
The Sicambri appear in history around 55 BC, during the time of conquests of Gaul by Julius Caesar and his expansion of the Roman Empire. Year 55 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Caesar wrote in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico that at the confluence of the Rhine and Meuse River a battle took place in the land of the Menapii with Tencteri and Usipetes. Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar 's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The Meuse (in Dutch and in German: "Maas" in Latin: "Mosa" in Celtic:"Mus" (the rootword presumingly The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times The Tencteri and Usipetes were Germanic tribes located on the eastern bank of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC The Tencteri and Usipetes were Germanic tribes located on the eastern bank of the lower Rhine in the 1st century BC When these two peoples were routed by him their cavalry escaped and found asylum north of the river with the Sicambri. Caesar then built a bridge across the river to punish the Sicambri.
Claudius Ptolemy located the Sicambri, together with the Bructeri Minores, at the most northern part of the Rhine and south of the Frisians who inhabit the coast north of the river. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca The Bructeri were a Germanic tribe located in northwestern Germany (Soester Börde between the Lippe and Ems rivers south of the Teutoburg The Frisians are an ethnic group of Germanic people living in coastal parts of The Netherlands and Germany. Strabo located the Sicambri next to the Menapii, “who dwell on both sides of the river Rhine near its mouth, in marshes and woods. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge It is opposite to these Menapii that the Sicambri are situated". So the Sicambri must have lived at the lower Rhine in what is now called the Netherlands.
When Caesar defeated the Eburones he invited all of the peoples that were interested to destroy the remainder. The Eburones ( Greek:, Strabo) were a people of Germanic descent that lived in the upper north of Gallia largely between the Rhine and the The Sicambri responded to Caesar's call. They took large amounts of cattle, slaves and plunder. Caesar commented that "these men are born for war and raids", "No swamp or marsh will stop them". After the raid on Eburones they moved on against the Romans. They destroyed some of Caesars units, in revenge of his campaign against them and when the remains of the legion withdrew into the city Atuatuca the Sicambri went back across the Rhine. Tongeren ( French: Tongres, German: Tongern) is a City and municipality located in the province of Limburg
In 16 BC their leader Melo, brother of Baetorix, organised a raid and defeated a Roman army under the command of Marcus Lollius, which sparked a reaction from the Roman Empire and helped start the series of Germanic Wars. Marcus Lollius Paulinus, Roman was a general the first governor of Galatia (25 BC and served as consul in 21 BC The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of Wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 439 A Later the Sicambri under Deudorix, son of Baetorix, joined the rebellion of Arminius with whom they terminated the 3 Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus. Arminius, also known as Armin or Hermann (18 BC/17 BC - AD 21) was a chieftain of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the
In 11 BC, a part of this tribe was forced by Nero Claudius Drusus to move to the south side of the lower Rhine, where they evidently formed a component of the Franks. Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus (the date of his name change is unknown and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Nero The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The main part of the Sicambri "migrated deep into the country anticipating the Romans" according to Strabo. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.
Many names of Sicambrian leaders end in typical Belgicized suffixes like -rix, probably indicating intense contacts with Belgium neighbours like the Menapi, and different from other Germanic tribes. The Belgae were a group of tribes living in northern Gaul in the 1st century BC and later also attested in Britain. In Frankish times, these Belgicisms are attested as the main difference by which to distinguish Frankish and Old Dutch from other Germanic languages like High German.
In Roman and Merovingian times, it was a custom to declare panegyrics. The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use written verse delivered in high praise of a Person or thing, a generally highly studied and discriminating These poetic declarations were held for fun or propaganda to entertain guests and please rulers. Those panegyrics played an important role in the transmission of culture. One of the ritual customs of these poetic declarations is the use of archaic names for contemporary things. Romans were often called "Trojans", and Salian Franks were called Sicamber. Salians redirects here for the eleventh-century dynasty see Salian dynasty, for Roman priests see Salii. An example of this custom is remembered by the 6th century historian Gregory of Tours (II, 31), who states that the Merovingian Frankish leader Clovis I, on the occasion of his baptism into the Catholic faith, was referred to as Sicamber by Saint Remigius, the officiating bishop of Rheims. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Saint Gregory of Tours ( November 30, c 538 &ndash November 17, 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and bishop of Tours Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Saint Remigius (Saint Rémi or Saint Rémy Remigio Remigio Romieg Remigiusz and Remig was Bishop of Reims and Apostle of the Franks, (c At the crucial moment of Clovis' baptism, Remigius declared "Bend down your head Sicamber. Honour what you have burnt. Burn what you have honoured". It is likely that in this way, a link between the Sicambri and the Salian Franks, who were Clovis' people, was recalled.
More examples of Salians being called Sicamber can be found in the Panegyrici Latini, Life of King Sigismund, Life of King Dagobert and other sources. The Panegyrici Latini or Latin Panegyrics is a collection of twelve ancient Roman Panegyric orations
An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". Liber historiae Francorum ("The book of the history of the Franks " is a book that briefly starts as secondary source for early Franks in the Troy ( Greek: grc Τροία Troia, also, Ilion; Latin: Trōia, Īlium, Hittite: Wilusa or In Greek mythology, Priam ( Greek Πρίαμος Priamos) was the king of Troy during the Trojan War and youngest son In Greek mythology, Antenor was a son of the Dardanian noble Aesyetes by Cleomestra. Tanais ( Greek: Τάναϊς Tánaïs) is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре - Azovskoye more; Азо́вське мо́ре - Azovs'ke more, Azaq deñizi is the world's shallowest sea linked In just 2 generations from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. A variation of this story can also be read in Fredegar, and similar tales continue to crop up repeatedly throughout obscure, mediaeval-era European literature. The Chronicle of Fredegar is a Chronicle that recounts the events of Frankish Gaul from 584 to around 641
These stories have obvious difficulties. Historians, including eyewitnesses like Caesar, have given us accounts that place the Sicambri firmly at the delta of the Rhine, and archaeologists have confirmed ongoing settlement of peoples. Furthermore the myth does not come from the Sicambri themselves, but from later Franks, and includes an incorrect geography. But most of all these stories are a "farrago nonsense" (Wood), for a man does not live that long. For these reasons, and since the Sicambri were known to have been Germanic, and not Scythian or Cimmerian as the story claims, modern scholars reject it as an unhistorical legend. The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic See Cimmeria (Conan or Cimmeria (Poem for the fiction of Robert E For example J. M. Wallace-Hadrill states that "this legend is quite without historical substance". Ian Wood says that "these tales are obviously no more than legend" and "nonsensical", "in fact there is no reason to believe that the Franks were involved in any long-distance migration".