A service is the non-material equivalent of a good. A service provision is an economic activity that does not result in ownership, and this is what differentiates it from providing physical goods. Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive rights and control over Property, which may be an object, land/real estate, Intellectual property It is claimed to be a process that creates benefits by facilitating either a change in customers, a change in their physical possessions, or a change in their intangible assets. A customer is someone who makes use of the paid products of an individual or Organization. In Business and Accounting, assets are everything owned by a person or company (all tangible and intangible property that can be converted into cash.
By supplying some level of skill, ingenuity,and experience, providers of a service participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying stock (inventory) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. A skill is the learned capacity or talent to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time energy or both. The term ingenuity or applied ideas is used in the analysis of Thomas Homer-Dixon, building on that of Paul Romer, to refer to what is usually called Experience as a general concept comprises Knowledge of or skill in or Observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004. On the other hand, their investment in expertise does require marketing and upgrading in the face of competition which has equally few physical restrictions. Investment or investing is a term with several closely-related meanings in Business management, Finance and Economics, related to saving Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources
Providers of services make up the Tertiary sector of industry.
Services can be paraphrased in terms of their main attributes. They are intangible and insubstantial; they cannot be handled, smelled, tasted, heard, etc. There is neither potential nor need for storage and they are said to be inseparable and perishable. Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter Because services are difficult to conceptualize, marketing them requires creative visualization to effectively evoke a concrete image in the customer's mind. A customer is someone who makes use of the paid products of an individual or Organization. From the customer's point of view, this characteristic makes it difficult to evaluate or compare services prior to experiencing the service delivery. They are perishable, unsold service time is a lost economic opportunity. For example a doctor who is booked for only two hours a day cannot later work those hours— she has lost her economic opportunity. A physician, medical practitioner or medical doctor who practices Medicine, and is concerned with maintaining or restoring human Health Other service examples are airplane seats (once the plane departs, those empty seats cannot be sold), and theatre seats (sales end at a certain point). There is a lack of transportability as services tend to be consumed at the point of "production" although this does not apply to outsourced business services. Services are regarded as heterogeneity or lack of homogeneity and are typically modified for each consumer or each new situation (consumerised). Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. Mass production of services is very difficult. Mass production (also called flow production, repetitive flow production, series production, or serial production) is the production of This can be seen as a problem of inconsistent quality. Both inputs and outputs to the processes involved providing services are highly variable, as are the relationships between these processes, making it difficult to maintain consistent quality. There is labor intensity as services usually involve considerable human activity, rather than a precisely determined process. Human resource management is important. Organizational studies - an overview Organizational development Collaborative method Management The human factor is often the key success factor in service industries. It is difficult to achieve economies of scale or gain dominant market share. Market share, in Strategic management and Marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available Market or Market segment that is There are demand fluctuations and it can be difficult to forecast demand which is also true of many goods. Supply and demand is an Economic model describing effects on price and quantity in a Market. Demand can vary by season, time of day, business cycle, etc. A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. For other uses see Time (disambiguation Time is a component of a measuring system used to sequence events to compare the durations of The term business cycle or economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity during its long term growth trend There is buyer involvement as most service provision requires a high degree of interaction between service consumer and service provider. A service provider is an Entity that provides services to other entities There is a client-based relationship based on creating long-term business relationships. Accountants, attorneys, and financial advisers maintain long-term relationships with their clientes for decades. These repeat consumers refer friends and family, helping to create a client-based relationship.
The clear-cut, consistent, generic definition of the service term reads as follows:
A service is a set of benefits delivered from the accountable service provider, mostly in close coaction with his service suppliers, generated by the functions of technical systems and/or by distinct activities of individuals, respectively, commissioned according to the needs of his service consumers by the service customer from the accountable service provider, rendered individually to the authorized service consumers on their dedicated request, and, finally, utilized by the requesting service consumers for executing and/or supporting their day-to-day business tasks or private activities.
Any service can be completely, consistently and cleary specified by means of the following 12 standard attributes
The meaning and content of these attributes are:
1. Service Consumer Benefits describe the (set of) benefits which are callable, receivable and effectively utilizable for any authorized service consumer and which are provided to him as soon as he requests the offered service. The description of these benefits must be phrased in the terms and wording of the intended service consumers.
2. Service-specific Functional Parameters specify the functional parameters which are essential and unique to the respective service and which describe the most important dimension of the service output, e. g. maximum e-mailbox capacity per registered and authorized e-mail service consumer.
3. Service Delivery Point describes the physical location and/or logical interface where the benefits of the service are made accessible, callable and receivable to the authorized service consumers. At this point and/or interface, the preparedness for service delivery can be assessed as well as the effective delivery of the service itself can be monitored and controlled.
4. Service Consumer Count specifies the number of intended, identified, named, registered and authorized service consumers which are allowed and enabled to call and utilize the defined service for executing and/or supporting their business tasks or private activities.
5. Service Readiness Times specify the distinct agreed times of day when
The time data are specified in 24 h format per local working day and local time, referring to the location of the intended service consumers.
6. Service Support Times specify the determined and agreed times of day when the usage and consumption of the contracted services is supported by the service desk team for all identified, registered and authorized service consumers within the service customer’s organizational unit or area. The service desk is the single point of contact for any service consumer inquiry regarding the contracted and delivered services. During the defined service support times, the service desk can be reached by phone, e-mail, web-based entries and/or fax, respectively. The time data are specified in 24 h format per local working day and local time, referring to the location of the intended service consumers.
7. Service Support Languages specifies the languages which are spoken by the service desk team(s) to the service consumers calling them.
8. Service Fulfillment Target specifies the service provider’s promise of effective and seamless delivery of the defined benefits to any authorized service consumer requesting the service within the defined service times. It is expressed as the promised minimum ratio of the counts of successful individual service deliveries related to the counts of called indivdual service deliveries. The effective service fulfillment ratio can be measured and calculated per single service consumer or per consumer group and may be referred to different time periods (workday, calenderweek, workmonth, etc. )
9. Maximum Impairment Duration per Incident specifies the allowable maximum elapsing time [hh:mm] between
10. Service Delivering Duration specifies the promised and agreed maximum period of time for effectively delivering all specified service consumer benefits to the requesting service consumer at the defined service delivery point.
11. Service Delivery Unit specifies the basic portion for delivering the defined service consumer benefits. The service delivery unit is the reference and mapping object for all cost for service generation and delivery as well as for charging and billing the consumed service volume to the service customer who has ordered the service delivery.
12. Service Delivering Price specifies the amount of money the service customer has to pay for the consumption of distinct service volumes. Normally, the service delivering price comprises two portions
The delivery of a service typically involves six factors:
The service encounter is defined as all activities involved in the service delivery process. Some service managers use the term "moment of truth" to indicate that defining point in a specific service encounter where interactions are most intense.
Many business theorists view service provision as a performance or act (sometimes humorously referred to as dramalurgy, perhaps in reference to dramaturgy). This is an annotated list of important business theorists It is in alphabetical order based on last name Dramaturgy is the art of Dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage The location of the service delivery is referred to as the stage and the objects that facilitate the service process are called props. In Theatre, the stage (sometimes referred to as the deck in Stagecraft) is a designated space for the Performance of theatrical productions A theatrical property, commonly referred to as a prop, is any object held or used on stage by an Actor for use in furthering the plot or story line of a Theatrical A script is a sequence of behaviours followed by all those involved, including the client(s). Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually Some service dramas are tightly scripted, others are more ad lib. Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Role congruence occurs when each actor follows a script that harmonizes with the roles played by the other actors. An actor, actress, player or thespian (see terminology) is a person who Acts in a Dramatic production and who works A role (sometimes spelled rôle) or a social role is a set of connected Behaviors Rights and Obligations as conceptualized by actors
In some service industries, especially health care, dispute resolution, and social services, a popular concept is the idea of the caseload, which refers to the total number of patients, clients, litigants, or claimants that a given employee is presently responsible for. On a daily basis, in all those fields, employees must balance the needs of any individual case against the needs of all other current cases as well as their own personal needs.
Under English law, if a service provider is induced to deliver services to a dishonest client by a deception, this is an offence under the Theft Act 1978. English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the Dishonesty is a word which in common usage may be defined as the act or to act without honesty a lack of probity to cheat lying or being deliberately deceptive lacking in The Theft Act 1978 supplemented the earlier Deception offences in English law contained in sections 15 and 16 of the Theft Act 1968 by reforming some aspects of those
The dichotomy between physical goods and intangible services should not be given too much credence. These are not discrete categories. Most business theorists see a continuum with pure service on one terminal point and pure commodity good on the other terminal point. A commodity is anything for which there is demand but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market Most products fall between these two extremes. In Marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a Market that might satisfy a want or need For example, a restaurant provides a physical good (the food), but also provides services in the form of ambience, the setting and clearing of the table, etc. A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared Food to Customers. Food is any substance usually composed primarily of Carbohydrates Fats water and/or Proteins that can be eaten or drunk by an And although some utilities actually deliver physical goods — like water utilities which actually deliver water — utilities are usually treated as services.
In a narrower sense, service refers to quality of customer service: the measured appropriateness of assistance and support provided to a customer. In the vernacular quality can mean a high degree of excellence (“a quality product” a degree of excellence or the lack of it (“work of average quality” or a property of Customer service (also known as Client Service) is the provision of service to customers before during and after a purchase This particular usage occurs frequently in retailing.
In 2005, USA was the largest producer of services followed by Japan and Germany, reports the International Monetary Fund. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Services accounted for 78. 5% of the U.S. Economy in 2007, compared to 20% in 1947. The Economy of the United States is the largest national economy in the world Year 1947 ( MCMXLVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The following is an incomplete list of service industries, grouped into rough sectors. Parenthetical notations indicate how specific occupations and organizations can be regarded as service industries to the extent they provide an intangible service, as opposed to a tangible good. The term profession is applied to those persons who have specialized and technical skill or knowledge which they apply for a fee to certain tasks that ordinary and unqualified people cannot An organization (or organisation &mdash see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals which controls its own performance and