Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it promotes a "short" or crumbly texture (as in shortbread). Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water Shortbread is a type of Biscuit ( Cookie) which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts Butter, and three parts oatmeal The term "shortening" can be used more broadly to apply to any fat that is used for baking and which is solid at room temperature, such as butter, lard, or margarine, but as used in recipes it refers to a hydrogenated vegetable oil that is solid at room temperature. Butter is a Dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented Cream or Milk. Lard is pig Fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms Lard was commonly used in many cuisines as a Cooking fat or Shortening Margarine (ˈmɑrdʒərɨn /ˈmɑrdʒəriːn/ or /ˈmɑrgəriːn/ as a generic term can indicate any of a wide range of Butter substitutes Hydrogenation is the Chemical reaction that results in addition of Hydrogen (H2 Shortening has a higher smoke point than butter and margarine, and it has 100% fat content, compared to about 80% for butter and margarine. The smoke point refers to the temperature at which a cooking fat or oil begins to break down
Although the term has been in use for many years it is now known that shortening works by inhibiting the formation of long protein (gluten) strands in wheat-based doughs. Gluten is a composite of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin. These exist conjoined with Starch, in the Endosperms of some Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Dough is a paste made out of any Cereals (grains or leguminous crops by mixing the Flour with a small amount of Water. The similarity in terms is entirely coincidental since full understanding of the structure and chemistry of dough is comparatively recent.
Crisco, a popular brand in the USA, was first produced in 1911. Crisco, a popular brand of Shortening, was first produced in 1911 by Procter & Gamble and was the first shortening to be made entirely of Vegetable oil Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year In Ireland and the UK Cookeen is a popular brand. Cookeen is a block of vegetable oil (also known as Shortening in the US used for making Pastry and other baking recipes An industrial product, shortening has many advantages. While similar to butter or lard, it is cheaper to produce; originally, lard was far cheaper and edible oils came at a higher cost. Shortening also needs no refrigeration, which further lowers its costs and increases its convenience. Refrigeration is the process of removing Heat from an enclosed space or from a substance and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable As a substitute for butter, it can lengthen the shelf life of baked goods and other foods. Shelf life is that length of time that Food, drink Medicine and other perishable items are given before they are considered unsuitable for sale or With these advantages shortening gained popularity, as food production became increasingly industrialised and manufacturers sought low-cost raw materials. Vast surpluses of cottonseed oil, corn oil, and soy beans helped found a market in low-cost shortening. Cottonseed oil is a Vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the Cotton plant after the Cotton has been removed Corn oil is Oil extracted from the germ of corn ( Maize) Its main use is in cooking where its high Smoke point makes it a valuable Frying
Available and used worldwide, vegetable shortening is believed to be damaging to human health since it generally contains trans fats in the form of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil. Trans fat is the common name for a type of Unsaturated fat with trans - isomer Fatty acid (s After the oils are hydrogenated they become solid at room temperature, but the type of trans fat generated in this process has adverse health effects. Usage of shortening lacking trans fats has grown, notably with the 2007 reformulation of Crisco such that it contains less than 1g of trans fat per 12g serving. Cookeen was also reformulated in autumn 2006 to remove trans fats. Non-hydrogenated vegetable shortening can be made from palm oil. Palm oil is an edible plant oil derived from the Fruit of the Arecaceae Elaeis Oil palm.