|Communist Party of Peru|
Flag of the Communist Party of Peru
|Branch||The People's Guerrilla Army is the official name of the armed branch of the party. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader|
|Size||Probably a few hundred fighters|
|Garrison/HQ||Unknown, probably Upper Huallaga Valley|
|Nickname||Sendero Luminoso, Shining Path|
|Motto||"Long live the People's War," "It is Right to Rebel"|
|Anniversaries||May 17, 1980|
|Equipment||Small arms and dynamite|
|Engagements||Internal conflict in Peru|
|Hammer and sickle|
The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc The Huallaga Valley is located in northern Peru, south of Tarapoto. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Small arms is a term used by the Armed forces to refer to Infantry Weapons such as the Firearms that an individual soldier can carry Dynamite is an explosive based on the explosive potential of Nitroglycerin, initially using Diatomaceous earth (kieselgur US Spelling kieselguhr It has been estimated that nearly 70000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru that started in 1980 and although still ongoing had greatly wound down by 2000 Comrade Artemio is the alias of the man believed by many to be the current leader of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru. Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso (born 3 December 1934 also known by the Nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo ( English: President Gonzalo) Óscar Ramírez Durand, who is commonly known as Comrade Feliciano, was one of the leaders of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla movement The hammer and sickle is a part of Communist symbolism and its usage indicates an association with Communism, Communist Party, or Communist state Maoism, variably and officially known as Mao Zedong Thought ( is a variant of Marxism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. When it first launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980, its stated goal was to replace what it saw as bourgeois democracy with "New Democracy. It has been estimated that nearly 70000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru that started in 1980 and although still ongoing had greatly wound down by 2000 For different uses of the term including Political parties with the name "New Democracy" see New Democracy (disambiguation. " The Shining Path believed that by imposing a dictatorship of the proletariat, inducing cultural revolution, and eventually sparking world revolution, they could arrive at pure communism. The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in the People’s Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into This is about the concept of world revolution in Marxist theory Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Shining Path also believed that all existing socialist countries were revisionist, and that the Shining Path itself was the vanguard of the world communist movement. The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers' state) can carry one of several different (but related meanings In strictly speaking any The term "revisionism" is also used to refer to other concepts Shining Path's ideology and tactics have been influential on other Maoist insurgent groups, notably the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and other Revolutionary Internationalist Movement-affiliated organizations. An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist (नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (माओवादी is a Maoist Political party The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. 
Shining Path is regarded by Peru as a terrorist organization. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Widely condemned for its brutality, including violence deployed against peasants, trade union organizers, popularly elected officials and the general civilian population, The group is on the U.S. Department of State's list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and the European Union and Canada likewise regard them as a terrorist organization and prohibit providing funding or other financial support. A peasant is an agricultural worker who subsists by working a small plot of ground A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming " Foreign Terrorist Organization " is a designation of non- United States -based organizations declared terrorist by the United States Secretary of State The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Since the capture of its leader Abimael Guzmán in 1992, the Shining Path has only been sporadically active. Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso (born 3 December 1934 also known by the Nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo ( English: President Gonzalo)  Certain factions of the Shining Path now claim to fight in order to force the government to reach a peace treaty with the rebels. A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties usually countries or governments that formally ends an armed conflict
The common name of this group, Shining Path, distinguishes it from several other Peruvian communist parties with similar names (see Communism in Peru). Several different left -oriented organizations refer to themselves as the Communist Party of Peru (in Spanish: Partido Comunista del Peru) or similar names It originates from a maxim of José Carlos Mariátegui, founder of the original Peruvian Communist Party in the 1920s: "El Marxismo-Leninismo abrirá el sendero luminoso hacia la revolución" ("Marxism-Leninism will open the shining path to revolution"). José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira ( 14 June 1894 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian journalist Political philosopher, and activist The Peruvian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Peruano) is a Communist party in Peru. Marxism-Leninism is a Communist ideological stream that emerged as the mainstream tendency amongst the Communist parties in the 1920s as it was adopted  This maxim was featured in the masthead of the newspaper of a Shining Path front group, and Peruvian communist groups are often distinguished by the names of their publications. A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization such as intelligence agencies, Organized crime groups banned organizations religious The followers of the group are generally called senderistas. All documents, periodicals and other materials produced by the organization are signed by the Communist Party of Peru (PCP). Academics often refer to them as PCP-SL.
Shining Path was founded in the late 1960s by former university philosophy professor Abimael Guzmán (referred to by his followers by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo), whose teachings created the foundation for its militant Maoist doctrine. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso (born 3 December 1934 also known by the Nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo ( English: President Gonzalo) A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) It was an offshoot of the Communist Party of Peru — Bandera Roja ("red flag"), which in turn split from the original Peruvian Communist Party, a derivation of the Peruvian Socialist Party, founded by José Carlos Mariátegui in 1928. Peruvian Communist Party (Red Flag (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Peruano (Bandera Roja) was a Communist party in Peru founded in 1964 Red flags can signify a warning Martial law, defiance or Left-wing politics The Peruvian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Peruano) is a Communist party in Peru. The Peruvian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Peruano) is a Communist party in Peru. José Carlos Mariátegui La Chira ( 14 June 1894 16 April 1930) was a Peruvian journalist Political philosopher, and activist 
Shining Path first established a foothold in San Cristóbal of Huamanga University, in Ayacucho, where Guzmán taught philosophy. The San Cristóbal of Huamanga National University (in Spanish Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga) is a public university located in the city of Ayacucho Ayacucho ( Ayacuchu in Quechua) is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru. The university had recently reopened after being closed for about half a century, and many students of the newly-educated class adopted Shining Path's radical ideology. Between 1973 and 1975, Shining Path gained control of the student councils in the Universities of Huancayo and La Cantuta, and developed a significant presence in the National University of Engineering in Lima and the National University of San Marcos, the oldest university in the Americas. For colleges and universities see Students' union Student council is a curricular or Extra-curricular activity for Huancayo ( Wankayu in Quechua) is the capital of the Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru. The National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle ( Universidad Nacional de Educación Enrique Guzmán y Valle) often called La Cantuta, is a university The National University of Engineering (Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería UNI) is a public Engineering and Science university located in Lima Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking Major National University of Saint Mark (Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos UNMSM is a public university in Lima, Peru. The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the Continents of North America and South America Sometime later, it lost many student elections in the universities, including Guzmán's own San Cristóbal of Huamanga, and decided to abandon the universities and reconsolidate itself.
Beginning on March 17, 1980, the Shining Path held a series of clandestine meetings in Ayacucho, known as the Central Committee's second plenary. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Ayacucho ( Ayacuchu in Quechua) is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru.  It formed a "Revolutionary Directorate" that was political and military in nature, and ordered its militias to transfer to strategic areas in the provinces to start the "armed struggle". The group also held its "First Military School" where militants were instructed in military tactics and weapons use. They also engaged in the "criticism and self-criticism," a Maoist practice intended to purge bad habits and avoid repeating mistakes. During the First Military School, members of the Central Committee came under heavy criticism. Guzmán did not, and he emerged from the First Military School as the clear leader of Shining Path. 
When Peru's military government allowed elections for the first time in a dozen years in 1980, Shining Path was one of the few leftist political groups that declined to take part, and instead opted to launch a guerrilla war in the highlands of Ayacucho Region. It has been estimated that nearly 70000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru that started in 1980 and although still ongoing had greatly wound down by 2000 In Peru, the people directly elect a Head of state (the president) as well as a Legislature. Ayacucho is a region of Peru, located in the south-central Andes of the country On May 17, 1980, the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) A ballot box is a temporarily sealed container usually cuboid though sometimes a tamper resistant bag with a narrow slot in the top sufficient to accept a ballot paper Chuschi is a town in the Chuschi District of the Cangallo Province of the Ayacucho Region of Peru. It was the first "act of war" by Shining Path. However, the perpetrators were quickly caught, additional ballots were shipped to Chuschi, the elections proceeded without further incident, and the incident received very little attention in the Peruvian press. A ballot is a device (originally a small ball—see blackball) used to record choices made by Voters Each voter uses one ballot and ballots are not 
Throughout the 1980s, Shining Path grew in both the territory it controlled and the number of militants in its organization, particularly in the Andean highlands. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. At first, it gained support from local peasants by filling the political void left by the central government providing "popular justice" albeit in a bloody, rudimentary, and arbitrary manner. For example, Shining Path beat and killed widely disliked figures in the countryside, after conducting what it termed "popular" trials. It often killed cattle rustlers, whose crime is considered egregious in poor Peruvian villages.  It also killed managers of the state-controlled farming collectives and well-to-do merchants, who were unpopular with poor rural dwellers.  These actions caused the peasantry of many Peruvian villages to express some sympathy for the Shining Path, especially in the impoverished and neglected regions of Ayacucho, Apurímac, and Huancavelica. Apurímac is a region in central Peru. It is bordered on the east by the Cusco Region, on the west by the Ayacucho Region, and on the south by the Huancavelica is a Region in Peru. Area 2213147 km² Population 447054 ( 2005 census) At times, the civilian population of small neglected towns participated in such popular trials, especially when the victims of the trials were widely disliked.  However, only a small minority of peasants were ever as dogmatically Maoist as the Shining Path cadre. 
Shining Path's credibility was also bolstered by the government's initially tepid response to the insurgency. For over a year, the government refused to declare a state of emergency in the region affected by Shining Path's actions as the Interior Minister, José María de la Jara, believed the group could be easily defeated through Police actions.  Additionally, the civilian president, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, who returned to power in 1980, was reluctant to cede authority to the armed forces, as his first government had ended in a military coup. Fernando Belaúnde Terry ( October 7, 1912 &ndash June 4, 2002) was President of Peru for two terms (1963&ndash1968 and 1980&ndash1985 This gave the impression that the President was unconcerned about the activities of Sendero. The result was that, to the peasants in the areas where the Shining Path was active, the state gave the appearance of impotence or lack of interest in the region. However, it became evident that Shining Path represented a clear threat to the state. On December 29, 1981 the government declared an "emergency zone" in the three Andean regions of Ayacucho, Huancavelica and Apurímac, and granted the military the power to arbitrarily detain any suspicious person. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 The Peruvian Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas del Perú are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army Navy and Air Force components The military used this power extremely heavy-handedly, arresting scores of innocent people, at times subjecting them to torture and rape.  Police, military forces and members of the Popular Guerrilla Army (EGP) carried out several massacres throughout the conflict. Military personnel took to wearing black ski-masks in order to protect their identities and, therefore their safety and that of their families. Masks were also used to hide the identity of military personnel as they committed crimes.
In some areas, peasants formed anti-Shining Path patrols, called rondas. Ronda Campesina ( English: Peasant Round is a name given to autonomous peasant patrols in rural Peru. They were generally poorly-equipped despite donations of guns from the armed forces. Nevertheless, Shining Path guerrillas were militarily attacked by the rondas. The first such reported attack was in January 1983 near Huata, when ronderos killed 13 senderistas; in February in Sacsamarca, rondas stabbed and killed the Shining Path commanders of that area. In March 1983, ronderos brutally killed Olegario Curitomay, one of the commanders of the town of Lucanamarca. They took him to the town square, stoned him, stabbed him, set him on fire, and finally shot him. Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of Capital punishment whereby an organized group throws stones at the convicted individual until the person dies A stabbing is the penetration of a sharp or pointed object at close range  As a response, in April, Shining Path entered the province of Huancasancos and the towns of Yanaccollpa, Ataccara, Llacchua, Muylacruz and Lucanamarca, and killed 69 people in what became known as the Lucanamarca massacre. Huanca Sancos is a Province in central Ayacucho, Peru. On April 3, 1983, Shining Path rebels entered the town of The Lucanamarca massacre was a massacre of 69 peasants in and around the town of Lucanamarca Peru that took place on April 3, 1983. This was the first massacre by Shining Path of the peasant community. Other incidents followed, such as the one in Hauyllo, Tambo District, La Mar Province, Ayacucho Department. Tambo District is one of eight districts of the province La Mar in Peru. La Mar Province is a Province in the north-east corner of the Ayacucho Region, Peru. In that community, Shining Path killed 47 peasants, including 14 children aged between four and fifteen.  Additional massacres by Shining Path occurred, such as the one in Marcas on August 29, 1985. Events 708 - Copper coins are minted in Japan for the first time (Traditional Japanese date: August 10, 708) Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) 
Shining Path's attacks were not limited to the countryside. It mounted attacks against the infrastructure in Lima, killing civilians in the process. Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking In 1983, it sabotaged several electrical transmission towers, causing a citywide blackout, and set fire to the Bayer industrial plant, destroying it completely. A power outage (also known as power cut, power failure, power loss, or blackout) is the loss of the Electricity supply to an For other uses see Bayer (disambiguation or Beyer or Buyer. Bayer AG (German ˈbaɪə () is a German That same year, it set off a powerful bomb in the offices of the governing party, Popular Action. Popular Action ( Acción Popular) is a centrist and conservative liberal party in Peru. Escalating its activities in Lima, in June 1985 it again blew up electricity transmission towers in Lima, producing a blackout, and detonated car bombs near the government palace and the justice palace. A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other Vehicle and then detonated. It also was believed to be responsible for bombing a shopping mall.  At the time, President Fernando Belaúnde Terry was receiving the Argentine president Raúl Alfonsín. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín Foulkes (born 13 March 1927 in Chascomús) is an Argentine politician who was the President of Argentina In one of its last attacks in Lima, on July 16, 1992, the group detonated a powerful bomb on Tarata Street in the upscale Miraflores District in Lima, killing 25 people and injuring an additional 155. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) The Tarata bombing was a terrorist attack in Lima, Peru, on July 16, 1992 by the Shining Path guerrilla Miraflores is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. Known for its shopping areas gardens flower-filled parks and beaches it is one of the upscale 
During this period, Shining Path also practiced many selective assassinations targeting specific individuals, notably leaders of other leftist groups, local political parties, labor unions, and peasant organizations, some of whom were anti-Sendero Marxists. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  On April 24, 1985, in the midst of presidential elections, it tried to assassinate Domingo García Rada, the president of the Peruvian National Electoral Council, severely injuring him and mortally wounding his driver. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) In 1988, Constantin Gregory, an American citizen working for the United States Agency for International Development, was assassinated. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the United States federal government organization responsible for most non- military Two French aid workers were killed on December 4 that same year.  In August 1991, the group killed one Italian and two Polish priests in the department of Ancash. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland Ancash is a region in northern Peru. It is bordered by the La Libertad region on the north the Huánuco and Pasco regions on the  The following February, it assassinated María Elena Moyano, a well-known community organizer in Villa El Salvador, a vast shantytown in Lima. María Elena Moyano Delgado ( 29 November 1960 &ndash February 15 1992) was a Peruvian community organizer and activist of 
By 1991, Shining Path had control of much of the countryside of the center and south of Peru and had a large presence in the outskirts of Lima. As the organization grew in power, a cult of personality grew around Guzmán. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise The official ideology of Shining Path ceased to be 'Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-tung thought', and was instead referred to as 'Marxism-Leninism-Maoism-Gonzalo thought'.  Shining Path also engaged in armed conflicts with Peru's other major guerrilla group, the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) and with campesino self-defense groups organized by the Peruvian armed forces. The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement ( Spanish: Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru (MRTA was a Communist guerrilla movement
Although the extent of Shining Path atrocities and the reliability of reports remains a matter of controversy, the organization's use of violence is well documented. Shining Path frequently participated in particularly brutal methods of killing of its victims. The Shining Path explicitly rejected the very idea of human rights. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled A Shining Path document stated:
We start by not ascribing to either Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the Costa Rica [Convention on Human Rights], but we have used their legal devices to unmask and denounce the old Peruvian state. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais The American Convention on Human Rights (also known as the Pact of San José) is an international human rights instrument. . . . For us, human rights are contradictory to the rights of the people, because we base rights in man as a social product, not man as an abstract with innate rights. "Human rights" do not exist except for the bourgeois man, a position that was at the forefront of feudalism, like liberty, equality, and fraternity were advanced for the bourgeoisie of the past. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Liberté égalité fraternité, French for " Liberty, equality, fraternity ( Brotherhood)" is the motto But today, since the appearance of the proletariat as an organized class in the Communist Party, with the experience of triumphant revolutions, with the construction of socialism, new democracy and the dictatorship of the proletariat, it has been proven that human rights serve the oppressor class and the exploiters who run the imperialist and landowner-bureaucratic states. The proletariat (from Latin la ''proles'' "offspring" is a term used to identify a lower Social class; a member of such a class is proletarian Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The " dictatorship of the proletariat " or workers' state is a term employed by Marxists that refers to what they see as a temporary state between the Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude Bourgeois states in general. . . . Our position is very clear. We reject and condemn human rights because they are bourgeois, reactionary, counterrevolutionary rights, and are today a weapon of revisionists and imperialists, principally Yankee imperialists. The term Yankee, sometimes abbreviated to Yank, has a few related meanings often referring to someone of U
– Communist Party of Peru, Sobre las Dos Colinas
While Shining Path quickly seized control of large areas of Peru, it soon faced serious problems. Shining Path's Maoism was never popular. It never had the support of the majority of the Peruvian people. According to opinion polls, 15% of the population considered subversion to be justifiable in June 1988 while 17% considered it justifiable in 1991. An opinion poll is a survey of Public opinion from a particular sample. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" Subversion refers to an attempt to overthrow structures of Authority, including the State.  In June 1991, "the total sample disapproved of the Shining Path by an 83 to 7 percent margin, with 10 percent not answering the question. Among the poorest, however, only 58% stated disapproval of the Shining Path; 11 percent said they had a favorable opinion of the Shining Path, and some 31 percent would not answer the question. " A September 1991 poll found that 21 percent of those polled in Lima believed that the Shining Path did not kill and torture innocent people. The same poll found that 13% believed that society would be more just if the Shining Path won the war and 22% believed society would be equally just under the Shining Path as it was under the government. 
Many peasants were unhappy with Shining Path rule for a variety of reasons, such as its disrespect for indigenous culture and institutions, and the brutality of its "popular trials" that sometimes included "slitting throats, strangulation, stoning, and burning. " While punishing and even killing cattle thieves was popular in some parts of Peru, Shining Path also killed peasants and popular leaders for even minor offenses.  Peasants were also offended by the rebels' injunction against burying the bodies of Shining Path victims. 
Shining Path also became disliked for its policy of closing small and rural markets in order to end small-scale capitalism and to starve Lima.  As a Maoist organization, it strongly opposed all forms of capitalism, and also followed Mao's dictum that guerrilla warfare should start in the countryside and gradually choke off the cities. Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Peasants, many of whose livelihoods depended on trade in the markets, rejected such closures. In several areas of Peru, Shining Path also launched unpopular campaigns, such as a prohibition on parties and the consumption of alcohol. 
In 1991, President Alberto Fujimori issued a law that gave the rondas a legal status, and from that time they were officially called Comités de auto defensa ("Committees of Self Defence"). Alberto Ken'ya Fujimori (Japanese name) (born in Lima, Peru on July 28 1938 is a Peruvian and Japanese ref> Fujimori secures Japanese haven They were officially armed, usually with 12-gauge shotguns, and trained by the Peruvian Army. A shotgun (also known as a scattergun) is a Firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number The Peruvian Army ( Spanish: Ejército del Perú, abbreviated EP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with safeguarding According to the government, there were approximately 7,226 comités de auto defensa as of 2005; almost 4,000 are located in the central region of Peru, the stronghold of Shining Path.
The Peruvian government also clamped down on the Shining Path in other ways. Military personnel were dispatched to areas dominated by Shining Path, especially Ayacucho, to fight the rebels. Ayacucho itself was declared an emergency zone, and constitutional rights were suspended in the area.
Initial government efforts to fight Shining Path were not very effective or promising. Military units engaged in many human rights violations, which caused Shining Path to appear in the eyes of many as the lesser of two evils. They used excessive force and killed many innocent civilians. Government forces destroyed villages and killed campesinos suspected of supporting Shining Path. They eventually lessened the pace at which the armed forces committed atrocities such as massacres. Additionally, the state began the wide-spread use of intelligence agencies in its fight against Shining Path. However, atrocities were committed by the National Intelligence Service, notably the La Cantuta massacre and the Barrios Altos massacre, both of which were committed by Grupo Colina. The National Intelligence Service ( Spanish: Servicio de Inteligencia Nacional or SIN) was an Intelligence agency of the Government of Peru The La Cantuta massacre, in which a university professor and nine students from Lima 's La Cantuta University were abducted and " Disappeared quot by The Barrios Altos massacre took place on 3 November, 1991, in the Barrios Altos neighborhood of Lima, Peru. Grupo Colina was a paramilitary Death squad created in Peru that was active from 1990 until 1994 during the administration of Alberto Fujimori. 
After the collapse of the Fujimori government, interim President Valentín Paniagua, established a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate the conflict. Valentín Paniagua Corazao ( September 23, 1936 &ndash October 16, 2006) was a Peruvian politician and former Interim President The Peruvian Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC (in Spanish: Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (CVR) was established in June 2001 to examine The Commission found in its 2003 Final Report that 69,280 people died or disappeared between 1980 and 2000 as a result of the armed conflict. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from Public view either by Murder or by simple Sequestration.  About 54% of the deaths and disappearances reported to the Commission were caused by the Shining Path.  A statistical analysis of the available data led the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to estimate that the Shining Path was responsible for the death or disappearance of 31,331 people, 46% of the total deaths and disappearances.  According to a summary of the report by Human Rights Watch, "Shining Path… killed about half the victims, and roughly one-third died at the hands of government security forces… The commission attributed some of the other slayings to a smaller guerrilla group and local militias. Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. The rest remain unattributed. " The MRTA was held responsible for 1. 5% of the deaths. 
On September 12, 1992, Peruvian police captured Guzmán and several Shining Path leaders in an apartment above a dance studio in the Surquillo district of Lima. Events 1213 - Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Surquillo is a district in Lima, Peru. It is bordered by the districts of San Isidro and San Borja on the north by Miraflores The police had been monitoring the apartment, as a number of suspected Shining Path militants had visited it. An inspection of the garbage of the apartment produced empty tubes of a skin cream used to treat psoriasis, a condition that Guzmán was known to have. Psoriasis (səˈraɪəsɪs ( suh-RI-uh-sus) is a non-contagious disorder which affects the Skin and Joints It commonly causes red scaly Shortly after the raid that captured Guzmán, most of the remaining Shining Path leadership fell as well.  At the same time, Shining Path suffered embarrassing military defeats to self-defense organizations of rural campesinos — supposedly its social base. When Guzmán called for peace talks, the organization fractured into splinter groups, with some Shining Path members in favor of such talks and others opposed.  Guzmán's role as the leader of Shining Path was taken over by Óscar Ramírez, who himself was captured by Peruvian authorities in 1999. Óscar Ramírez Durand, who is commonly known as Comrade Feliciano, was one of the leaders of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla movement After Ramírez's capture, the group splintered, guerrilla activity diminished sharply, and previous conditions returned to the areas where the Shining Path had been active. 
Although the organization's numbers had lessened by 2003, a militant faction of Shining Path called Proseguir (or "Onward") continued to be active.  It is believed that the faction consists of three companies known as the North, or Pangoa, the Centre, or Pucuta, and the South, or Vizcatan. The government claims that Proseguir is operating in alliance with drug traffickers.
On June 9, 2003, a Shining Path group attacked a camp in Ayacucho, and took 68 employees of the Argentinian company Techint and three police guards as hostages. Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Organización Techint is a Multinational group based in Argentina, founded in 1945 by Italian immigrant Agostino Rocca, who They had been working in the Camisea gas pipeline project that would take natural gas from Cusco to Lima. The Camisea Gas Project extracts Natural gas originating near the Urubamba River in central Peru. Cusco ( Quechua: Qusqu suyu) is a region in Peru. It is bordered by the Ucayali Region on the north the Madre de Dios and  According to sources from Peru's Interior Ministry, the terrorists asked for a sizable ransom to free the hostages. Two days later, after a rapid military response, the terrorists abandoned the hostages; according to government sources no ransom was paid.  However, there were rumors that US$200,000 was paid to the rebels. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 
Government forces had successfully captured three Shining Path leading members. In April 2000, Commander José Arcela Chiroque, called "Ormeño", was captured, followed by another leader, Florentino Cerrón Cardozo, called "Marcelo" in July 2003. In November of the same year, Jaime Zuñiga, called "Cirilo" or "Dalton," was arrested after a clash in which four guerrillas were killed and an officer wounded.  Officials said he took part in planning the kidnapping of the Techint pipeline workers. He was also thought to have led an ambush against an army helicopter in 1999 in which five soldiers died.
In 2003, the Peruvian National Police broke up several Shining Path training camps and captured many members and leaders.  It also freed about 100 indigenous people held in virtual slavery. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another  By late October 2003 there were 96 terrorist incidents in Peru, projecting a 15% decrease from the 134 kidnappings and armed attacks in 2002.  Also for the year, 8 or 9 people were killed by Shining Path, and 6 Senderistas were killed and 209 captured. 
In January 2004, a man known as Comrade Artemio and identifying himself as one of the Shining Path leaders said in a media interview that the group would resume violent operations unless the Peruvian government granted amnesty to other top Shining Path leaders within 60 days. Comrade Artemio is the alias of the man believed by many to be the current leader of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru. Comrade Artemio is the alias of the man believed by many to be the current leader of the Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.  Peru's Interior Minister, Fernando Rospigliosi, said that the government would respond "drastically and swiftly" to any violent action. In September that same year, a comprehensive sweep by police in five cities found 17 suspected members. According to the interior minister, eight of the arrested were school teachers and high-level school administrators. 
Despite these arrests, Shining Path continues to exist in Peru. On December 22, 2005, Shining Path ambushed a police patrol in the Huánuco region, killing eight. Events 1790 - The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Huánuco is a city in central Peru. It has a population of 170588 as of 1999 and is the capital of the Huánuco Region and the Huánuco District.  Later that day they wounded an additional two police officers. In response, then President Alejandro Toledo declared a state of emergency in Huánuco, and gave the police the power to search houses and arrest suspects without a warrant. Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (born 28 March 1946 is a Peruvian Politician and Economist. On February 19, 2006, the Peruvian police killed Héctor Aponte, believed to be the commander responsible for the ambush. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  In December 2006, Peruvian troops were sent to counter renewed guerrilla activity and, according to high level government officials, Shining Path's strength has reached an estimated 300 members.  In November 2007, police claimed to have killed Artemio's second-in-command, a guerrilla known as JL.