|IUPAC name||5-Hydroxytryptamine or|
|Molar mass||176. IUPAC Nomenclature is a system of naming Chemical compounds and of describing the science of Chemistry in general CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for Chemical compounds Polymers biological sequences mixtures and Alloys They are also referred to PubChem is a Database of chemical Molecules The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI a component Medical Subject Headings ( MeSH) is a huge Controlled vocabulary (or metadata system for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier ( InChI, pronounced "INchee" is a textual Identifier for Chemical substances designed to provide a A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the Atoms that constitute a particular Chemical compound, and how the relationship between those atoms changes Molar mass, symbol M, is the Mass of one mole of a substance ( Chemical element or Chemical compound) 215|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for|
materials in their standard state
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Serotonin (pronounced /ˌsɛrəˈtoʊnən/) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. In Chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 Kilopascals exactly Monoamine neurotransmitters are Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators that contain one Amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a See Chemical synapse for an introduction to concepts and terminology used in this article Neurons (ˈnjuːɹɒn also known as neurones and nerve cells) are responsive cells in the Nervous system that process and transmit information In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges. Enterochromaffin (EC cells ( Kulchitsky cells) are a type of enteroendocrine cell occurring in the Epithelia lining the lumen of the Gastrointestinal Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Serotonin is also found in many mushrooms and plants, including fruits and vegetables. A mushroom is the fleshy Spore -bearing Fruiting body of a Fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however
In the central nervous system, serotonin plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the modulation of anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, appetite, and metabolism, as well as stimulating vomiting. In Vertebrates the central nervous system ( CNS) is the part of the Nervous system which is enclosed in the Meninges. See Chemical synapse for an introduction to concepts and terminology used in this article Anger is an emotional state that may range from minor irritation to intense rage In Psychology and other social and Behavioral sciences aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm Thermoregulation is the ability of an Organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries even when temperature surrounding is very different A mood is a relatively long lasting affective or emotional state Sleep is a Natural state of bodily rest observed throughout the animal kingdom Human sexual behavior or different human sexual practices encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners ( Mating and display Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the
In addition, serotonin is also a peripheral signal mediator. It is found extensively in the human gastrointestinal tract as about 80-90% of the body's total serotonin is found in the enterochromaffin cells in the gut. Enterochromaffin (EC cells ( Kulchitsky cells) are a type of enteroendocrine cell occurring in the Epithelia lining the lumen of the Gastrointestinal  In the blood, the major storage site is platelets, which collect serotonin for use in mediating post-injury vasoconstriction. Platelets, or Thrombocytes, are small cytoplasmic bodies derived from cells They circulate in the Blood of Mammals and are involved
The neurons of the raphe nuclei are the principal source of 5-HT release in the brain. The raphe nuclei (Latin raphe = 'seam' nuclei = cell 'clusters' pronounced RAY-fee are a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the Brain stem.  The raphe nuclei are neurons grouped into about nine pairs and distributed along the entire length of the brainstem, centered around the reticular formation. The brain stem (or brainstem) is the lower part of the Brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the Spinal cord. The reticular formation is a part of the Brain that is involved in actions such as awaking/ sleeping cycle, and lying down 
Axons from the neurons of the raphe nuclei form a neurotransmitter system, reaching large areas of the brain. In neuroscience neuromodulation is the process in which several classes of Neurotransmitters in the nervous system regulate diverse populations of Neurons (one Axons of neurons in the caudal dorsal raphe nucleus terminate in the following locations:
On the other hand, axons of neurons in the rostral dorsal raphe nucleus terminate in e. The dorsal raphe nucleus is a part of the Raphe nucleus and consists of rostral and caudal subdivisions The deep cerebellar nuclei are four in number on either side The four deep cerebellar nuclei are in the center of the cerebellum embedded in the white matter The cerebellum ( Latin: "little brain" is a region of the Brain that plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception The spinal cord is a long thin tubular bundle of Nerves that is an extension of the Central nervous system from the brain and is enclosed in and protected The dorsal raphe nucleus is a part of the Raphe nucleus and consists of rostral and caudal subdivisions g. :
Thus, activation of this serotonin system has effects on large areas of the brain. The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος = room chamber, IPA= /ˈθæləməs/ is a pair and symmetric part of the brain The striatum is a subcortical (ie inside rather than on the outside part of the Telencephalon. The hypothalamus links the Nervous system to the Endocrine system via the Pituitary gland (hypophysis The nucleus accumbens (NAcc also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the Septum The neocortex ( Latin for "new Bark " or "new Rind " is a part of the Brain of Mammals It is the outer layer of Cingulate gyrus (belt ridge in eng is a Gyrus in the medial part of the Brain. The hippocampus is a part of the Forebrain, located in the medial Temporal lobe. The la amygdalae ( Latin, also la corpus amygdaloideum, singular la amygdala, from Greek el αμυγδαλή grc-Latn amygdalē, 'almond'
Serotonin is released from serotonergic varicosities (swellings) into the extra neuronal space, but not from synaptic terminal boutons as other neurotransmitters. Serotonin diffuses over a relatively wide gap (>20µm) to activate 5-HT receptors located on the dendrites, cell bodies and presynaptic terminals of adjacent neurons. In the field of Neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the Neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator Serotonin, also Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, “tree” are the branched projections of a Neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical Chemical synapses are specialized junctions through which Neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in Muscles or Glands
5-HT receptors are the receptors for serotonin. In the field of Neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the Neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator Serotonin, also In the field of Neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the Neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator Serotonin, also In Biochemistry, a receptor is a Protein molecule embedded in either the Plasma membrane or Cytoplasm of a cell to which a mobile signaling They are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin as the endogenous ligand and of a broad range of pharmaceutical and hallucinogenic drugs. Neurons (ˈnjuːɹɒn also known as neurones and nerve cells) are responsive cells in the Nervous system that process and transmit information The word endogenous means "arising from within" the opposite of Exogenous. In Chemistry, a ligand is either an Atom, Ion, or Molecule (see also Functional group) that bonds to a central metal generally The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives With the exception of the 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand gated ion channel, all other 5-HT receptors are G protein coupled seven transmembrane (or heptahelical) receptors that activate an intracellular second messenger cascade. The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the superfamily of Ligand-gated ion channels a superfamily that also includes the neuronal Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Ion channels are pore-forming Proteins that help establish and control the small Voltage Gradient across the Plasma membrane of all living G protein-coupled receptors ( GPCRs) also known as seven transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, and Not to be confused with Intercellular, meaning "between cells" In Cell physiology, a secondary messenger system (also known as a second messenger system) is a method of cellular signaling whereby a diffusable signaling molecule
Serotonin has broad activities in the brain, and genetic variation in serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter, which facilitates reuptake of serotonin into presynapses, have been implicated in neurological diseases. The Serotonin transporter (SERT is a Monoamine transporter Protein. Drugs targeting serotonin-induced pathways are being used in the treatment of many psychiatric disorders, and one focus of clinical research is the influence of genetics on serotonin action and metabolism in psychiatric settings. Such studies have revealed that the variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter protein accounts for nearly 10% of total variance in anxiety-related personality , and the effect of this gene on depression was found to interact with the environment .
Levels of serotonin in the brain show association with aggression (Caspi et al. 2002), and a mutation in the gene which codes for the 5-HT2A receptor may double the risk of suicide for those with that genotype. The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor which belongs to the Serotonin receptor family and is a G protein coupled receptor 
Serotonergic action is terminated primarily via uptake of 5-HT from the synapse. Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a Neurotransmitter by the Neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic Neuron after This is through the specific monoamine transporter for 5-HT, 5-HT reuptake transporter, on the presynaptic neuron. Monoamine transporters are structures in nerve-cell membranes that function as Neurotransmitter transporters transferring Monoamine neurotransmitters The Serotonin transporter (SERT is a Monoamine transporter Protein. Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake including MDMA (ecstasy), amphetamine, cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, Amphetamine, and related drugs such as Methamphetamine are a group of drugs that act by increasing levels of Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and Dopamine Cocaine ( benzoylmethyl ecgonine) is a Crystalline Tropane Alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the Coca plant Dextromethorphan ( DXM or DM) is an Antitussive (cough suppressant drug found in many over-the-counter cold and Cough medicines A cough medicine is a medicinal drug used to treat Coughing and related conditions Tricyclic antidepressants (abbreviation TCAs) are a class of Antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders
5-hydroxytryptamine evokes endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and stimulates phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in bovine aortic endothelial cell cultures. 
Recent research suggests that serotonin plays an important role in liver regeneration and acts as a mitogen (induces cell division) throughout the body. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals A mitogen is a Chemical substance, usually some form of a Protein, that encourages a cell to commence Cell division, triggering Mitosis. 
If neurons that make serotonin — serotonergic neurons — are abnormal in infants, there is a risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is a syndrome marked by the symptoms of sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy Infant aged one month to one year  Low levels of serotonin may also be associated with intense religious experiences. The relationship between religion and science has long held interest for scholars particularly in the Philosophy of science, the Philosophy of religion, and 
Recent research conducted at Rockefeller University shows that in both patients who suffer from depression and in mice that model the disorder, levels of the p11 protein are decreased. The Rockefeller University is a private University which focuses primarily on basic research in the biomedical fields and offers graduate and postgraduate education p11 is a Protein found in the Brain of Humans and other Mammals which has been implicated in the regulation of mood. This protein is related to serotonin transmission within the brain. 
In the body, serotonin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan by a short metabolic pathway consisting of two enzymes: tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and amino acid decarboxylase (DDC). In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an Essential amino acid in the Human diet In Biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Tryptophan hydroxylase ( TPH) is an Enzyme ( involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter Serotonin. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase ( synonyms DOPA decarboxylase Tryptophan Decarboxylase, 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase AAAD is a Lyase The TPH-mediated reaction is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. TPH has been shown to exist in two forms: TPH1, found in several tissues, and TPH2, which is a brain-specific isoform. Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism A protein isoform is a version of a Protein with only small differences to another isoform of the same protein There is evidence that genetic polymorphisms in both these subtypes influence susceptibility to anxiety and depression. Polymorphism in biology occurs when two or more clearly different Phenotypes exist in the same population of a species — in other words the occurrence of more than one There is also evidence that ovarian hormones can affect the expression of TPH in various species, suggesting a possible mechanism for postpartum depression and premenstrual stress syndrome. The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as Hormones The endocrine system is instrumental Premenstrual syndrome ( PMS) (sometimes referred to as PMT or Premenstrual Tension) is a collection of physical psychological and emotional symptoms
Serotonin taken orally does not pass into the serotonergic pathways of the central nervous system because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a metabolic or cellular structure in the Central nervous system (CNS that restricts the passage of various chemical substances and microscopic However, tryptophan and its metabolite 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), from which serotonin is synthesized, can and do cross the blood-brain barrier. Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an Essential amino acid in the Human diet Metabolomics is the "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind" - specifically the study of their small-molecule metabolite 5-Hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP is a naturally-occurring Amino acid, a precursor to the Neurotransmitter Serotonin and an intermediate These agents are available as dietary supplements and may be effective serotonergic agents.
One product of serotonin breakdown is 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5 HIAA), which is excreted in the urine. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA is the main metabolite of Serotonin in the human body Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra. Serotonin and 5 HIAA are sometimes produced in excess amounts by certain tumors or cancers, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for these tumors. See also Cancer A tumor or tumour is the name for a swelling or lesion formed by an abnormal growth of cells (termed neoplastic Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled
Several classes of drugs target the 5-HT system including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, antiemetics, and antimigraine drugs as well as the psychedelic drugs and empathogens. A drug, broadly speaking is any chemical substance that when absorbed into the body An antidepressant is a Psychiatric medication used for alleviating major depression or Dysthymia ('milder' depression Antipsychotics are a group of Psychoactive drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat Psychosis, which is typified by Schizophrenia. An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of Symptoms of Anxiety. An anti-emetic is a drug that is effective against Vomiting and Nausea. Migraine is a neurological Syndrome characterized by altered bodily experiences painful headaches and nausea Psychedelic drugs are Psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe a class of Psychoactive drugs that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar
The psychedelic drugs psilocin/psilocybin, DMT, mescaline, and LSD mimick the action of serotonin at 5-HT2A receptors. Psychedelic drugs are Psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain and perception of the mind Psilocin (4-HO-DMT sometimes also (misspelled psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin, is a psychedelic ( hallucinogenic) Mushroom Psilocybin (IPA /saɪləˈsaɪbɪn/ (also known as psilocybine) is a psychedelic Indole of the Tryptamine family found in Psilocybin Dimethyltryptamine (DMT also known as NN -dimethyltryptamine, is a naturally occurring Tryptamine and potent psychedelic drug found not only in Mescaline or 345-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a naturally-occurring Psychedelic Alkaloid of the Phenethylamine class The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor which belongs to the Serotonin receptor family and is a G protein coupled receptor The empathogen MDMA (ecstasy) releases serotonin from synaptic vesicles of neurons. The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe a class of Psychoactive drugs that produce distinctive emotional and social effects similar MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, Neurons (ˈnjuːɹɒn also known as neurones and nerve cells) are responsive cells in the Nervous system that process and transmit information
The MAOIs prevent the breakdown of monoamine neurotransmitters (including serotonin), and therefore increase concentrations of the neurotransmitter in the brain. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOIs) are a class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. Monoamine neurotransmitters are Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators that contain one Amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a MAOI therapy is associated with many adverse drug reactions, and patients are at risk of hypertensive emergency triggered by foods with high tyramine content and certain drugs. A hypertensive emergency is severe Hypertension (high blood pressure with acute impairment of an Organ system (especially the Central nervous system In organic Chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy- Phenethylamine, para-tyramine p-tyramine is a Monoamine compound derived from the
Some drugs inhibit this re-uptake of serotonin, again making it stay in the synapse longer. The tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) inhibit the re-uptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine. Tricyclic antidepressants (abbreviation TCAs) are a class of Antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s Norepinephrine ( INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE) or noradrenaline ( BAN) (abbreviated NA or NAd) is a The newer selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have fewer (though still numerous) side-effects and fewer interactions with other drugs. In Biochemistry, a ligand ( latin ligare = to bind is a substance that is able to bind to and form a complex with a Biomolecule Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders
5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron are important antiemetic agents. The 5-HT3 antagonists are a class of Medications which act as Receptor antagonists at the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor (5-HT3 receptor Ondansetron ( INN) (ɒnˈdænsɛtrɒn or Zofran is a Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an Antiemetic to Granisetron is a Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used as an Antiemetic to treat Nausea and Vomiting following Tropisetron ( INN) is a Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an Antiemetic to treat Nausea and Vomiting An anti-emetic is a drug that is effective against Vomiting and Nausea. They are particularly important in treating the nausea and vomiting that occur during anticancer chemotherapy using cytotoxic drugs. Nausea ( Latin: Nausea, Greek:, " Sea-sickness " also called wamble) is the sensation of unease and discomfort Vomiting (also called throwing up, emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's Stomach through the Mouth and sometimes the Chemotherapy, in its most general sense refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells specifically those of micro-organisms or Cancer. Another application is in treatment of post-operative nausea and vomiting. Applications to the treatment of depression and other mental and psychological conditions have also been investigated with some positive results.
Extremely high levels of serotonin can have toxic and potentially fatal effects, causing a condition known as serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction that may occur following therapeutic drug use inadvertent interactions between drugs or the recreational In practice, such toxic levels are essentially impossible to reach through an overdose of a single anti-depressant drug, but require a combination of serotonergic agents, such as an SSRI with an MAOI. The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the Ingestion or application of a Drug or other substance in quantities Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOIs) are a class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression.  The intensity of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome vary over a wide spectrum, and the milder forms are seen even at non-toxic levels.  For example, recreational doses of MDMA (ecstasy) will generally cause such symptoms but only rarely lead to true toxicity. MDMA ( 34-methylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine) most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy (often abbreviated E, X, Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
In blood, serotonin stored in platelets is active wherever platelets bind, as a vasoconstrictor to stop bleeding, and also as a fibrocyte mitotic, to aid healing. Cardiac fibrosis refers to an abnormal thickening of the Heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts Because of these effects, overdoses of serotonin, or serotonin agonist drugs, may cause acute or chronic pulmonary hypertension from pulmonary vasoconstriction, or else syndromes of retroperitoneal fibrosis or cardiac valve fibrosis (endocardial fibrosis) from overstimulation of serotonic growth receptors on fibrocytes. Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the Retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing Cardiac fibrosis refers to an abnormal thickening of the Heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts
Serotonin itself may cause a syndrome of cardiac fibrosis when it is eaten in large quantities in the diet (the Matoki banana of East Africa) or when it is over-secreted by certain mid-gut carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid (also carcinoid tumour or carcinoid tumor) is a slow-growing but Malignant type of Neuroendocrine tumour, originating in the cells The valvular fibrosis in such cases is typically on the right side of the heart, since excess serotonin in the serum outside platelets is metabolized in the lungs, and does not reach the left circulation.
Serotonergic agonist drugs in overdose in experimental animals not only cause acute (and sometimes fatal) pulmonary hypertension, but there is epidemiologic evidence that chronic use of certain of these drugs produce a chronic pulmonary hypertensive syndrome in humans. An agonist is a term used to describe a type of ligand or drug that binds and alters the activity of a receptor. In Medicine, pulmonary hypertension (PH is an increase in blood pressure in the Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary vein, or pulmonary capillaries together known Some serotinergic agonist drugs also cause fibrosis anywhere in the body, particularly the syndrome of retroperitoneal fibrosis, as well as cardiac valve fibrosis. Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the Retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing Cardiac fibrosis refers to an abnormal thickening of the Heart valves due to inappropriate proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts 
In the past, three groups of serotonergic drugs have been epidemiolgically linked with these syndromes. They are the serotonergic vasoconstrictive anti-migraine drugs (ergotamine and methysergide), the serotonergic appetite suppressant drugs (fenfluramine, chlorphentermine, and aminorex), and certain anti-parkinsonian dopaminergic agonists, which also stimulate serotonergic 5-HT2B receptors. Ergotamine is an Ergopeptine and part of the Ergot family of Alkaloids it is structurally and biochemically closely related to Ergoline. Methysergide (UML-491 is a prescription drug used for prophylaxis of migraine headaches and is sold under the brand names Sansert and Deseril in 2mg dosages Fenfluramine is a drug that was part of the Fen/Phen anti- Obesity medication (the other drug being Phentermine) Chlorphentermine (trade names Apsedon, Desopimon, Lucofen) is a Stimulant drug which was used as an appetite suppressant. Aminorex is an Anorectic Stimulant Drug of the 2- Amino -5- Aryl Oxazoline class These include pergolide and cabergoline, but not the more dopamine-specific lisuride. Pergolide is an Ergoline -based Dopamine receptor Agonist used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and Cabaser an ergot derivative is a potent Dopamine receptor Agonist on D2 receptors Lisuride (brand name in Germany Dopergin) is an anti- Parkinson's Drug of the iso-ergoline class chemically related to the Dopaminergic  As with fenfluramine, some of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market after groups taking them showed a statistical increase of one or more of the side effects described. An example is pergolide. Pergolide is an Ergoline -based Dopamine receptor Agonist used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The drug was in decreasing use since reported in 2003 to be associated with cardiac fibrosis.  Two independent studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine in January 2007, implicated pergolide along with cabergoline in causing valvular heart disease. The New England Journal of Medicine ( N Engl J Med or NEJM) is an English-language Peer-reviewed Medical journal published Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and Cabaser an ergot derivative is a potent Dopamine receptor Agonist on D2 receptors Valvular heart disease is any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart (the aortic and mitral valves on the left and the pulmonary  As a result of this, the FDA removed pergolide from the U. S. market in March, 2007.  (Since cabergoline is not approved in the U. S. for Parkinson's Disease, but for hyperprolactinemia, the drug remains on the market. Treatment for hyperprolactinemia requires lower doses than that for Parkinson's Disease, diminishing the risk of valvular heart disease). 
Because neither the amino acid L-tryptophan nor the SSRI-class antidepressants raise blood serotonin levels, they are not under suspicion to cause the syndromes described. Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W) is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an Essential amino acid in the Human diet Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs) are a class of Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, Anxiety disorders However, since 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) does raise blood serotonin levels, it is under some of the same scrutiny as actively serotonergic drugs. 5-Hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP is a naturally-occurring Amino acid, a precursor to the Neurotransmitter Serotonin and an intermediate
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can be a debilitating disorder with the following two anxiety-related essential features: obsessions (undesirable, recurrent, disturbing thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive or ritualized behaviors). Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a Chronic Anxiety disorder most commonly characterized by obsessive Distressing Intrusive thoughts Some research shows that it may have to do with serotonin, which helps to keep people from repeating the same behaviors over and over again. A person who has OCD may not have enough serotonin. Therefore, many people who have OCD can function better when they take medicines that increase the amount of serotonin in their brain.
Serotonin is used by a variety of single-cell organisms for various purposes. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been found to be toxic to algae.  The gastrointestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica secretes serotonin, causing a sustained secretory diarrhea in some patients. For the infection and disease caused by this parasite refer to Amoebiasis.  Patients infected with Entamoeba histolytica have been found to have highly elevated serum serotonin levels which returned to normal following resolution of the infection. For the infection and disease caused by this parasite refer to Amoebiasis.  Entamoeba histolytica also responds to the presence of serotonin by becoming more virulent. For the infection and disease caused by this parasite refer to Amoebiasis. 
Serotonin is found in mushrooms and plants, including fruits and vegetables. A mushroom is the fleshy Spore -bearing Fruiting body of a Fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. The term " vegetable " generally means the edible parts of Plants The definition of the word is traditional rather than Scientific, however The highest values of 25–400 mg/kg have been found in nuts of the walnut (Juglans) and hickory (Carya) genuses. Walnuts (genus Juglans) are Plants in the family Juglandaceae. Trees in the genus Carya (from Ancient Greek κάρυον " Nut " are commonly known as Hickory. Serotonin concentrations of 3–30 mg/kg have been found in plantain, pineapple, banana, kiwifruit, plums, and tomatoes. The plantain is a crop in the genus Musa and is generally used for cooking in contrast to the soft sweet Banana (which is sometimes called the Pineapple ( Ananas comosus) is the common name for an edible Tropical Plant and also its Fruit It is native to the southern part of Brazil For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation. The kiwifruit (or kiwi is the edible Berry of a cultivar group of the woody Vine Actinidia deliciosa and A plum or gage is a stone fruit Tree in the genus Prunus, subgenus Prunus. The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Moderate levels from 0. 1–3 mg/kg have been found in a wide range of tested vegetables.  Serotonin is one compound of the poison contained in the stinging hairs of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Urtica dioica, commonly called stinging nettle, is a Herbaceous perennial Flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, It should be noted that serotonin, unlike its precursors 5-HTP and tryptophan, does not cross the blood–brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier (BBB is a metabolic or cellular structure in the Central nervous system (CNS that restricts the passage of various chemical substances and microscopic Several plants contain serotonin together with a family of related tryptamines that are methylated at the amino (NH2) and hydroxy (OH) groups, are N-oxides, or miss the OH group. Tryptamine is a Monoamine Alkaloid found in Plants and Animals. In Chemistry, a methyl group is a Hydrophobic Alkyl Functional group named after Methane (4 Amines are Organic compounds and Functional groups that contain a basic Nitrogen Atom with a Lone pair. An amine oxide, also known as amine- N -oxide and N -oxide, is a Chemical compound that contains the Functional group R3N+-O&minus Examples are plants from the Anadenanthera genus that are used in the hallucinogenic yopo snuff. Anadenanthera is a genus of South American trees in the Legume family Fabaceae. The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories Psychedelics, Dissociatives Anadenanthera peregrina, also known as Yopo, Cohoba, Mopo, Nopo, Parica or Calcium Tree, is
Serotonin as a neurotransmitter is found in all animals, including insects. See Chemical synapse for an introduction to concepts and terminology used in this article Several toad venoms, as well as that of the Brazilian Wandering Spider and stingray, contain serotonin and related tryptamines. The Colorado River Toad or Bufo alvarius, also known as the Sonoran Desert Toad, is a Psychoactive toad found in the Southwestern United Dasyatidae is a family of rays, cartilaginous marine Fishes related to Skates and Sharks Dasyatids are common in tropical
Isolated and named in 1948 by Maurice M. Rapport, Arda Green, and Irvine Page of the Cleveland Clinic, the name serotonin is something of a misnomer and reflects the circumstances of the compound's discovery. Irvine Heinly Page ( January 7, 1901 - June 10, 1991) was born in Indianapolis, Indiana and was an American The Cleveland Clinic (formally known as the Cleveland Clinic Foundation) is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio, A misnomer is a term which suggests an interpretation that is known to be untrue It was initially identified as a vasoconstrictor substance in blood serum – hence serotonin, a serum agent affecting vascular tone. Blood plasma is the Liquid component of Blood, in which the Blood cells are suspended This agent was later chemically identified as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) by Rapport, and, as the broad range of physiological roles were elucidated, 5-HT became the preferred name in the pharmacological field.