A ship /ʃɪp/ Audio (US)  is a large vessel that floats on water. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A full rigged ship or fully rigged ship is a sailing vessel with three or more masts all of them Square rigged A full rigged ship is said to have a ship The Amerigo Vespucci is a Tall ship of the Marina Militare, named after the explorer Amerigo Vespucci. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City A watercraft is a Vehicle, vessel or craft designed to move across (or through Water, including saltwater and freshwater for pleasure recreation physical Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size. A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it Ships may be found on lakes, seas, and rivers and they allow for a variety of activities, such as the transport of persons or goods, fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warfare. A lake (from Latin lacus) is a Terrain feature (or Physical feature) a body of Liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the This article is about the body of water For other uses see SEA and Seas. "Riverine" redirects here For the use of that term in Maritime geography, see there See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of Ship or vessel that carries Cargo, goods and materials from one port to another For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. A cruise ship or cruise liner is a Passenger ship used for pleasure voyages where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience A coast guard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat.

Ships and boats have developed alongside mankind. In major wars, and in day to day life, they have become an integral part of modern commercial and military systems. Fishing boats are used by millions of fishermen throughout the world. Military forces operate highly sophisticated vessels to transport and support forces ashore. Commercial vessels, nearly 35,000 in number, carried 7. 4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. [1]

These vessels were also key in history's great explorations and scientific and technological development. Navigators such as Zheng He spread inventions as the compass and gunpowder. Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes On one hand, ships have been used for colonization and the slave trade. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history On the other, they also have served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs.

As Thor Heyerdahl demonstrated with his tiny boat the Kon-Tiki, it is possible to achieve great things with a simple log raft. Thor Heyerdahl ( October 6, 1914 Larvik, Norway &ndash April 18, 2002 Colla Micheri, Italy) was a Kon-Tiki is the Raft used by Norwegian explorer and writer Thor Heyerdahl in his 1947 expedition across the Pacific Ocean From Mesolithic canoes to today's powerful nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, ships tell the history of man. The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age A canoe is a small narrow Boat, typically human-powered though it may also be powered by sails or small electric or gas motors An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with

## Nomenclature

Main parts of ship. 1Smokestack or Funnel; 2Stern; 3Propeller and Rudder; 4Portside (the right side is known as starboard); 5Anchor; 6Bulbous bow; 7Bow; 8Deck; 9Superstructure
For more details on this topic, see Glossary of nautical terms. A flue gas stack is a type of Chimney, a vertical pipe channel or similar structure through which Combustion product gases called Flue gases are exhausted A funnel is a pipe with a wide often conical mouth and a narrow stem The stern is the rear or aft part of a Ship or Boat, technically defined as the area built up over the Sternpost, extending upwards from the Counter A propeller is essentially a type of fan which transmits power by converting Rotational motion into Thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such as an A rudder is a device used to steer a Ship, Boat, Submarine, Hovercraft, or other conveyance that move through a fluid (generally air or Port is the nautical term (used on Boats and Ships) that refers to the left side of a ship as perceived by a person on board the ship and Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board a vessel and facing the bow (front An anchor is an object often made out of metal that is used to attach a ship to the bottom of a body of water at a specific point The bulbous bow, a standard feature of most large modern Ships with displacement hulls, is a protruding bulb at the bow (or front below the Waterline The bow (pronounced &mdashrhymes with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a Ship or Boat, A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline This is a glossary of nautical terms; some remain current many date from the 17th-19th century

There is no universal rule to distinguish a ship from a boat. Usually, ships are larger than boats. A commonly used rule of thumb is that if one vessel can carry another, the larger of the two is a ship. A rule of thumb is a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation As dinghies are common on sailing yachts as small as 35 feet (11 m), this rule of thumb is not foolproof. A dinghy is a type of small Boat, often carried or towed by a larger vessel A yacht is a recreational boat It designates two rather different classes of Watercraft, sailing and power yachts

A number of large vessels are traditionally referred to as boats. Submarines are a prime example. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability Other types of large vessels which are traditionally called boats are the Great Lakes freighter, the riverboat, and the ferryboat. Lake freighters, or Lakers, are Cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. A riverboat is Ship designed for Inland navigation. These vessels are usually less sturdy than ships built for the open seas with limited navigational and See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, these vessels are designed for operation on inland or protected coastal waters. However referring to ships as 'boats' is more an American tradition than that followed in 'British' style Merchant Navies.

## History

### Prehistory and antiquity

A raft is among the simplest boat designs. A raft is any flat floating structure for travel over water It is the most basic of Boat design characterized by the absence of a hull.

The history of boats parallels the human adventure. The first known boats date back to the Neolithic Period, about 10,000 years ago. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos These early vessels had limited function: they could move on water, but that was it. They were used mainly for hunting and fishing. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. The oldest dugout canoes found by archaeologists were often cut from coniferous tree logs, using simple stone tools

About 5,000 years ago, people living near Kongens Lyngby in Denmark invented the segregated hull, which allowed the size of boats to gradually be increased. A dugout is a Boat which is basically a hollowed tree trunk Other names for this type of boat are logboat and monoxylon. A stone tool is in the most general sense any Tool made of stone. Kongens Lyngby (shortforms Kgs Lyngby or Lyngby) is the main city in the affluent municipality of Lyngby-Taarbæk, just north of Copenhagen, Boats soon developed into keel boats similar to today's wooden pleasure craft. Keelboat has two distinct meanings related to two different types of Boat. A pleasure craft (or pleasure boat) is a Boat used for personal Recreational or sometimes Sporting purposes

At about the same time, the first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. A sail is any type of surface intended to generate Thrust by being placed in a Wind &mdashin essence a vertically-oriented Wing. Affixed to the top of a pole set vertically in a boat, these sails gave early ships great range. This allowed man to explore widely, allowing, for example the settlement of Oceania about 3,000 years ago.

The ancient Egyptians were perfectly at ease building sailboats. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now A remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills was the Khufu ship, a vessel 143 feet (44 m) in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2,500 BC and found intact in 1954. See also Shipbuilding (song. Shipbuilding is the construction of Ships It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a The Khufu ship is an intact full-size vessel from Ancient Egypt that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three According to Herodotus, the Egyptians made the first circumnavigation of Africa around 600 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash

The Phoenicians and Greeks gradually mastered navigation at sea aboard triremes, exploring and colonizing the Mediterranean via ship. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Trireme ( τριήρης sing τριήρεις pl triremis sing Around 340 BC, the Greek navigator Pytheas of Massalia ventured from Greece to Western Europe and the British Isles. A navigator is the person onboard a ship or aircraft responsible for its Navigation. Dates Pliny says that Timaeus (born about 350 BC believed Pytheas' story of the discovery of Amber. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The British Isles (Irish variously Na hOileáin Bhriotanacha, Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa, Éire agus an Bhreatain Mhór; Ellanyn Goaldagh Eileanan [2]

Before the introduction of the compass, celestial navigation was the main method for navigation at sea. Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is a Position fixing technique that was devised to help sailors cross the featureless oceans without having to In China, early versions of the magnetic compass were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117. A compass, magnetic compass or mariner's compass is a navigational instrument for determining direction relative to the earth's Magnetic poles It consists [3] The true mariner's compass, using a pivoting needle in a dry box, was invented in Europe no later than 1300. [4][5]

### Through the Renaissance

Until the Renaissance, navigational technology remained comparatively primitive. A carrack or nau was a three- or four- masted Sailing ship developed in the Atlantic Ocean in the 15th century by the Portuguese The Santa María was the largest of the three Ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492 Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere This absence of technology didn't prevent some civilizations from becoming sea powers. Examples include the maritime republics of Genoa and Venice, and the Byzantine navy. The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from the 11th century The Most Serene Republic of Venice ((Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta or Repùblica de Venesia Serenissima Repubblica The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. The Vikings used their knarrs to explore North America, trade in the Baltic Sea and plunder many of the coastal regions of Western Europe. A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas A knarr is a type of Norse Merchant Ship famously used by the Vikings The knarr (also known as knorr or knörr) is of the The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude.

Towards the end of the fourteenth century, ships like the carrack began to develop towers on the bow and stern. A carrack or nau was a three- or four- masted Sailing ship developed in the Atlantic Ocean in the 15th century by the Portuguese These towers decreased the vessel's stability, and in the fifteenth century, caravels became more widely used. This article is about the Caravel boat type For the carvel type of boat building see Carvel (boat building. The towers were gradually replaced by the forecastle and sterncastle, as in the carrack Santa María of Christopher Columbus. Forecastle, also spelled fo'c's'le (ˈfoʊksəl originally meant the upper deck of a Sailing ship, forward of the Foremast. The stern is the rear or aft part of a Ship or Boat, technically defined as the area built up over the Sternpost, extending upwards from the Counter The Santa María was the largest of the three Ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492 Christopher Columbus (1451 &ndash May 20 1506 was an Italian Navigator, colonizer This increased freeboard allowed another innovation: the freeing port, and the artillery associated with it. Freeboard or FREEBOARD may refer to Sporting Goods. The six-wheeled skateboard which acts like a snowboard (on pavement

In the sixteenth century, the use of freeboard and freeing ports become widespread on galleons. A galleon was a large multi-decked Sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries The English modified their vessels to maximize their firepower and demonstrated the effectiveness of their doctrine, in 1588, by defeating the Spanish Armada. The Spanish Armada ( Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy" or Armada Invencible, "Invincible

A Japanese atakebune from the 16th century

At this time, ships were developing in Asia in much the same way as Europe. Atakebune were large Japanese Warships of the 16th and 17th century internecine Japanese wars for political control and unity of all Japan Japan used defensive naval techniques in the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1281. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The of 1274 and 1281 were major Military operations undertaken by Kublai Khan to invade the Japanese Islands after conquering Korea It is likely that the Mongols of the time took advantage of both European and Asian shipbuilding techniques. In Japan, during the Sengoku era from the fifteenth to seventeenth century, the great struggle for feudal supremacy was fought, in part, by coastal fleets of several hundred boats, including the atakebune. Atakebune were large Japanese Warships of the 16th and 17th century internecine Japanese wars for political control and unity of all Japan

Fifty years before Christopher Columbus, Chinese navigator Zheng He traveled the world at the head of what was for the time a huge armada. Zheng He ( Birth name 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Arabic / Persian name حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371&ndash1433 was a Hui The largest of his ships had nine masts, were 130 metres (430 ft) long and had a beam of 55 metres (180 ft). His fleet carried 30,000 men aboard 70 vessels, with the goal of bringing glory to the Chinese emperor.

### Specialization and modernization

The British Temeraire and French ships Redoutable and Bucentaure at the Battle of Trafalgar

Parallel to the development of warships, ships in service of marine fishery and trade also developed in the period between antiquity and the Renaissance. For the Venetian vessel see Bucentaur. The Battle of Trafalgar ( 21 October 1805) was a historic sea battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined fleets of the Still primarily a coastal endeavor, fishing is largely practiced by individuals with little other money using small boats.

Maritime trade was driven by the development of shipping companies with significant financial resources. Canal barges, towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath, contended with the railway up to and past the early days of the industrial revolution. A towpath is a Road or Trail on the bank of a River, Canal, or other inland waterway "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Flat-bottomed and flexible scow boats also became widely used for transporting small cargoes. A scow, in the original sense is a flat bottomed Boat with a blunt bow often used to haul garbage or similar bulk Freight; cf Mercantile trade went hand-in-hand with exploration, which is self-financing by the commercial benefits of exploration.

During the first half of the eighteenth century, the French Navy began to develop a new type of vessel, featuring seventy-four guns. The French Navy, officially the Marine nationale ( National Navy) and often called La Royale ( The Royal Navy) is the maritime arm This type of ship became the backbone of all European fighting fleets. These ships were 56 metres (180 ft) long and their construction required 2,800 oak trees and 40 kilometres (25 mi) of rope; they carried a crew of about 800 sailors and soldiers.

Ship designs stayed fairly unchanged until the late nineteenth century. A pleasure craft (or pleasure boat) is a Boat used for personal Recreational or sometimes Sporting purposes TUGboat (ISSN 0896-3207 is a journal published three times per year by the TeX Users Group. Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of The industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of propulsion, and the ability to construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. Factors including the quest for more efficient ships, the end of long running and wasteful maritime conflicts, and the increased financial capacity of industrial powers created an avalanche of more specialized boats and ships. Ships built for entirely new functions, such as firefighting, rescue, and research, also began to appear.

In light of this, classification of vessels by type or function can be difficult. Even using very broad functional classifications such as fishery, trade, military, and exploration fails to classify most of the old ships. This difficulty is increased by the fact that the terms such as sloop and frigate are used by old and new ships alike, and often the modern vessels sometimes have little in common with their predecessors.

### Today

Boats and ships remain essential tools for international and domestic trade, national security and cultural purposes. International trade is exchange of Capital, Goods, and Services across International borders or Territories. Domestic trading Trading that is aimed at a single market the firms domestic trade is referred to as domestic trading National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty

In 2007, the world's fleet included 34,882 commercial vessels with gross tonnage of more than 1,000 tons, totaling 1. Gross tonnage (often abbreviated as GT, GT or gt) is a unitless index related to a ship's overall internal volume Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United 04 billion tons. These ships carried 7. 4 billion tons of cargo in 2006, a sum that grew by 8% over the previous year. In terms of tonnage, 37. 5% of these ships are tankers, 35. 8% are bulk carriers, 10. Definition There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier 9% container ships and 10. Container ships are Cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers in a technique called Containerization. 3% general cargo ships. A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of Ship or vessel that carries Cargo, goods and materials from one port to another

In 2002, there were 1,240 warships operating in the world, not counting small vessels such as patrol boats. A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. A patrol boat is a small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties The United States accounted for 3 million tons worth of these vessels, Russia 1. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending 35 million tons, the United Kingdom 504,660 tons and China 402,830 tons. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National The twentieth century saw many naval engagements during the two world wars, the Cold War, and the rise to power of naval forces of the two blocs. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The world's major powers have recently used their naval power in cases such as the United Kingdom in the Falkland Islands and the United States in Iraq. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.

The harbor at Fuglafjørður, Faroe Islands shows seven typical Faroe boats used for fishing. Fuglafjørður is a village on Eysturoy 's east coast in the Faroe Islands. The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse

The size of the world's fishing fleet is more difficult to estimate. A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial Fishing vessels. The largest of these are counted as commercial vessels, but the smallest are legion. Fishing vessels can be found in most seaside villages in the world. A fishing vessel is a Ship or Boat used to catch fish in the sea or on a lake or river In 1997, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization identified 2. 285 million fishing vessels worldwide. An estimated 132. 2 million tonnes of fish and shellfish were produced in 2003. In 1990, 29 million fishermen were active in the world.

## Types of ship

Ships are difficult to classify, mainly because there are so many criteria to base classification on. Classification systems exist that use criteria such as:

• The number of hulls, giving categories like monohull, catamaran, trimaran.
• The shape and size, giving categories like dinghy, keelboat, and icebreaker.
• The building materials used, giving steel, aluminum, wood, fiberglass, and plastic.
• The type of propulsion system used, giving human-propelled, mechanical, and sails.
• The epoch in which the vessel was used, triremes of ancient Greece, man' o' wars, eighteenth century.
• The geographic origin of the vessel, many vessels are associated with a particular region, such as the pinnace of Northern Europe, the gondolas of Venice, and the junks of China. A pinnace is one of two marine craft the first a small vessel used as a tender to larger vessels amongst other things and the second a ship rigged vessel popular in northern waters through A Gondola is a traditional Venetian rowing Boat. Gondolas were for centuries the chief means of transportation within Venice and still have Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the -HK CityHall Seaview 51217 5png|thumb|300px|A modern junk in Hong Kong]]A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel.
• The manufacturer, series, or class.

Another way to categorize ships and boats is based on their use, as described by Paulet and Presles. [6] This system includes military ships, commercial vessels, fishing boats, pleasure craft and competitive boats. In this section, ships are classified using the first four of those categories, and adding a section for lake and river boats, and one for vessels which fall outside these categories.

### Commercial vessels

Commercial vessels or merchant ships can be divided into three broad categories: cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships. A merchant vessel is a Ship that transports Cargo and Passengers during peace time A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of Ship or vessel that carries Cargo, goods and materials from one port to another A passenger ship is a Ship whose primary function is to carry passengers [7] Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers, packed directly onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in shipping containers as aboard a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships. Definition There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of Ship or vessel that carries Cargo, goods and materials from one port to another Containerization (or containerisation) is a system of Intermodal freight transport Cargo Transport using standard ISO containers Container ships are Cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers in a technique called Containerization. See also Merchant ship Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro Ships are ferries designed to carry wheeled Cargo such as Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil tankers, chemical tankers and LNG tankers. History The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry See also Merchant ship A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport Chemicals in bulk An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas ( LNG)

Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to giant cruise ships. A cruise ship or cruise liner is a Passenger ship used for pleasure voyages where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience This type of vessel includes ferries, which move passengers and vehicles on short trips; ocean liners, which carry passengers on one-way trips; and cruise ships, which typically transport passengers on round-trip voyages promoting leisure activities onboard and in the ports they visit. See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one Seaport to another along regular long-distance Maritime routes according to a schedule

Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but are designed to perform other specific tasks. Examples include tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats, cable ships, research vessels, survey vessels, and ice breakers. TUGboat (ISSN 0896-3207 is a journal published three times per year by the TeX Users Group. A pilot boat is used to transport pilots between land and the inbound or outbound ships that they are piloting A cable layer or cable ship is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications electricity and such A research vessel (R/V is a Ship designed and equipped to carry out Research at Sea. A research vessel (R/V is a Ship designed and equipped to carry out Research at Sea. An icebreaker is a special purpose Ship or Boat designed to move and navigate through Ice -covered waters

Most commercial vessels have full hull-forms to maximize cargo capacity. Hulls are usually made of steel, although aluminum can be used on faster craft, and fiberglass on the smallest service vessels. Commercial vessels generally have a crew headed by a captain, with deck officers and marine engineers on larger vessels. Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge in command of a Ship at sea The Deck Department is an organizational unit aboard naval and merchant ships Marine Engineers are the members of a ship's crew that operate and maintain the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel Special-purpose vessels often have specialized crew if necessary, for example scientists aboard research vessels. A research vessel (R/V is a Ship designed and equipped to carry out Research at Sea. Commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel engine. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Vessels which operate at the higher end of the speed spectrum may use pump-jet engines or sometimes gas turbine engines. A pump-jet or water jet is a marine system that creates a jet of Water for propulsion. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas

### Military vessels

Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories, which are: aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines and amphibious assault ships. An aircraft carrier is a Warship designed with A cruiser is a large type of Warship, which had its prime period from the late 19th century to the end of the Cold War. In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy For the bird see Frigatebird. A frigate /ˈfrɪgɪt/ is a warship A corvette is a small maneuverable lightly armed Warship, originally smaller than a Frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft, although many A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability An amphibious assault ship (also referred to as an amphibious assault carrier or commando carrier) is a type of Helicopter carrier employed to land Battleships encompass an eighth category, but are not in current service with any navy in the world. A battleship is a large heavily armored Warship with a main battery consisting of the largest Calibre of Guns Battleships were [8]

Most military submarines are either attack submarines or ballistic submarines. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability A ballistic missile submarine is a Submarine equipped to launch Ballistic missiles ( SLBMs) Until World War Two, the primary role of the diesel/electric submarine was anti-ship warfare, inserting and removing covert agents and military forces, and intelligence-gathering. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including With the development of the homing torpedo, better sonar systems, and nuclear propulsion, submarines also became able to effectively hunt each other. Sonar (which started as an Acronym for sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses Sound propagation (usually underwater to navigate Nuclear navy, or nuclear powered navy consists of Ships powered by relatively small onboard Nuclear reactors known as naval reactors. The development of submarine-launched nuclear missiles and submarine-launched cruise missiles gave submarines a substantial and long-ranged ability to attack both land and sea targets with a variety of weapons ranging from cluster bombs to nuclear weapons. Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBM s are Ballistic missiles delivering Nuclear weapons that are launched from Submarines Modern variants A cruise missile is a guided Missile that carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system usually a Jet engine, to allow Cluster munitions or cluster bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions a cluster of bomblets A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion.

Most navies also include many types of support and auxiliary vessels, such as minesweepers, patrol boats, offshore patrol vessels, replenishment ships , and hospital ships which are designated medical treatment facilities. A minesweeper is a Naval Warship designed to counter the threat posed by Naval mines The dedicated purpose-built minesweeper first appeared during A patrol boat is a small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties A patrol boat is a small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defense duties A replenishment oiler is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry stores capability which can replenish other ships underway A hospital ship is a Ship designated for primary function as a medical treatment facility or Hospital; most are operated by the Military Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing [9]

Naval vessels usually have fine hulls to maximize speed and maneuverability. They also usually have advanced electronics and communication systems, as well as weapons.

### Fishing vessels

Fishing vessels are a subset of commercial vessels, but generally small in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. A replenishment oiler is a naval auxiliary ship with fuel tanks and dry stores capability which can replenish other ships underway Construction See also Iowa class battleship, Armament of the Iowa class battleship Iowa was the lead ship of her class of " Seehund ROV Length 25 m Displacement 99 t Propulsion Schottel Z-drive Max speed 9-10 kn Seehund A minesweeper is a Naval Warship designed to counter the threat posed by Naval mines The dedicated purpose-built minesweeper first appeared during They are distinguished by several criteria: the type of fish they catch, the fishing method used, geographical origin, and technical features such as rigging.

Commercial fishermen harvest many aquatic species, from tuna, cod, and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Tuna, are several Species of ocean-dwelling Fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. Cod is the common name for the Genus Gadus of Fish, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name of a variety Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. True shrimp are swimming decapod Crustaceans classified in the Infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh Krill are a type of Shrimp -like marine Invertebrate animal These small Crustaceans are important organisms of the Zooplankton, particularly Clawed lobsters compose a family ( Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine Crustaceans Lobsters are economically important as Clam is a word which can be used for all some or only a few Species of Bivalve Mollusks the word is a Common name which has Squid are marine Cephalopods of the order Teuthida, which comprises around 300 species Crabs are decapod Crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (βραχύ / brachy For the fishing industry and the practice of fishing see Fishing.

Modern commercial fishermen use many methods. One is fishing by nets, such as purse seine, beach seine, lift nets, gillnets, or entangling nets. A fishing net or fishnet is a net that is used for Fishing. Fishing nets are Meshes usually formed by Knotting a relatively thin thread Gillnetting is a common fishing method used by commercial fishermen of all the oceans and in some freshwater and estuary areas Another is trawling, including bottom trawl. Trawling is a method of Fishing that involves pulling a large Fishing net through the water behind one or more boats Bottom trawling is Trawling (towing a trawl, which is a Fishing net) along the sea floor Hooks and lines are used in methods like long-line fishing and hand-line fishing). A fish hook is a device for catching Fish either by impaling them in the mouth or more rarely by snagging the body of the fish For other meanings of "longline" see Longline. Longline fishing is a commercial Fishing technique that uses hundreds or even Handlining is one of the oldest forms of Fishing and is still common Another method is the use of fishing trap. A fish trap is a Trap used for fishing Fish traps resembling a Fishing weir or a Lobster trap.

Fishing boats are generally small, often little more than 30 metres (98 ft)) but up to 100 metres (330 ft) for a large tuna or whaling ship. For other uses see Whalers. A whaler is a specialized kind of ship designed for Whaling, the catching and/or processing of They feature holds large enough to keep a good-sized catch. The fish can then simply be stored on ice. Aboard a fish processing vessel, they can be made ready for market and sold more quickly once the ship makes port. A factory ship, also known as a fish processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish

The simplest fishing boats have a small cabin with a saloon, a deck designed to accommodate fishing, and fishing equipment such as nets and lines. Trawlers have additional gear such as winches and arms. Other devices are used, such as a rear ramp on a stern-trawler, and a skiff on a tuna seiner.

### Inland and coastal boats

Many types of boats and ships are designed for inland and coastal waterways. Cap-Haïtien ( Okap or Kapayisyen in Kréyòl) is a city of about 130000 people on the north coast of Haiti. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: A commercial trawler is a commercial Fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls. See also the St Nazaire Raid Saint-Nazaire ( Breton: Sant-Nazer) is a town and ''commune'' in the Loire-Atlantique département La Trinité-sur-Mer ( An Drinded-Karnag in Breton) is a small French village on the coast of Brittany, east of Carnac. Victoria (sometimes called Port Victoria) is the Capital city of the Republic of Seychelles and is situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé These are the vessels that trade upon the lakes, rivers and canals.

Barges are a prime example of inland vessels. Flat-bottomed boats built to transport heavy goods, most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them. A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it TUGboat (ISSN 0896-3207 is a journal published three times per year by the TeX Users Group. A towboat is a Boat designed for pushing Barges Towboats are characterized by a square bow with steel knees for pushing and powerful engines Barges towed along canals by draft animals on an adjacent towpath contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were outcompeted in the carriage of high value items due to the higher speed, falling costs, and route flexibility of rail transport. A towpath is a Road or Trail on the bank of a River, Canal, or other inland waterway "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the The British Canal system of Water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom 's Industrial Revolution at a time when Roads "Railroad" and "Railway" both redirect here For other uses see Railroad (disambiguation.

Riverboats and inland ferries are specially designed to carry passengers, cargo, or both in the challenging river environment. A riverboat is Ship designed for Inland navigation. These vessels are usually less sturdy than ships built for the open seas with limited navigational and See also Merchant ship A ferry is a form of transport usually a Boat or Ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and Rivers present special hazards to vessels. They usually have varying water flows that alternately lead to high speed water flows or protruding rock hazards. Changing siltation patterns may cause the sudden appearance of shoal waters, and often floating or sunken logs and trees (called snags) can endanger the hulls and propulsion of riverboats. Riverboats are generally of shallow draft, being broad of beam and rather square in plan, with a low freeboard and high topsides. Riverboats can survive with this type of configuration as they do not have to withstand the high winds or large waves that are seen on large lakes, seas, or oceans.

Lake freighters, also called lakers, are cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. Lake freighters, or Lakers, are Cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The most well-known is the SS Edmund Fitzgerald, the latest major vessel to be wrecked on the Lakes. Construction and operation On February 1, 1957, Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin contracted These vessels are traditionally called boats, not ships. Visiting ocean-going vessels are called "salties. " Due to their additional beam, very large salties are never seen inland of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point or at the mid-point of its length The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of Canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes Because the largest of the Soo Locks is larger than any Seaway lock, salties that can pass through the Seaway may travel anywhere in the Great Lakes. The Sault Locks (usually called the Soo Locks) allow Ships to travel between Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes. Because of their deeper draft, salties may accept partial loads on the Great Lakes, "topping off" when they have exited the Seaway. Similarly, the largest lakers are confined to the Upper Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie) because they are too large to use the Seaway locks, beginning at the Welland Canal that bypasses the Niagara River. Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. Lake Huron, bounded on the west by the US state of Michigan, and on the east by the province of Ontario, Canada, is one of the five Great Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally The Welland Canal is a Ship canal that runs 42  km (270  Miles from Port Colborne Ontario on Lake Erie to Port The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.

Since the freshwater lakes are less corrosive to ships than the salt water of the oceans, lakers tend to last much longer than ocean freighters. Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved Seawater is Water from a Sea or Ocean. On average seawater in the world's oceans has a Salinity of about 3 Lakers older than 50 years are not unusual, and account for more than half of the fleet. The St. Mary's Challenger, built in 1906 as the William P Snyder, is the oldest laker still working on the Lakes. Year 1906 ( MCMVI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Similarly, the E. M. Ford, built in 1898 as the Presque Isle, was sailing the lakes 98 years later in 1996. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1996 ( MCMXCVI) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar) As of 2007 the Ford was still afloat as a stationary transfer vessel at a riverside cement silo in Saginaw, Michigan.

### Other

The wide variety of vessels at work on the earth's waters defy a simple classification scheme. A riverboat is Ship designed for Inland navigation. These vessels are usually less sturdy than ships built for the open seas with limited navigational and The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Seine (sɛn in French) is a slow flowing major River and commercial waterway within the regions of Île-de-France and Haute-Normandie Lake freighters, or Lakers, are Cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. Construction and operation On February 1, 1957, Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin contracted A representative few that fail to fit into the above categories include:

• Historical boats, frequently used as museum ships, training ships, or as good-will ambassadors of a country abroad. For ships that are not original see Ship replica. For preserved incomplete ships see Ships preserved in museums. A training ship is a ship used to train students as Sailors The term is especially used for ships employed by navies to train future officers
• Houseboats, floating structures used as dwellings. A houseboat is a Boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a Human Dwelling.
• Scientific, technical, and industrial vessels such as mobile offshore drilling units, offshore wind farms, survey ships, and research vessels. An oil platform or oil rig is a large structure used to house workers and machinery needed to drill and/or extract oil and Natural gas through wells A research vessel (R/V is a Ship designed and equipped to carry out Research at Sea. A research vessel (R/V is a Ship designed and equipped to carry out Research at Sea.
• Submarines, for underwater navigation and exploration

## Architecture

Further information: Naval architecture

Some components exist in vessels of any size and purpose. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability The Dar Pomorza is a Polish sailing Frigate, currently preserved in Gdynia as a Museum ship. A houseboat is a Boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a Human Dwelling. Kerala ( Malayalam: {{Kerala in Malayalam}}; The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea Diving Submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design construction and repair of marine vehicles Every vessel has a hull of sorts. Every vessel has some sort of propulsion, whether it's a pole, an ox, or a nuclear reactor. Most vessels have some sort of steering system. Other characteristics are common, but not as universal, such as compartments, holds, a superstructure, and equipment such as anchors and winches.

### The hull

A ship's hull endures harsh conditions at sea, as illustrated by this reefer ship in bad weather. A reefer ship is a type of Ship typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation mostly Fruits

For a ship to float, its weight must be less than that of the water displaced by the ship's hull. There are many types of hulls, from logs lashed together to form a raft to the advanced hulls of America's Cup sailboats. The America’s Cup is the most prestigious Regatta and Match race in the sport of Sailing, and the oldest active Trophy in international A vessel may have a single hull (called a monohull design), two in the case of catamarans, or three in the case of trimarans. A catamaran (From Tamil 'kattumaram' is a type of Multihulled Boat or Ship consisting of two hulls or vakas joined by some A trimaran is a Multihulled Boat consisting of a main hull ( vaka) and two smaller Outrigger hulls ( amas) attached Vessels with more than three hulls are rare, but some experiments have been conducted with designs such as pentamarans. Multiple hulls are generally parallel to each other and connected by rigid arms.

Hulls have several elements. The bow is the foremost part of the hull. The bow (pronounced &mdashrhymes with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a Ship or Boat, Many ships feature a bulbous bow. The bulbous bow, a standard feature of most large modern Ships with displacement hulls, is a protruding bulb at the bow (or front below the Waterline The keel is at the very bottom of the hull, extending the entire length of the ship. In boats and ships keel can refer to either of two parts a structural element or a hydrodynamic element The rear part of the hull is known as the stern, and many hulls have a flat back known as a transom. The stern is the rear or aft part of a Ship or Boat, technically defined as the area built up over the Sternpost, extending upwards from the Counter In Naval architecture, a transom is the surface that forms the Stern of a vessel Common hull appendages include propellers for propulsion, rudders for steering, and stabilizers to quell a ship's rolling motion. A propeller is essentially a type of fan which transmits power by converting Rotational motion into Thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such as an A rudder is a device used to steer a Ship, Boat, Submarine, Hovercraft, or other conveyance that move through a fluid (generally air or This article refers to the nautical term For other uses see Stabilizer. Other hull features can be related to the vessel's work, such as fishing gear and sonar domes. Sonar (which started as an Acronym for sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses Sound propagation (usually underwater to navigate

Hulls are subject to various hydrostatic and hydrodynamic constraints. The key hydrostatic constraint is that it must be able to support the entire weight of the boat, and maintain stability even with often unevenly distributed weight. Hydrodynamic constraints include the ability to withstand shock waves, weather collisions and groundings.

Older ships and pleasure craft often have or had wooden hulls. Steel is used for most commercial vessels. Aluminium is frequently used for fast vessels, and composite materials are often found in sailboats and pleasure craft. Composite materials (or composites for short are engineered Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical Some ships have been made with concrete hulls. Concrete ships are Ships built of Steel and Ferrocement (reinforced Concrete) instead of more traditional materials such as Steel

### Propulsion systems

A fishing boat uses a traditional propulsion system in Mozambique
The turbosail, a hybrid propulsion system invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau

Propulsion systems for ships and boats vary from the simple paddle to the largest diesel engines in the world. Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique, ʁɛ'publikɐ d musɐ̃'bik is a country in southeastern Africa A turbosail is a naval propulsion system invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and used on the ''Alcyone''. Jacques-Yves Cousteau ( 11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer explorer, Ecologist, These systems fall into three categories: human propulsion, sailing, and mechanical propulsion. Human propulsion includes the pole, still widely used in marshy areas, rowing which was used even on large galleys, and the pedals. A galley (from Greek γαλέα - galea is an ancient Ship which can be propelled entirely by human oarsmen, used for Warfare In modern times, human propulsion is found mainly on small boats or as auxiliary propulsion on sailboats.

Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, supported by stays and spars and controlled by ropes. Sail systems were the dominant form of propulsion until the nineteenth century. They are now generally used for recreation and racing, although experimental sail systems, such as the turbosail and SkySails systems, have been used on larger modern vessels for fuel savings. A turbosail is a naval propulsion system invented by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and used on the ''Alcyone''. SkySails GmbH & Co KG is a Hamburg -based company that sells equipment to propel Cargo ships large Yachts and Fishing vessels by the use of wind

Mechanical propulsion systems generally consist of a motor or engine turning a propeller. A propeller is essentially a type of fan which transmits power by converting Rotational motion into Thrust for propulsion of a vehicle such as an Steam engines were first used for this purpose, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas Electric motors have sometimes been used, such as on submarines. Nuclear reactors are often employed to propel warships and icebreakers. A warship is a Ship that is built and primarily intended for Combat. An icebreaker is a special purpose Ship or Boat designed to move and navigate through Ice -covered waters

There are many variations of propeller systems, including twin, contra-rotating, controllable-pitch, and nozzle-style propellers. Smaller vessels tend to have a single propeller. Aircraft carriers uses up to four propellers, supplemented with bow- and stern-thrusters. A bow thruster, is a propulsion device built into or mounted to the bow of a Ship or Boat to enhance its maneuverability Power is transmitted from the engine to the propeller by way of a propeller shaft, which may or may not be connected to a gearbox.

#### Pre-mechanisation

Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map

Until the application of the steam engine to ships in the early 19th century, oars propelled galleys, or the wind propelled sailing ships. The Fra Mauro map, "considered the greatest memorial of medieval cartography" according to Roberto Almagià is a map made around 1450 by the Venetian monk A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. A galley (from Greek γαλέα - galea is an ancient Ship which can be propelled entirely by human oarsmen, used for Warfare Sailing ship is now used to refer to any large Wind -powered Vessel. Before mechanisation, merchant ships always used sail, but as long as naval warfare depended on ships closing to ram or to fight hand-to-hand, galleys dominated in marine conflicts because of their maneuverability and speed. Naval warfare is Combat in and on Seas Oceans or any other major bodies of water such as large Lakes and wide Rivers History A battering ram is a Siege engine originating in ancient times to break open Fortification walls or doors The Greek navies that fought in the Peloponnesian War used triremes, as did the Romans at the Battle of Actium. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Trireme ( τριήρης sing τριήρεις pl triremis sing Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC The Battle of Actium was the decisive engagement in the Final War of the Roman Republic between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony The use of large numbers of cannon from the 16th century meant that maneuverability took second place to broadside weight; this led to the dominance of the sail-powered warship. | NOTE Throughout this article "cannon" is used as BOTH the || singular and plural

#### Reciprocating steam engines

The development of piston-engined steamships was a complex process. Early steamships were fueled by wood, later ones by coal or fuel oil. Early ships used stern or side paddle wheels, while later ones used screw propellers. A paddle wheel (also called side wheel or stern wheel) is a large wheel fitted with Paddles which is used to propel a Boat.

The first commercial success accrued to Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat (often called Clermont) in the US in 1807, followed in Europe by the 45-foot Comet of 1812. Robert Fulton ( November 14, 1765 &ndash February 24, 1815) was a U The Paddle steamer PS Comet was built for Henry Bell, Hotel and Baths owner in Helensburgh, and began a passenger service Steam propulsion progressed considerably over the rest of the 19th century. Notable developments included the steam surface condenser, which eliminated the use of sea water (salt water) in the ship's boilers. This permitted higher steam pressures, and thus the use of higher efficiency multiple expansion (compound) engines. A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. As the means of transmitting the engine's power, paddle wheels gave way to more efficient screw propellers.

#### Steam turbines

SS Ukkopekka uses a triple expansion steam engine

Steam turbines were fueled by coal or, later, fuel oil or nuclear power. History The ship was built in Helsinki, Finland in 1938 and was at the time a modern icebreaking inspection vessel A steam engine is a Heat engine that performs Mechanical work using Steam as its Working fluid. Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from Petroleum Distillation, either as a distillate or a residue Nuclear power is any Nuclear technology designed to extract usable Energy from atomic nuclei via controlled Nuclear reactions The marine steam turbine developed by Sir Charles Algernon Parsons raised the power to weight ratio. A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts Thermal energy from pressurized Steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, OM (13 June 1854 &ndash 11 February 1931 was a British Engineer, best known for his invention of the Steam turbine. He achieved publicity by demonstrating it unofficially in the 100-foot Turbinia at the Spithead naval review in 1897. Development Charles Algernon Parsons invented the steam turbine in 1884 and having foreseen its potential to power ships he set up the Marine Steam Turbine Company Spithead is an area of the Solent and a roadstead off Gilkicker Point in Hampshire, England. Fleet Review Royal Navy redirects here This article is on reviews of the Royal Navy This facilitated a generation of high-speed liners in the first half of the 20th century and rendered the reciprocating steam engine obsolete, first in warships and later in merchant vessels.

In the early 20th century, heavy fuel oil came into more general use and began to replace coal as the fuel of choice in steamships. Its great advantages were convenience, reduced manning due to removing the need for trimmers and stokers, and reduced space needed for fuel bunkers.

In the second half of the 20th century, rising fuel costs almost led to the demise of the steam turbine. Most new ships since around 1960 have been built with diesel engines. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr The last major passenger ship built with steam turbines was the Fairsky, launched in 1984. History The Sky Wonder was built in 1984 by Chantiers de Nord et de la Mediterranee of La Seyne-Sur Similarly, many steam ships were re-engined to improve fuel efficiency. One high profile example was the 1968 built Queen Elizabeth 2 which had her steam turbines replaced with a diesel-electric propulsion plant in 1986. Characteristics The ship has a and is 963 ft (294 m long She had a top speed of using her original steam turbine powerplant which was increased to when she was re-engined

Most new-build ships with steam turbines are specialist vessels such as nuclear-powered vessels, and certain merchant vessels (notably Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and coal carriers) where the cargo can be used as bunker fuel. Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4

##### LNG carriers

New LNG carriers (a high growth area of shipping) continue to be built with steam turbines. An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas ( LNG) The natural gas is stored in a liquid state in cryogenic vessels aboard these ships, and a small amount of 'boil off' gas is needed to maintain the pressure and temperature inside the vessels within operating limits. Cryogenics is often used incorrectly to refer to Cryonics, cryopreserving humans or animals The 'boil off' gas provides the fuel for the ship's boilers, which provide steam for the turbines, the simplest way to deal with the gas. Technology to operate internal combustion engines (modified marine two-stroke diesel engines) on this gas has improved, however, so such engines are starting to appear in LNG carriers; with their greater thermal efficiency, less gas is burnt. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a Developments have also been made in the process of re-liquefying 'boil off' gas, letting it be returned to the cryogenic tanks. The financial returns on LNG are potentially greater than the cost of the marine-grade fuel oil burnt in conventional diesel engines, so the re-liquefaction process is starting to be used on diesel engine propelled LNG carriers. Another factor driving the change from turbines to diesel engines for LNG carriers is the shortage of steam turbine qualified seagoing engineers. With the lack of turbine powered ships in other shipping sectors, and the rapid rise in size of the worldwide LNG fleet, not enough have been trained to meet the demand. It may be that the days are numbered for marine steam turbine propulsion systems, even though all but sixteen of the orders for new LNG carriers at the end of 2004 were for steam turbine propelled ships. [10]

##### Nuclear-powered steam turbines
The NS Savannah was the first nuclear-powered cargo-passenger ship

#### Reciprocating diesel engines

A modern diesel engine aboard a cargo ship
A bird's eye view of a ship's engineroom

About 99% of modern ships use diesel reciprocating engines. A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr The rotating crankshaft can power the propeller directly for slow speed engines, via a gearbox for medium and high speed engines, or via an alternator and electric motor in diesel-electric vessels.

The reciprocating marine diesel engine first came into use in 1903 when the diesel electric rivertanker Vandal was put in service by Branobel. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric Powertrain for providing locomotion. Loss The submarine under the command of Lieutenant James S Bridger was lost whilst carrying out a three-day long working up exercise following commissioning Branobel (short for Brothers Nobel) was the Oil company set up by Ludvig and Robert Nobel in Baku, Azerbaijan. Diesel engines soon offered greater efficiency than the steam turbine, but for many years had an inferior power-to-space ratio.

Diesel engines today are broadly classified according to

• Their operating cycle: two-stroke or four-stroke
• Their construction: Crosshead, trunk, or opposed piston
• Their speed
• Slow speed: any engine with a maximum operating speed up to 300 revs/minute, although most large 2-stroke slow speed diesel engines operate below 120 revs/minute. The two-stroke Internal combustion engine differs from the more common Four-stroke engine by completing the same four processes (intake compression combustion exhaust Today Internal combustion engines in cars, Trucks motorcycles aircraft construction machinery and many others most commonly use a four-stroke cycle. A crosshead (or crosshead bearing) is a Bearing used in large Reciprocating engines whether Internal combustion engines or Steam engines An opposed piston engine is one in which the cylinders are double-ended with a piston at each end and no cylinder head Some very long stroke engines have a maximum speed of around 80 revs/minute. The largest, most powerful engines in the world are slow speed, two stroke, crosshead diesels.
• Medium speed: any engine with a maximum operating speed in the range 300-900 revs/minute. Many modern 4-stroke medium speed diesel engines have a maximum operating speed of around 500 rpm.
• High speed: any engine with a maximum operating speed above 900 revs/minute.

Most modern larger merchant ships use either slow speed, two stroke, crosshead engines, or medium speed, four stroke, trunk engines. Some smaller vessels may use high speed diesel engines.

The size of the different types of engines is an important factor in selecting what will be installed in a new ship. Slow speed two-stroke engines are much taller, but the area needed, length and width, is smaller than that needed for four-stroke medium speed diesel engines. As space higher up in passenger ships and ferries is at a premium, these ships tend to use multiple medium speed engines resulting in a longer, lower engine room than that needed for two-stroke diesel engines. Multiple engine installations also give redundancy in the event of mechanical failure of one or more engines and greater efficiency over a wider range of operating conditions.

As modern ships' propellers are at their most efficient at the operating speed of most slow speed diesel engines, ships with these engines do not generally need gearboxes. Usually such propulsion systems consist of either one or two propeller shafts each with its own direct drive engine. Ships propelled by medium or high speed diesel engines may have one or two (sometimes more) propellers, commonly with one or more engines driving each propeller shaft through a gearbox. Where more than one engine is geared to a single shaft, each engine will most likely drive through a clutch, allowing engines not being used to be disconnected from the gearbox while others keep running. This arrangement lets maintenance be carried out while under way, even far from port.

#### Gas turbines

Many warships built since the 1960s have used gas turbines for propulsion, as have a few passenger ships, like the jetfoil. A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary Engine that extracts energy from a flow of Combustion gas A Jetfoil is the name for a passenger-carrying waterjet-propelled Hydrofoil design by Boeing. Gas turbines are commonly used in combination with other types of engine. Most recently, the Queen Mary 2 has had gas turbines installed in addition to diesel engines. Characteristics The Queen Mary 2 is the current Cunard Flagship and makes regular Transatlantic crossings A diesel engine is an Internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle (named after Dr Due to their poor thermal efficiency at low power (cruising) output, it is common for ships using them to have diesel engines for cruising, with gas turbines reserved for when higher speeds are needed. Some warships and a few modern cruise ships have also used the steam turbines to improve the efficiency of their gas turbines in a combined cycle, where wasted heat from a gas turbine exhaust is utilized to boil water and create steam for driving a steam turbine. A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one Thermodynamic cycle. In such combined cycles, thermal efficiency can be the same or slightly greater than that of diesel engines alone; however, the grade of fuel needed for these gas turbines is far more costly than that needed for the diesel engines, so the running costs are still higher.

### Steering systems

The rudder and propeller on a newly built ferry

On boats with simple propulsion systems, such as paddles, steering systems may not be necessary. In more advanced designs, such as boats propelled by engines or sails, a steering system becomes more necessary. The most common is a rudder, a submerged plane located at the rear of the hull. Rudders are rotated to generate a lateral force which turns the boat. Rudders can be rotated by a tiller, manual wheels, or electro-hydraulic systems. A tiller or till is a Lever attached to a Rudder post (American terminology or Rudder stock (English terminology of a boat in order to provide Autopilot systems combine mechanical rudders with navigation systems. An autopilot is a mechanical electrical or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being

Some propulsion systems are inherently steering systems. Examples include the outboard motor, the bow thruster, and the Z-drive. An outboard motor is a propulsion system for smaller Boats General uses Outboard motors for a Boat are developed as a self-contained A bow thruster, is a propulsion device built into or mounted to the bow of a Ship or Boat to enhance its maneuverability A Z-drive is a type of Azimuth thruster in which the pod-mounted propellers are driven mechanically rather than electrically Some sails, such as jibs and the mizzen sail on a ketch rig, are used more for steering than propulsion. The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical or near vertical Spar, or arrangement of Spars which supports the Sails Large ships have several masts A ketch is a Sailing Craft with two masts: a main mast and a shorter Mizzen mast abaft (rearward of the main mast

### Holds, compartments, and the superstructure

Larger boats and ships generally have multiple decks and compartments. Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet (7. A cabin or berthing is an enclosed room generally on a Ship or an Aircraft. The head (or heads) is a Ship 's water closet or Toilet. The term derives from Sailing ships in which the toilet area for the regular sailors 6 m). Fishing boats and cargo ships typically have one or more cargo holds. Most larger vessels have an engine room, a galley, and various compartments for work. Tanks are used to store fuel, engine oil, and fresh water. Ballast tanks are equipped to change a ship's trim and modify its stability.

Superstructures are found above the main deck. On sailboats, these are usually very low. On modern cargo ships, they are almost always located near the ship's stern. On passenger ships and warships, the superstructure generally extends far forward.

### Equipment

Shipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors as the ship's era, design, area of operation, and purpose. Some types of equipment that are widely found include:

• Masts can be the home of antennas, navigation lights, radar transponders, fog signals, and similar devices often required by law.
• Ground tackle includes equipment such as mooring winches, windlasses, and anchors. vessel is said to be moored when it is fastened to a fixed object such as a Pier, Quay or the seabed or to a floating object such as an anchor buoy Anchors are used to moor ships in shallow water. vessel is said to be moored when it is fastened to a fixed object such as a Pier, Quay or the seabed or to a floating object such as an anchor buoy They are connected to the ship by a rope or chain. On larger vessels, the chain runs through a hawsepipe. An anchor is an object often made out of metal that is used to attach a ship to the bottom of a body of water at a specific point
• Cargo equipment such as cranes and cargo booms are used to load and unload cargo and ship's stores.
• Safety equipment such as lifeboats, liferafts, fire extinguishers, and survival suits are carried aboard many vessels for emergency use. A lifeboat is a small craft carried on a ship to provide a means of emergency evacuation in the event of a disaster aboard the ship A fire extinguisher is an Active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires often in emergency situations An immersion suit, or survival suit (or more specifically an immersion survival suit is a special type of waterproof Dry suit that protects the wearer from

## Design considerations

### Hydrostatics

Some vessels, like the LCAC, can operate in a non-displacement mode. The Landing Craft Air Cushioned (LCAC is a class of air-cushion vehicle / Hovercraft used as Landing craft by the United States Navy and

Boats and ships are kept on (or slightly above) the water in three ways:

• For most vessels, known as displacement vessels, the vessel's weight is offset by that of the water displaced by the hull.
• For planing ships and boats, such as the hydrofoil, the lift developed by the movement of the foil through the water increases with the vessel's speed, until the vessel is foilbourne.
• For non-displacement craft such as hovercraft and air-cushion vehicles, the vessel is suspended over the water by a cushion of high-pressure air it projects downwards against the surface of the water. A hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicle (ACV is an Amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface supported by A hovercraft, or air-cushion vehicle (ACV is an Amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface supported by

A vessel is in equilibrium when the upwards and downwards forces are of equal magnitude. As a vessel is lowered into the water its weight remains constant but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases. When the two forces are equal, the boat floats. If weight is evenly distributed throughout the vessel, it floats without trim or heel.

A vessel's stability is considered in both this hydrostatic sense as well as a hydrodynamic sense, when subjected to movement, rolling and pitching, and the action of waves and wind. Initial stability is the resistance of a Boat to a small amount of lateral tilting from its equilibrium position. Ship stability is an area of Naval Architecture and ship design that deals with how a ship behaves at sea both in still water and in waves Stability problems can lead to excessive pitching and rolling, and eventually capsizing and sinking.

### Hydrodynamics

A system of waves forms as Dona Delfina gains speed and begins to plane.

The advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water. This resistance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. Wave making resistance is a form of drag that affects surface Watercraft, such as Boats and Ships and reflects the energy required to push To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use submerged hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves. To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduced by regular maintenance of the hull to remove the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. Antifouling paint is commonly used to assist in this. Biofouling or biological fouling is the undesirable accumulation of Microorganisms Plants Algae and Animals on submerged structures Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow assist in decreasing wave resistance. The bulbous bow, a standard feature of most large modern Ships with displacement hulls, is a protruding bulb at the bow (or front below the Waterline

A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Amplitude is the magnitude of change in the oscillating variable with each Oscillation, within an oscillating system Since the water is not able to "get out of the way of the hull fast enough," the hull, in essence, has to climb over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed. The exponential function is a function in Mathematics. The application of this function to a value x is written as exp( x)

This hull speed is found by the formula:

$\mbox{knots} \approx 1.34 \times \sqrt{l \mbox{ft}}$

Or, in metric units:

$\mbox{knots} \approx 2.5 \times \sqrt{l \mbox{m}}$

When the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 0. Hull speed, sometimes referred to as displacement speed, is a Rule of thumb used to provide an approximate maximum efficient speed for a hull The metric system is a decimalised system of measurement. It exists in several variations with different choices of base units, though the choice of base units does 94, it starts to outrun most of its bow wave, and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is now only supported by two wave peaks. A bow wave is the Wave that forms at the bow of a ship when it moves through the water As the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 1. 34, the hull speed, the wavelength is now longer than the hull, and the stern is no longer supported by the wake, causing the stern to squat, and the bow rise. The hull is now starting to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull faster than a speed/length ratio of 1. 34, it is prohibitively expensive to do so. Most large vessels operate at speed/length ratios well below that level, at speed/length ratios of under 1. 0.

Vessels move along the three axes: 1.  heave, 2.  sway, 3.  surge, 4.  yaw, 5.  pitching, 6.  roll

For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is one of the branches of Fluid mechanics that uses Numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve

Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effects of wind and weather. Ocean surface waves are Surface waves that occur on the Free surface of the Ocean. A swell, in the context of an Ocean, is a formation of long Wavelength Ocean surface waves on the sea Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) The weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given Atmosphere at a given Time. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment, and must be controlled if possible. The rolling movement can be controlled, to an extent, by ballasting or by devices such as fin stabilizers. This article refers to the nautical term For other uses see Stabilizer. Pitching movement is more difficult to limit and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.

## Lifecycle

A ship will pass through several stages during its career. The first is usually an initial contract to build the ship, the details of which can vary widely based on relationships between the shipowners, operators, designers and the shipyard. A Shipowner is the owner of a commercial Ship. In the commercial sense of the term a shipowner is someone who equips and exploits a ship usually for delivering Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design construction and repair of marine vehicles Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships These can be Yachts military Then, the design phase carried out by a naval architect. Then the ship is constructed in a shipyard. After construction, the vessel is launched and goes into service. Ships end their careers in a number of ways, ranging from shipwrecks to service as a museum ship to the scrapyard. A shipwreck can refer to a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink the stranding of the ship on rocks For ships that are not original see Ship replica. For preserved incomplete ships see Ships preserved in museums. Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of Recycling involving the breaking up of Ships for Scrap.

### Design

Lines plan for the hull of a basic cargo ship

A vessel's design starts with a specification, which a naval architect uses to create a project outline, assess required dimensions, and create a basic layout of spaces and a rough displacement. Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design construction and repair of marine vehicles After this initial rough draft, the architect can create an initial hull design, a general profile and an initial overview of the ship's propulsion. At this stage, the designer can iterate on the ship's design, adding detail and refining the design at each stage.

The designer will typically produce an overall plan, a general specification describing the peculiarities of the vessel, and construction blueprints to be used at the building site. Designs for larger or more complex vessels may also include sail plans, electrical schematics, and plumbing and ventilation plans.

### Construction

A ship launching at the Northern Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland

Ship construction takes place in a shipyard, and can last from a few months for a unit produced in series, to several years to reconstruct a wooden boat like the frigate Hermione, to more than 10 years for an aircraft carrier. The ceremonies involved in naming and launching naval ships are based in traditions thousands of years old Gdańsk ( Polish pronunciation; 'Danzig', Gduńsk Gedania Dantiscum is the City at the centre of the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in Poland Hull materials and vessel size play a large part in determining the method of construction. The hull of a mass-produced fiberglass sailboat is constructed from a mold, while the steel hull of a cargo ship is made from large sections welded together as they are built.

Generally, construction starts with the hull, and on vessels over about 30 meters, by the laying of the keel. This is done in a dry dock or on land. Once the hull is assembled and painted, it is launched. The last stages, such as raising the superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation, can be done after the vessel is afloat.

Once completed, the vessel is delivered to the customer. Ship launching is often a ceremony of some significance, and is usually when the vessel is formally named. The ceremonies involved in naming and launching naval ships are based in traditions thousands of years old A typical small rowboat can cost under US$100,$1,000 for a small speedboat, tens of thousands of dollars for a cruising sailboat, and about $2,000,000 for a Vendée Globe class sailboat. The Vendée Globe is a round-the-world single-handed yacht race, sailed non-stop and without assistance A 25 metres (82 ft) trawler may cost$2. 5 million, and a 1,000-person-capacity high-speed passenger ferry can cost in the neighborhood of $50 million. A ship's cost partly depends on its complexity: a small, general cargo ship will cost$20 million, a Panamax-sized bulk carrier around $35 million, a supertanker around$105 million and a large LNG carrier nearly $200 million. A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of Ship or vessel that carries Cargo, goods and materials from one port to another " Panamax " ships are of the maximum dimensions that will fit through the locks of the Panama Canal. Definition There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier History The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry An LNG carrier is a ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas ( LNG) The most expensive ships generally are so due to the cost of embedded electronics: a Seawolf class submarine costs around$2 billion, and an aircraft carrier goes for about \$3. Boats ''Seawolf'' (SSN-21, commissioned and in service ''Connecticut'' (SSN-22, commissioned and in service ''Jimmy 5 billion.

### Repair and conversion

An able seaman uses a needlegun scaler while refurbishing a mooring winch at sea. See also Seafarer's professions and ranks An Able Seaman (AB is an unlicensed member of the Deck department of a Merchant ship. A needlegun scaler or needle-gun is a tool used in metalwork applications as diverse as home repair automotive repair and shipboard preservation

Ships undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career, whether they be underway, pierside, or in some cases, in periods of reduced operating status between charters or shipping seasons.

Most ships do, however, require trips to special facilities such as a drydock at regular intervals. A drydock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform Some tasks often done at drydock include removing biological growths on the hull, sandblasting and repainting the hull, and replacing sacrificial anodes used to protect submerged equipment from corrosion. Sandblasting or Bead blasting is a generic term for the process of smoothing shaping and cleaning a hard surface by forcing solid particles across that surface at high speeds A sacrificial anode, or sacrificial rod, is a metallic Anode used in Cathodic protection where it is intended to be dissolved to protect other metallic Major repairs to the propulsion and steering systems as well as major electrical systems are also often performed at dry dock.

Vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility equipped for major repairs, such as a shipyard. Ships are may also be converted for a new purpose; oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage and offloading units. History The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry A Floating Production Storage and Offloading vessel ( FPSO; also called a "unit" and a "system" is a type of floating tank system used by the offshore

### End of service

Most ocean-going cargo ships have a life expectancy of between 20 and 30 years. Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of Recycling involving the breaking up of Ships for Scrap. Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially A sailboat made of plywood or fiberglass can last between 30 and 40 years. Solid wooden ships can last much longer but require regular maintenance. Carefully maintained steel-hulled yachts can have a lifespan of over 100 years.

As ships age, forces such as corrosion, osmosis, and rotting compromise hull strength, and a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail. At this point, it can be scuttled at sea or scrapped by shipbreakers. Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull. Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of Recycling involving the breaking up of Ships for Scrap. Ship breaking or ship demolition is a type of Recycling involving the breaking up of Ships for Scrap. Ships can also be used as museum ships, or expended to construct breakwaters or artificial reefs. For ships that are not original see Ship replica. For preserved incomplete ships see Ships preserved in museums. An artificial reef is a man-made underwater structure typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom

Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard, and are lost in fires, collisions, grounding, or sinking at sea. Ship grounding is a type of marine accident that involves the impact of a ship on the Seabed, resulting in damage of the submerged part of her hull and in particularly the bottom

## Measuring ships

One can measure ships in terms of overall length, length of the ship at the waterline, beam (breadth), depth (distance between the crown of the weather deck and the top of the keelson), draft (distance between the highest waterline and the bottom of the ship) and tonnage. A hull is the body of a Ship or Boat. It is a central concept in floating vessels as it provides the Buoyancy that keeps the vessel from sinking The draft (or draught) of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the Waterline and the bottom of the hull ( Keel) with the thickness Tonnage is a measure of the size or Cargo capacity of a Ship. A number of different tonnage definitions exist and are used when describing merchant ships for the purpose of tolls, taxation, etc.

In Britain until Samuel Plimsoll's Merchant Shipping Act of 1876, ship-owners could load their vessels until their decks were almost awash, resulting in a dangerously unstable condition. Anyone who signed on to such a ship for a voyage and, upon realizing the danger, chose to leave the ship, could end up in jail. Jail, or gaol (especially in Canada, Australia and NZ[http //www

Samuel Plimsoll, a Member of Parliament, realised the problem and engaged some engineers to derive a fairly simple formula to determine the position of a line on the side of any specific ship's hull which, when it reached the surface of the water during loading of cargo, meant the ship had reached its maximum safe loading level. Samuel Plimsoll (10 February 1824 &ndash 3 June 1898 was a British Politician and social reformer now best remembered for having devised the Plimsoll line. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. An engineer is a person professionally engaged in a field of Engineering. In Mathematics and in the Sciences a formula (plural formulae, formulæ or formulas) is a concise way of expressing information To this day, that mark, called the "Plimsoll Line", exists on ships' sides, and consists of a circle with a horizontal line through the centre. Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level at which Ship or Boat floats in the Water. Circles are simple Shapes of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which are at a constant Distance, called the On the Great Lakes of North America the circle is replaced with a diamond. Because different types of water (summer, fresh, tropical fresh, winter north Atlantic) have different densities, subsequent regulations required painting a group of lines forward of the Plimsoll mark to indicate the safe depth (or freeboard above the surface) to which a specific ship could load in water of various densities. Hence the "ladder" of lines seen forward of the Plimsoll mark to this day. This is called the "freeboard mark" or "load line mark" in the marine industry. Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level at which Ship or Boat floats in the Water.

## Ship pollution

Ship pollution is the pollution of air and water by shipping. Ship pollution is the pollution of air and Water by Shipping. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. Shipping is physical process of Transporting goods and Cargo. It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized, posing an increasing threat to the world’s oceans and waterways as globalization continues. Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones It is expected that, “…shipping traffic to and from the USA is projected to double by 2020. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the "[11] Because of increased traffic in ocean ports, pollution from ships also directly affects coastal areas. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo The pollution produced affects biodiversity, climate, food, and human health. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. However, the degree to which humans are polluting and how it affects the world is highly debated and has been a hot international topic for the past 30 years.

### Oil spills

The Exxon Valdez spilled 10. The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24 1989 8 million gallons of oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound. Prince William Sound is a sound of the Gulf of Alaska on the south coast of the U [12]

Oil spills have devastating effects on the environment. Crude oil contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH s are Chemical compounds that consist of fused Aromatic rings and do not contain Heteroatoms or Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of [13] Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles.

By the sheer amount of oil carried, modern oil tankers must be considered something of a threat to the environment. An oil tanker can carry 2 million barrels (320,000 m³) of crude oil, or 62,000,000 gallons. This is more than six times the amount spilled in the widely known Exxon Valdez incident. The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, on March 24 1989 In this spill, the ship ran aground and dumped 10. 8 million gallons of oil into the ocean in March of 1989. Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers, over 400,000 seabirds, about 1,000 sea otters, and immense numbers of fish were killed. Seabirds are Birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment The sea otter ( Enhydra lutris) is a Marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. [13]

The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation has researched 9,351 accidental spills since 1974. [14] According to this study, most spills result from routine operations such as loading cargo, discharging cargo, and taking on fuel oil. [14] 91% of the operational oil spills were small, resulting in less than 7 tons per spill. [14] Spills resulting from accidents like collisions, groundings, hull failures, and explosions are much larger, with 84% of these involving losses of over 700 tons. [14]

Following the Exxon Valdez spill, the United States passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), which included a stipulation that all tankers entering its waters be double-hulled by 2015. The Oil Pollution Act (101 HR1465 PL 101-380) was passed by the United States Congress to prevent further Oil spills from occurring in the United States History The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry Following the sinkings of the Erika (1999) and Prestige (2002), the European Union passed its own stringent anti-pollution packages (known as Erika I, II, and III), which require all tankers entering its waters to be double-hulled by 2010. Erika was the name of a tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf. The Prestige was an Oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large Oil spill. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in The Erika packages are controversial because they introduced the new legal concept of "serious negligence". [15]

### Ballast water

A cargo ship pumps ballast water over the side

When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo, sea-water is pumped into compartments in the hull to help stabilize and balance the ship. Container ships are Cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers in a technique called Containerization. During loading, this ballast water is pumped out from these compartments.

One of the problems with ballast water transfer is the transport of harmful organisms. Meinesz[16] believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless jellyfish. Jellyfish are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. They have several different basic morphologies that represent several different cnidarian classes including the Mnemiopsis leidyi, a species of comb jellyfish that inhabits estuaries from the United States to the Valdés peninsula in Argentina along the Atlantic coast, has caused notable damage in the Black Sea. The warty comb jelly or sea walnut ( Mnemiopsis leidyi) is a Species of tentaculate Ctenophore (comb "jellyfish" For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey It was first introduced in 1982, and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship’s ballast water. The population of the jellyfish shot up exponentially and, by 1988, it was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. For the computer security term see Phishing. Fishing is the activity of catching Fish. "The anchovy catch fell from 204,000 tons in 1984 to 200 tons in 1993; sprat from 24,600 tons in 1984 to 12,000 tons in 1993; horse mackerel from 4,000 tons in 1984 to zero in 1993. "[16] Now that the jellyfish have exhausted the zooplankton, including fish larvae, their numbers have fallen dramatically, yet they continue to maintain a stranglehold on the ecosystem. Zooplankton are the Heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) type of Plankton. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Recently the jellyfish have been discovered in the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. Invasive species can take over once occupied areas, facilitate the spread of new diseases, introduce new genetic material, alter landscapes and jeopardize the ability of native species to obtain food. A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and can be deadly Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is "On land and in the sea, invasive species are responsible for about 137 billion dollars in lost revenue and management costs in the U. S. each year. "[13]

Ballast and bilge discharge from ships can also spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike. The bilge is the lowest compartment on a ship where the two sides meet A pathogen (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering passion" and γἰγνομαι (γεν- gignomai (gen- "I give birth to" infectious A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low [17] Discharges into coastal waters, along with other sources of marine pollution, have the potential to be toxic to marine plants, animals, and microorganisms, causing alterations such as changes in growth, disruption of hormone cycles, birth defects, suppression of the immune system, and disorders resulting in cancer, tumors, and genetic abnormalities or even death. A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism and also called a microbe) is an Organism that is Microscopic (usually Hormones (from Greek ὁρμή - "impetus" are chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic [13]

### Exhaust emissions

Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort “Seagoing vessels are responsible for an estimated 14 percent of emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels and 16 percent of the emissions of sulfur from petroleum uses into the atmosphere. ”[13] In Europe ships make up a large percentage of the sulfur introduced to the air, “…as much sulfur as all the cars, lorries and factories in Europe put together. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck.[18] “By 2010, up to 40% of air pollution over land could come from ships. ”[18] Sulfur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. Acid rain is Rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually Acidic It has harmful effects on plants aquatic animals and infastructure When inhaled sulfur is known to cause respiratory problems and increase the risk of a heart attack. In living organisms a respiratory system functions to allow Gas exchange. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply [18]

## Notes

2. ^ Chisholm, 1911:703.
3. ^ Li Shu-hua, “Origine de la Boussole 11. Aimant et Boussole,” Isis, Vol. 45, No. 2. (Jul. , 1954), p. 181
4. ^ Frederic C. Lane, “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass,” The American Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 3. (Apr. , 1963), p. 615ff.
5. ^ Chisholm, 1911:284.
6. ^ Paulet, Dominique; Presles ,Dominique (1999). Architecture navale, connaissance et pratique (in Français). Paris: Éditions de la Villette. ISBN 2-903539-46-4.
7. ^ UNCTAD 2007, p. xii uses a similar, but slightly more detailed classification system.
8. ^ With the addition of corvettes, this is the categorization used at United States Navy. U.S. Navy Ships. United States Navy. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1303 - The University of Rome La Sapienza is instituted by Pope Boniface VIII.
9. ^ Hospital Ship (definition via WordNet, Princeton University)
10. ^ inforMARE - FORUM of Shipping and Logistics
11. ^ Watson, T. WordNet is a Semantic lexicon for the English language. It groups English words into sets of synonyms called Synsets, provides short general Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. (2004, August 30). Ship pollution clouds USA's skies. USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-08-30-ship-pollution_x.htm
13. ^ a b c d e Panetta, L. E. (Chair) (2003). America's living oceans: charting a course for sea change [Electronic Version, CD] Pew Oceans Commission.
14. ^ a b c d International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Statistics
15. ^ European Parliament [2005]. The European Parliament ( Europarl or EP) is the only directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of penalties for infringements. Retrieved on 2008-02-22. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne
16. ^ a b Meinesz, A. (2003). Deep Sea Invasion. The Impact of Invasive Species. PBS: NOVA. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/algae/impact.html
17. ^ National Research Council, Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health, Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. (1999). From monsoons to microbes: understanding the ocean's role in human health. Washington, D. C. : National Academy Press
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