A shopping mall or shopping centre is a building or set of buildings that contain a variety of retail units, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit. A walkway is a composite or umbrella term for all formal surfaces supporting walking
Strip malls have developed since the 1920s, corresponding to the rise of suburban living in the United States after World War II. A strip mall (also called a shopping plaza or mini-mall) is an open area Shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row with a Sidewalk South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including As such, the strip mall development has been the subject of the same criticisms leveled against suburbanisation and suburban sprawl in general. Suburbanization (or suburbanisation) is a term used to describe the process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe In the United Kingdom, these are called retail parks, out-of-town shopping centres, or precincts. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In the United Kingdom, a retail park is a grouping of many retail warehouses and superstores with associated Car parking Its North American In the United Kingdom, a retail park is a grouping of many retail warehouses and superstores with associated Car parking Its North American A precinct is a space enclosed by the walls or other boundaries of a particular place or building or by an arbitrary and imaginary line drawn around it
In most of the world the term shopping centre is used, especially in Europe and Australasia; however shopping mall is also used, predominantly in North America, but also to a large extent in Asia. "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place  Shopping precinct and shopping arcade are also used. In North America, the term shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures (and may be abbreviated to simply mall) while shopping centre usually refers to open-air retail complexes.
Malls in Ireland, pronounced "maills", are typically very small shopping centres placed in the centre of town. They average about twenty years in age, with a mix of local shops and chain stores. These malls do not have shops found in the high street or modern shopping centres.
Shopping centres in the United Kingdom can be referred to as "shopping precincts" or just "precincts", but with American-style centres becoming more common in the UK, they are increasingly being referred to as "malls".
Isfahan's Grand Bazaar, which is largely covered, dates from the 10th century A. İzmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the country's largest port after İstanbul. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān Bazaar of Isfahan is one of the oldest and largest Bazaars of the Middle East, dating back to the 17th century A D. The 10 kilometer long covered Tehran's Grand Bazaar also has a long history. See also Grand Bazaar Istanbul The Grand Bazaar is the world's largest Bazaar situated in the capital of Iran, Tehran. The Grand Bazaar of Istanbul was built in 15th century and is still one of the largest covered markets in the world with more than 58 streets and 4000 shops. See also Grand Bazaar Tehran The Grand Bazaar (or Covered Bazaar, Kapalıçarşı ("Covered Bazaar" Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey The Oxford Covered Market in Oxford, England was officially opened on 1 November 1774 and still runs today. The Covered Market is a historic Market with permanent stalls and shops in a large covered structure in central Oxford, England. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Events 996 - Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk Bishop of Freising which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi Year 1774 ( MDCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
The Burlington Arcade in London was opened in 1819. The Burlington Arcade is a covered shopping arcade in London that runs behind Bond Street from Piccadilly through to Burlington Gardens The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island introduced the concept to the United States in 1828. The Westminster Arcade or Providence Arcade ( The Arcade, locally is a historic shopping center in Providence, Rhode Island. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan, Italy followed in the 1860s and is closer to large modern malls in spaciousness. The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered double arcade formed of two glass-vaulted arcades at right angles intersecting in an Octagon; it is prominently Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Other large cities created arcades and shopping centres in the late 19th century and early 20th century, including the Cleveland Arcade and Moscow's GUM in 1890. The Arcade in downtown Cleveland Ohio, is a Victorian -era structure of two nine-story buildings joined by a five-story arcade with Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of Main Department Store or GUM (ГУМ pronounced as goom, in full Главный Универсальный Магазин, Glavnyi Universalnyi Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include Market Square, Lake Forest, Illinois (1916) and Country Club Plaza, Kansas City, Missouri (1924). Lake Forest is a city known for its affluence located in Lake County, Illinois, United States. Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages
An early indoor mall in the United States was the Lake View Store at Morgan Park, Duluth, Minnesota, which was built in 1915 and held its grand opening on July 20, 1916. The Lake View Store was the first modern indoor mall built in the United States Morgan Park is a neighborhood in Duluth, Minnesota. Arbor Street / 88th Avenue West serves as a main arterial route in the community Duluth is a Port City in the US state of Minnesota and the County seat of St Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The architect was Dean & Dean from Chicago and the building contractor was George H. Lounsberry from Duluth. The building is two-stories with a full basement and shops were originally located on all three levels. All of the stores were located within the interior of the mall with some shops being accessible from both inside and out.
In the mid-20th century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new style of shopping centre was created away from downtown. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. Downtown is a term primarily used in North America to refer to a city's core usually in a geographical commercial and community sense
An early shopping center in the United States was Country Club Plaza, which opened in 1924 in Kansas City, Missouri. Kansas City Missouri only Items for the metro area Kansas City Kansas or North Kansas City MO should go on their respective pages Other important shopping centers built in the 1920s and early 1930s are the Highland Park Village in Dallas, Texas; River Oaks in Houston, Texas; and Park and Shop in Washington, DC.
However, the concept of the fully-enclosed shopping mall did not appear until the 1950s. The idea was pioneered by the Austrian-born architect and American immigrant Victor Gruen. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum ( July 18, 1903 - February 14, 1980) was an Austrian born commercial architect This new generation, that were eventually called malls, included Northgate Mall, built in north Seattle, Washington, USA in 1950, Victor Gruen's Northland Shopping Center built near Detroit, Michigan, USA in 1954, and Gulfgate Mall in Houston were all originally open-air pedestrian shopping centers that later were enclosed as malls. Northgate Mall is a Shopping mall in the Northgate district of north urban Seattle Washington. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Northland Center is a Shopping mall located at Northwestern Highway and Greenfield Road and 8 Mile Road in Southfield, a suburb of Detroit Michigan The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Gulfgate Mall also known as Gulfgate Shopping City or Gulfgate Center is a shopping center located in Houston Texas. The first enclosed, postwar shopping center (or mall) was the Gruen-designed Southdale Center, which opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina, Minnesota, USA in 1956. Southdale Center, commonly known as just Southdale, is a shopping center in Edina, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis. Edina is a city in Hennepin County, Minnesota, United States, and a first-ring Suburb situated immediately southwest of Minneapolis The United States of America —commonly referred to as the As equally important as the enclosed aspect of these new malls was that for the first time in the development of American cities, these malls moved retailing away from the dense, commercial downtown into the new sprawling and largely residential suburbs. This formula--enclosed space with stores attached, away from downtown, and accessible only by automobile--became a popular way to build retail across the world at different moments. In the UK, Chrisp Street Market was the first pedestrian shopping area built with a road at the shop fronts. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Chrisp Street Market was designed by Frederick Gibberd, and built as part of the Festival of Britain in 1951
The Bergen Mall, the oldest enclosed mall in New Jersey, opened in Paramus on November 14, 1957, with Dave Garroway, host of The Today Show, serving as master of ceremonies. Bergen Town Center, known as the Bergen Mall until 2006 is located in Paramus and Maywood, New Jersey, United States, and opened Paramus (pəˈræməs is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. Events 1533 - Conquistadors from Spain under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro arrive in Cajamarca, Inca Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) David Cunningham Garroway ( July 13, 1913 – July 21, 1982) was the founding host of NBC 's Today Today, also referred to as The Today Show, is an American morning news and talk show airing weekday mornings on NBC.  The mall, located just miles from New York City, was first planned in 1955 by Allied Stores to have 100 stores and 8,600 parking spaces in a 1. The City of New York Allied Stores was a Department store chain in the United States. 5 million ft² mall that would include a 300,000 ft² Stern's store and two other 150,000 ft² department stores as part of the initial design. Allied's chairman B. Earl Puckett confidently announced the Bergen Mall as the largest of ten proposed centers, stating that there were 25 cities that could support such centers and that no more than 50 malls of this type would ever be built nationwide. 
The title of the largest enclosed shopping mall remains with the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada since 1986. West Edmonton Mall (WEM located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada is the largest Shopping mall in North America and the fourth largest Edmonton (ˈɛdmɨntɨn is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page West Edmonton Mall is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records for the "largest shopping centre in the world" and "world's largest parking lot". Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U
One of the world's largest shopping complexes at one location is the two-mall agglomeration of the Plaza at King of Prussia and the Court at King of Prussia in the Philadelphia suburb of King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA. The Plaza at King of Prussia is part of what is popularly referred to as the King of Prussia Mall, a huge shopping complex in King of Prussia, which is located in The Court at King of Prussia is part of the massive King of Prussia Mall complex in King of Prussia, an area in Upper Merion Township Pennsylvania. Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə King of Prussia is an Unincorporated community in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The King of Prussia mall has the most shopping per square foot in the US. The most visited shopping mall in the world and largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America, located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota, USA. Mall of America (also MOA, MoA or the Megamall) is a super-regional shopping mall located in the Twin Cities suburb of Bloomington Bloomington is the fifth largest city in the US state of Minnesota in Hennepin County, and the third core city of the Minneapolis-St The United States of America —commonly referred to as the However, several Asian malls are advertised as having more visitors, including Mal Taman Anggrek, Kelapa Gading Mall and Megamal Pluit, all in Jakarta-Indonesia, Berjaya Times Square in Malaysia and SM Megamall in the Philippines. Mall Taman Anggrek, translated to "Orchid Garden Mall" in English (also known as MTA or TA) is the one of the largest upscale Shopping mall and Kelapa Gading is a subdistrict of North Jakarta, Indonesia. The subdistrict is divided into 3 administrative villages (kelurahan West Kelapa Gading East Kelapa Pluit is an administrative village ( kelurahan) of Penjaringan, North Jakarta that is predominantly residential Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. Berjaya Times Square KL is a twin tower complex containing a shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. SM Megamall is a large shopping mall located in the Ortigas business district of Metro Manila, Philippines.
Beijing's (Peking) Golden Resources Mall, opened in October 2004, is the world's second largest mall, at 600,000 m² (approximately 6 million square ft). Golden Resources Shopping Mall, or Jin Yuan (abbreviated from Chinese: 金源时代购物中心 is a Shopping mall located near the Fourth Ring Road Berjaya Times Square in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is advertised at 700,000 square metres (7,530,000 sq ft). Berjaya Times Square KL is a twin tower complex containing a shopping centre and two five star hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur (ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər Malay /kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ/ and locally /kwɑləlʊmpɔ/ or even /kɔlɔmpɔ/ or often abbreviated as K SM Mall of Asia in the Philippines, opened in May 2006, is the world's third largest at 386,000 square metres (4,154,900 sq ft) of gross floor area. The ' SM Mall of Asia' (also known as MOA or MoA is currently the largest Shopping mall in Southeast Asia and the Philippines and is the The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP The Mall of Arabia inside Dubailand in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which will open in 2008, will become the largest mall in the world, at 929,000 square metres (9,999,700 sq ft). Dubailand is an entertainment complex under development in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, which is owned by Tatweer (which belongs to Dubai Holding Dubai (in دبيّ,) is one of the seven emirates and most populous city of the United Arab Emirates (UAE
A mall can refer to a shopping mall, which is a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area, or an exclusively pedestrian street, that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic. Mall is generally used in North America and Australasia to refer to a large shopping area usually composed of a single building which contains multiple shops, usually "anchored" by one or more department stores surrounded by a parking lot, while the term arcade is more often used, especially in Britain, to refer to a narrow pedestrian-only street, often covered or between closely spaced buildings (see town centre). Australasia is a Region of Oceania: New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, and neighbouring Islands in the Pacific The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The town centre is the term used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and mainland Europe to refer to the commercial or Geographical centre of A larger, often only partly covered but exclusively pedestrian shopping area is in Britain also termed a shopping precinct or pedestrian precinct. The majority of British shopping centres are in town centres, usually inserted into old shopping districts, and surrounding by subsidiary open air shopping streets. A number of large out-of-town "regional malls" such as Meadowhall, Sheffield and the Trafford Centre, Manchester were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but there are only ten of them or so and planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England The Trafford Centre is a large indoor shopping centre located in the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford in Greater Manchester, England Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. The Metro centre, Gateshead, is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema
In many cases, regional and super-regional malls exist as parts of large superstructures which often also include office space, residential space, amusement parks and so forth. This trend can be seen in the construction and design of many modern supermalls such as Cevahir Mall in Turkey. Cevahir Shopping Centre, opened on 15 October 2005, is a modern shopping and entertainment centre located in the Şişli district of Istanbul Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The International Council of Shopping Centers' 1999 definitions were not restricted to shopping centers in any particular country, but later editions were made specific to the U. The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC is an international Trade association of the Shopping center industry S. with a separate set for Europe.
A regional mall is, per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the United States, a shopping mall which is designed to service a larger area than a conventional shopping mall. The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC is an international Trade association of the Shopping center industry As such, it is typically larger with 400,000 square feet (37,000 m²) to 800,000 square feet (74,000 m²) gross leasable area with at least two anchors and offers a wider selection of stores. Gross leasable area ( GLA) in the retail development industry is a term applied to Shopping malls lifestyle centers, Outlet malls and other retail Given their wider service area, these malls tend to have higher-end stores that need a larger area in order for their services to be profitable. Regional malls are also found as tourist attractions in vacation areas.
A super-regional mall is, per the ICSC, in the U. S. a shopping mall with over 800,000 square feet (74,000 m²) of gross leasable area, and which serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region in which it located.
An outlet mall (or outlet centre) is a type of shopping mall in which manufacturers sell their products directly to the public through their own stores. Other stores in outlet malls are operated by retailers selling returned goods and discontinued products, often at heavily reduced prices. Outlet stores were found as early as 1936, but the first multi-outlet mall, Vanity Fair, located in Reading, PA didn't open until 1974. Vanity Fair A Novel without a Hero is a Novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, first published in 1847-48 that satirizes society in early Reading (ˈrɛdɪŋ is the county seat of Berks County Pennsylvania and the center of the Greater Reading Area. Belz Enterprises opened the first enclosed factory outlet mall in 1979, in Lakeland, TN, a suburb of Memphis. Belz Enterprises is a major American -based developer of hotels retail and commercial properties including Shopping malls. Lakeland is a city in Shelby County, Tennessee, United States, and a suburb of Memphis. Memphis is a City in the southwest corner of Tennessee, and the County seat of Shelby County. 
A shopping mall food court consists of shops stalls offering different cuisines. At a typical food court, meals are ordered at one of the shops then carried to a common dining area, which is normally a plaza contiguous with the counters of the multiple food vendors.
When the shopping mall format was developed by Victor Gruen in the mid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. A department store is a Retail establishment which specializes in selling a wide range of products without a single predominant merchandise line. Victor David Gruen, born Viktor David Grünbaum ( July 18, 1903 - February 14, 1980) was an Austrian born commercial architect These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. In Retail an anchor store, draw tenant, anchor tenant, or key tenant, is one of the larger stores in a Shopping mall, usually Anchors generally have their rents heavily discounted, and may even receive cash inducements from the mall to remain open. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another.
In the U. A dead mall or greyfield is a Shopping mall with a high vacancy rate or a low consumer traffic level or that is dated or deteriorating in some manner S, as more modern facilities are built, many early malls have become largely abandoned, due to decreased traffic and tenancy. These "dead malls" have failed to attract new business and often sit unused for many years until restored or demolished. Interesting examples of architecture and urban design, these structures often attract people who explore and photograph them. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Urban design concerns the arrangement appearance and functionality of towns and cities and in particular the shaping and uses of urban Public space. This phenomenon of dead and dying malls is examined in detail by the website Deadmalls.com, which hosts many such photographs, as well as historical accounts. Deadmallscom is an independent not-for-profit website best known for featuring Shopping malls that have failed or are in the process of failing Until the mid-1990s, the trend was to build enclosed malls and to renovate older outdoor malls into enclosed ones. Such malls had advantages such as temperature control. Since then, the trend has turned and it is once again fashionable to build open-air malls. Some enclosed malls have been opened up, such as the Sherman Oaks Galleria. Sherman Oaks Galleria is a Shopping mall and business center located in the Sherman Oaks neighborhood of Los Angeles, California at the corner In addition, some malls, when replacing an empty anchor location, have replaced the former anchor store building with the more modern outdoor design, leaving the remainder of the indoor mall intact, such as the Del Amo Fashion Center in Torrance, California. Del Amo Fashion Center is a two-level regional Shopping mall in Torrance California USA. Torrance is a city located in the " South Bay " (southwestern region of Los Angeles County California.
In parts of Canada, it is now rare for new shopping malls to be built, as outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas known as power centres are now favored, although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still in demand by those seeking weather-protected, all-under-one-roof shopping. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Big-box store is a term that refers to a style of physically large Chain store, and by extension to the company behind the store A power centre (or power center, also known as a retail park) is an unenclosed shopping centre with to of Gross leasable area that usually contains In addition the enclosed interconnections between downtown multi story shopping malls continue to grow in the Underground city of Montreal (32 kilometres of passageway), the PATH system of Toronto (27 km of passageway) and the Plus15 system of Calgary (16 km of overhead passageway). Montreal's Underground City (officially RÉSO or La Ville Souterraine in French) is the set of interconnected complexes (both above and below ground in Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec PATH is a 27 km (17 miles network of pedestrian tunnels beneath the office towers of downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Calgary (ˈkælgəriː is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada
Due to the high land price in densely populated conurbations such as Hong Kong, and the higher yield on retail property, the "vertical mall" is common - Times Square is considered the first of its kind. Times Square ( is a major shopping centre and office tower complex in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong.  The concept of the vertical mall departs from the common western model of the flat shopping mall: space allocated to retail is configured over a number of storeys accessible by escalators linking the different levels of the mall. The challenge of this type of mall is to overcome the natural tendency of shoppers to move horizontally and encourage shoppers to move upwards and downwards.
A shopping property management firms is a company that specializes in owning and managing shopping malls. Most shopping property management firms own at least 20 malls, often specializing in one area. Some shopping property management firms use a similar naming scheme for most of their malls, for example Mills Corporation puts "Mills" in most of their mall names and SM Prime Holdings of the Philippines puts "SM" in all of their malls in the country and abroad including their anchor stores, SM Department Store, SM Appliance Center. The Mills Corporation was a publicly traded Real estate investment trust headquartered in Chevy Chase Maryland, United States, acquired on April 3 SM Prime Holdings Inc ( is the parent company of the SM Group's shopping malls SM Hypermarket, SM Cinema and SM Supermarket.
One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets. Main Street is the generic Street name (and often the official name of the primary retail street of a Village, Town, or small City Many consumers prefer malls, with their spacious parking garages, entertaining environments, and private security guards, over downtown, which often suffers from limited parking, poor maintenance, and limited police coverage. A security guard or security officer is usually a privately and formally employed person who is paid to protect Property, assets or people Downtown is a term primarily used in North America to refer to a city's core usually in a geographical commercial and community sense Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force 
In response, a few jurisdictions, notably California, have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop, eat, and socialize within the boundaries of privately owned malls. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation.  See Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins. Pruneyard Shopping Center v Robins,, was a US Supreme Court decision issued on June 9, 1980 which arose out of a Free speech dispute