Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II. Gallia Narbonensis ( Narbonese Gaul) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Theodoric II (in Spanish and Portuguese Teodorico) murdered his older brother Thorismund to become king of the Visigoths in 453 Under the Visigoths it was known as simply Gallia or Narbonensis. It corresponded roughly with the modern French region of Languedoc-Roussillon. Languedoc-Roussillon ( Occitan: Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Catalan: Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is one of the 26 regions of France. It passed briefly to the Emirate of Córdoba in the eighth century before its reconquest by the Franks, who by the end of the ninth century termed it Gothia or the Gothic march (marca Gothica). The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic خلافة قرطبة ruled the Iberian peninsula ( Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group
Septimania was a march of the Carolingian Empire and then West Francia down to the thirteenth century, though it was culturally and politically separate from northern France and the central royal government. Mark from the Old English mearc and march (or various plural forms of these words derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary" Carolingian Empire is a historiographical term sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the Carolingian dynasty. West Francia or the West Frankish Kingdom was a short-lived kingdom encompassing the lands of the western part of the Carolingian Empire that came under the undisputed The region was under the influence of the Toulousain, Provence, and Catalonia. The first comites ( counts) of Toulouse were the administrators of the city and its environs under the Merovingians No succession of such royal Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. It was part of the cultural and linguistic region named Occitania that was finally brought within the control of the French kings through the Albigensian Crusade and it came under French governors. Occitania ( Occitan: Occitània) refers to the lands where Occitan is the traditional language in use though more recently viewed as a minority language The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209&ndash1229 was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the Cathar From the end of the thirteenth century it was known as Languedoc and its history is tied up with that of France. Languedoc ( in French Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former Province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon
The name "Septimania" may derive from part of the Roman name of the city of Béziers, Colonia Julia Septimanorum Beaterrae, which in turn alludes to the settlement of veterans of the Roman VII Legion in the city. Béziers ( Besièrs in Occitan, and Besiers in Catalan) is a town in Languedoc, in the southwest of France. Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis ( faithful and loyal Claudian legion) was a Roman legion. Another possible derivation of the name is in reference to the seven cities (civitates) of the territory: Béziers, Elne, Agde, Narbonne, Lodève, Maguelonne, and Nîmes. Elne ( French: Elne, ɛln Catalan Elna) is a town and commune of southern France, in the former province of Agde is the commune in the Hérault department in southern France that is the Mediterranean port of the Canal du Midi Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the Lodève ( Occitan: Lodeva) is a commune in the Hérault departement in Languedoc-Roussillon in southern France Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone is a commune in the Hérault department in Languedoc-Roussillon in southern France. Nîmes ( Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms is a city in southern France. Septimania extended to a line half-way between the Mediterranean Sea and the Garonne River in the northwest; in the east the Rhône separated it from Provence; and to the south its boundary was formed by the Pyrenees. The Garonne (Garonne in Occitan, Catalan and Spanish: Garona; Garumna is a River in southwest France and northern The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés
Under Theodoric II, the Visigoths settled in Aquitaine as foederati of the Western Roman Empire (450s). Aquitaine (Aquitània Akitania archaic Guyenne / Guienne (Occitan Guiana) is one of the 26 Regions of France, in the south-western part of Foederatus (pl foederati) is a Latin term whose definition and usage drifted in the time between the early Roman Republic and the The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern Sidonius Apollinaris refers to Septimania as "theirs" during the reign of Avitus (455–456), but Sidonius is probably considering Visigothic settlement of and around Toulouse. For the Franco-Irish saint see Sidonius of Saint-Saëns. Gaius Sollius (Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius or Saint Sidonius Apollinaris This article is about the Roman Emperor For the poet see Avitus of Vienne. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest  The Visigoths were then holding the Toulousain against the legal claims of the Empire, though they had more than once offered to exchange it for the Auvergne. Auvergne ( Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a Province of 
In 462 the Empire, controlled by Ricimer in the name of Libius Severus, granted the Visigoths the western half of the province of Gallia Narbonensis to settle. Ricimer (c 405 &ndash August 18, 472) (ˈrikimer was a Germanic general who was master of the Western Roman Empire during part of the fifth century Libius Severus was a Western Roman Emperor, 461&ndash465 Ricimer elevated Libius Severus of Lucanian origin to the rank of emperor after the The Visigoths occupied Provence (eastern Narbonensis) as well and only in 475 did the Visigothic king, Euric, cede it to the Empire by a treaty whereby the emperor Julius Nepos recognised the Visigoths' full independence. Provence ( Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm is a region of southeastern France Euric, also known as Evaric Erwig or Eurico in Spanish and Portuguese (c Julius Nepos (c 430–480 was a Western Roman Emperor (474–475 or –480 during the last stage of the Western Roman Empire.
The Visigoths, perhaps because they were Arian, met with the opposition of the Catholic Franks in Gaul. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group  The Franks allied with the Armorici, whose land was under constant threat from the Goths south of the Loire, and in 507 Clovis I, the Frankish king, invaded the Visigothic kingdom, whose capital lay in Septimania at Toulouse, with the consent of the leading men of the tribe. Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany Peninsula and the territory between the Loire ( Arpitan: Lêre, Occitan: Léger) is an administrative department in the east-central part of France occupying the Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler  Clovis defeated the Goths in the Battle of Vouillé and the child-king Amalaric was carried for safety into Spain while Gesalec was elected to replace him and rule from Narbonne. The Battle of Vouillé or Campus Vogladensis was fought in the northern Marches of Visigothic territory at a small place near Poitiers ( Gaul Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, (502 &ndash 531 was a son of king Alaric II and of Theodegotho daughter of Theodoric Gesalic (in Spanish Gesaleico, in Catalan Gesaleic, in Portuguese Geserico) was king of the Visigoths from Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the
Clovis, his son Theuderic I, and his Burgundian allies proceeded to conquer most of Visigothic Gaul, including the Rouergue (507) and Toulouse (508). Theuderic I (or Theuderich, Theoderic, or Theodoric; in French, Thierry) (484 &ndash 533 or 534 was the Merovingian king Rouergue ( Occitan: Roergue) is a former province of France, bounded on the north by Auvergne, on the south and southwest by Languedoc The attempt to take Carcassone, a fortified site guarding the Septimanian coast, was defeated by the Ostrogoths (508) and Septimania thereafter remained in Visigothic hands, though the Burgundians managed to hold Narbonne for a time and drive Gesalec into exile. Carcassonne (Carcassona is a fortified French town in the Aude département, of which it is the Prefecture, The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Border warfare between Gallo-Roman magnates, including bishops, had existed with the Visigoths during the last phase of the Empire and it continued under the Franks. 
The Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great reconquered Narbonne from the Burgundians and retained it as the provincial capital. Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of Theudis was appointed regent at Narbonne by Theodoric while Amalaric was still a minor in Spain. Theudis (in Spanish, Teudis, in Portuguese Têudis) was king of the Visigoths in Hispania from 531-548 When Theodoric died in 526, Amalaric was elected king in his own right and he immediately made his capital in Narbonne. He ceded Provence, which had at some point passed back into Visigothic control, to the Ostrogothic king Athalaric. Athalaric ( 516 - 2 October 534) was the King of the Ostrogoths in Italy. The Frankish king of Paris, Childebert I, invaded Septimania in 531 and chased Amalaric to Barcelona in response to pleas from his sister, Chrotilda, that her husband, Amalaric, had been mistreating her. Childebert I ( Rheims, c496 &ndash 13 December 558) was the Frankish king of Paris, a Merovingian dynast one of the four Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia The Franks did not try to hold the province, however. Under Amalaric's successor, however, the centre of gravity of the kingdom crossed the Pyrenees and Theudis made his capital in Barcelona.
In the Visigothic kingdom, which became centred on Toledo by the end of the reign of Leovigild, the province of Gallia Narbonensis, usually shortened to just Gallia or Narbonensis and never called Septimania, was both an administrative province of the central royal government and an ecclesiastical province whose metropolitan was the Archbishop of Narbonne. Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain Liuvigild, Leuvigild, Leovigild, or Leogild was Visigothic King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from 569 In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or The former Catholic diocese of Narbonne existed from early Christian times until the French Revolution. Originally, the Goths may have maintained their hold on the Albigeois, but if so it was conquered by the time of Chilperic I. Chilperic I (c 539 &ndash September 584 was the king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death  There is archaeological evidence that some enclaves of Visigothic population remained in Frankish Gaul, near the Septimanian border, after 507. 
The province of Gallia held a unique place in the Visigothic kingdom, as it was the only province outside of Iberia, north of the Pyrenees, and bordering a strong foreign nation, in this case the Franks. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The kings after Alaric II favoured Narbonne as a capital, but twice (611 and 531) were defeated and forced back on Barcelona by the Franks before Theudis moved the capital there permanently. Under Theodoric Septimania had been safe from Frankish assault, but was raided by Childebert I twice (531 and 541). Childebert I ( Rheims, c496 &ndash 13 December 558) was the Frankish king of Paris, a Merovingian dynast one of the four When Liuva I succeeded the throne in 568, Septimania was a dangerous frontier province and Iberia was wracked by revolts. Liuva I (Leova d 572 or 573 jointly with his brother Liuvigild, succeeded Athanagild in 568 on the throne of the Visigoths.  Liuva granted Iberia to his son Leovigild and took Septimania to himself. 
During the revolt of Hermenegild (583–585) against his father Leovigild, Septimania was invaded by Guntram, King of Burgundy, possible in support of Hermenegild's revolt, since the latter was married to his niece Ingundis. Saint Hermenegild (ca 564 - April 13, 585) or Saint Ermengild (San Hermenegildo (from Gothic Ermen Gild: "immense Saint Guntram (c 532 – 592 (also called Gontram, Gontran, Gunthram, or Gunthchramn) was the king of Burgundy from 561 to 592 The following is a list of the Kings of Burgundy. Kings of the Burgundians The Burgundians had left Bornholm c The Frankish attack of 585 was repulsed by Hermenegild's brother Reccared, who was ruling Narbonensis as a sub-king. Reccared (or Recared) I (reigned 586—601 was Visigothic King of Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) Hermenegild died at Tarragona that year and it is possible that he had escaped confinement in Valencia and was seeking to join up with his Frankish allies. Tarragona (tərəˈɣonə in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia and east of Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. Valencia ( Valencian: València, Valencia Spanish phonology --> is the capital of the Spanish autonomous  Alternately, the invasion may have occurred in response to Hermenegild's death.  Reccared meanwhile took Beaucaire (Ugernum) on the Rhône near Tarascon and Cabaret (a fort called Ram's Head), both of which lay in Guntram's kingdom. Beaucaire is a commune in the Gard department in Languedoc-Roussillon in southern France. The Rhone, or the Rhône is one of the major Rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. Tarascon, sometimes referred to as Tarascon-sur-Rhône, is a town and commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring Comedy, Song, Dance, and Theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue &mdash a Restaurant  Guntram ignored two pleas for a peace in 586 and Reccared undertook the only Visigothic invasion of Francia in response.  However, Guntram was not motivated solely by religious alliance with the fellow Catholic Hermenegild, for he invaded Septimania again in 589 and was roundly defeated near Carcassonne by Claudius, Duke of Lusitania. Claudius was a Hispano-Roman Catholic Dux (duke of Lusitania (or dux Emeretensis civitatis) in the late Sixth century.  It is clear that the Franks, throughout the sixth century, had coveted Septimania, but were unable to take it and the invasion of 589 was the last attempt.
In the seventh century Gallia often had its own governors or duces (dukes), who were typically Visigoths. Most public offices were also held by Goths, far out of proportion to their part of the population. 
The native population of Gallia was referred to by Visigothic and Spanish writers as the "Gauls" and there is a well-attested hatred between the Goths and the Gaul which was atypical for the kingdom as a whole.  The Gauls commonly insulted the Goths by comparing the strength of their men to that of Gaulish women, though the Spaniards regarded themselves as the defenders and protectors of the Gauls. It is only in the time of Wamba and Julian of Toledo, however, that a large Jewish population becomes evident in Septimania: Julian referred to it as a "brothel of blaspheming Jews. Wamba (died 687 was the king of the Visigoths in Hispania ( Iberian Peninsula) from 672 to 680 Julian of Toledo (642—690 was born to Jewish parents in Toledo, Hispania, but raised Christian. "
Thanks to the preserved canons of the Council of Narbonne of 590, a good deal can be known about surviving pagan practices in Visigothic Septimania. The Council may have been responding in part to the orders of the Third Council of Toledo, which found "the sacrilege of idolatry [to be] firmly implanted throughout almost the whole of Spain and Septimania. The Third Council of Toledo (589 marks the entry of Catholic Christianity into the rule of Visigothic Spain, and the introduction into Western Christianity " The Roman pagan practice of not working Thursdays in honour of Jupiter was still prevalent. In Roman mythology, Jupiter was the king of the gods and the god of Sky and Thunder.  The council set down penance to be done for not working on Thursday save for church festivals and commanded the practice of Martin of Braga, rest from rural work on Sundays, to be adopted. Saint Martin of Dumio (c 520 &ndash 580 was an archbishop of Braga in Portugal, a monastic founder and an ecclesiastical author  Also punished by the council were fortunetellers, who were publicly lashed and sold into slavery.
Different theories exist concerning the nature of the frontier between Septimania and Frankish Gaul. On the one hand, cultural exchange is generally reputed to have been minimal, but the level of trading activity has been disputed. There have been few to no objects of Neustrian, Austrasian, or Burgundian provenance discovered in Septimania. The territory of Neustria or Neustrasia, meaning "new land" originated in 511 made up of the regions from Aquitaine to the English Channel, Austrasia (rarely Austria, both meaning "eastern land" formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising  However, a series of sarcophagi of a unique regional style, variously laballed Visigothic, Aquitainian, or south-west Gallic, are prevalent on both sides of the Septimania border. A sarcophagus is a Funeral receptacle for a Corpse, most commonly carved or cut from stone  These sarcophagi are made of locally quarried marble from Saint-Béat and are of varied design, but with generally flat relief which distinguishes them from Roman sarcophagi. Saint-Béat is a commune in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France.  Their production has been dated to either the 5th, 6th, or 7th century, with the second of these being considered the most likely today.  However, if they were made in the 5th century, while both Aquitaine and Septimani were in Visigothic hands, their existence provides no evidence for a cultural osmosis across the Gothic-Frankish frontier. A unique style of orange pottery was common in the 4th and 5th centuries in southern Gaul, but the later (6th century) examples culled from Septimania are more orange than their cousins from Aquitaine and Provence and are not found commonly outside of Septimania, a strong indicator that there was little commerce over the frontier or at its ports.  In fact, Septimania helped to isolate both Aquitaine and Spain from the rest of the Mediterranean world. 
Visigothic coinage did not circulate in Gaul outside of Septimania and Frankish coinage did not circulate in Spain or Septimania. If there had been a significant amount of commerce over the frontier, the monies paid had to have been melted down immediately and re-minted for foreign coins have not been preserved across the frontier. 
The Moors, under Al-Samh ibn Malik the governor-general of al-Andalus, sweeping up the Iberian peninsula, by 719 overran Septimania; al-Samh set up his capital from 720 at Narbonne, which the Moors called Arbuna, offering the still largely Arian inhabitants generous terms and quickly pacifying the other cities. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani (السمح بن مالك الخولاني was the Arab governor general of the Muslim occupied region of the Iberian Peninsula called Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or With Narbonne secure, and equally important, its port, for the Arab mariners were masters now of the Western Mediterranean, he swiftly subdued the largely unresisting cities, still controlled by their Visigoth counts: taking Alet and Béziers, Agde, Lodève, Maguelonne and Nîmes. By 721 he was reinforced and ready to lay siege to Toulouse, a possession that would open up Aquitaine to him on the same terms as Septimania. But his plans were overthrown in the disastrous Battle of Toulouse (721), with immense losses, in which al-Samh was so seriously wounded that he soon died at Narbonne. The Battle of Toulouse ( 721) was a victory of a Frankish army led by Duke Odo of Aquitaine over an Umayyad army besieging the city of Arab forces soundly based in Narbonne and easily resupplied by sea, struck eastwards in the 720s, penetrating as far as Autun (725). Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Burgundy in eastern France. But in 731, the Berber wali of Narbonne and the region of Cerdagne, Uthman ibn Naissa, called "Munuza" by the Franks, who was recently linked by marriage to duke Eudes (also called Odo) of Aquitaine, revolted against Córdoba, and was defeated and killed. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Cerdanya (Ceritania Cerdagne Cerdaña is a small region of the eastern Pyrenees divided between France and Spain and which is historically one of the Uthman ibn Naissa was a Berber Wāli of Narbonne and effective Muslim governor of Septimania. In October of 732, a relatively small Arab force under Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi encountered Charles Martel between Tours and Poitiers, and was defeated. Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi (died 732 Arabic: عبد الرحمن الغافقي) also known as Abd er Rahman, Abdderrahman, Abderame Charles "The Hammer" Martel (Carolus Martellus Charles "the Hammer" (ca This "Battle of Tours" (also called the Battle of Poitiers) is celebrated in popular history and traditionally credited with stopping the Moorish advance in Europe. The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma‘arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court
After the territory round Toulouse was taken by the Franks in 732, Pippin III directed his attention to Narbonne, but the city held firm in 737, defended by its Goths, and Jews under the command of its governor Yusuf, 'Abd er-Rahman's heir. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Pepin or Pippin (714 &ndash 24 September 768) called the Short, and often known as Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was Around 747 the government of the Septimania region (and the Upper Mark, from Pyrénées to Ebro River) was given to Aumar ben Aumar. Aumar ben Aumar was Governor ( wali) of Septimania and Upper Mark, administrative divisions in the Muslim Cordobese emirate In 752 the Gothic counts of Nimes, Melguelh, Agde and Beziers refused allegance to the emir at Cordoba and declared their loyalty to the Frankish king—the count of Nimes, Ansemund, having some authority over the remaining counts. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Nîmes ( Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms is a city in southern France. Mauguio is a commune in the Hérault department in southern France. Agde is the commune in the Hérault department in southern France that is the Mediterranean port of the Canal du Midi Béziers ( Besièrs in Occitan, and Besiers in Catalan) is a town in Languedoc, in the southwest of France. Ansemund was the Gothic count of Nîmes, ruling from 752 until his death in 754 The Gothic counts and the Franks then began to besiege Narbonne, where Miló was probably the count (as successor of the count Gilbert) But Narbonne resisted. Narbonne ( Narbona in Catalan and in Occitan, the Roman Narbo) is a commune in southwestern France in the Miló of Narbonne was the Count of Narbonne, who was ruling in 752, successor probably of Gilbert. In 754 an anti-Frank reaction, led by Ermeniard, killed Ansemund, but the uprising was without success and Radulf was designated new count by the Frankish court. Radulf or Radulph (Radulphe Radulfus related to Ralph and Rudolph, is a Germanic Given name that comes from roots ( rad About 755 Abd al-Rahman ben Uqba replaced Aumar ben Aumar. Abd al-Rahman ben Uqba was the Wali or governor of Septimania, an Upper Mark (administrative division of the Cordobese emirate) that substituted Narbonne capitulated in 759 and the county was granted to Miló, the Gothic count in Muslim times. The region of Roussillon was taken by the Franks in 760. Roussillon ( French: Roussillon, ʀusiˈjɔ̃ Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced; Spanish: Rosellón, pronounced) is In 767, after the fight against Waifred of Aquitaine, Albi, Rouergue, Gevaudan, and the city of Toulouse were conquered. Waifer (aka Waifar, Waiofar, Waifre, Guyver or Gaifier) was the Duke of Aquitaine from 748 to 767 succeeding his newly-monastic For the city in Calabria Italy see Albi Italy. Albi is a commune in southern France. Rouergue ( Occitan: Roergue) is a former province of France, bounded on the north by Auvergne, on the south and southwest by Languedoc Gévaudan is an historical area of France, nowadays situated in Lozère département. Toulouse ( pronounced in standard French, and in the local accent ( Occitan: Tolosa, pronounced) is a city in southwest In 777 the wali of Barcelona, Sulayman al-Arabi, and the wali of Huesca Abu Taur, offered their sumission to Charlemagne and also the sumission of Husayn, wali of Zaragoza. Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia Sulayman ibn Yaqzan al-Arabi ( al-Kalbi) was Wali (governor of Barcelona and Girona in the year 777. Huesca (Uesca Latin: Osca; Greek:, Ptol ii 6 § 68 is a city in Aragon, Spain. Abu Taur was the Wali of Huesca in 777, who joined Sulayman al-Arabi in offer his sumission to Charlemagne and collaborated with Frankish Husayn of Zaragoza (in the Arabic sources Al Hossain ibn Yahia al Ansari ibn Saad al Obadi) Wali (governor of Zaragoza, which is When Charlemagne invaded the Upper Mark in 778, Husayn refused allegance and he had to retire. In the Pyrenees, the Basques defeated themselves in Roncesvalles (August 15, 778). Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed
The Frankish king found Septimania and the borderlands so devastated and depopulated by warfare, with the inhabitants hiding among the mountains, that he made grants of land that were some of the earliest identifiable fiefs to Visigothic and other refugees. Under the system of Feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing Charlemagne also founded several monasteries in Septimania, around which the people gathered for protection. Beyond Septimania to the south Charlemagne established the Spanish Marches in the borderlands of his empire. Mark from the Old English mearc and march (or various plural forms of these words derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary"
The territory passed to Louis, king in Aquitaine, but it was governed by Frankish margraves and then dukes (from 817) of Septimania.
The Frankish noble Bernat of Gothia (also, Bernat of Septimania) was the ruler of these lands from 826 to 832. Bernard or Bernat of Septimania (795 &ndash 844 son of William of Gellone, was the Frankish Duke of Septimania and Count of Barcelona His career (he was beheaded in 844) characterized the turbulent 9th century in Septimania. His appointment as Count of Barcelona in 826 occasioned a general uprising of the Catalan lords at this intrusion of Frankish power. The Count of Barcelona was the major ruler in Catalonia from the 9th until the 17th century For suppressing Berenguer of Toulouse and the Catalans, Louis the Pious rewarded Bernat with a series of counties, which roughly delimit 9th century Septimania: Narbonne, Béziers, Agde, Magalona, Nimes and Uzés. Berengar, called the Wise ( Berengarius Sapiens) was the count (or duke of Toulouse (814-835 and Duke (or Margrave) of Septimania Louis the Pious (778 &ndash 20 June 840) also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was the King of Aquitaine from 781 and co-Emperor Rising against Charles the Bald in 843, Bernard was apprehended at Toulouse and beheaded.
Septimania became known as Gothia after the reign of Charlemagne. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his It retained these two names while it was ruled by the counts of Toulouse during early part of the Middle Ages, but the southern part became more familiar as Roussillon and the west became known as Foix, and the name "Gothia" (along with the older name "Septimania") faded away during the 10th century, except as a traditional designation as the region fractured into smaller feudal entities, which sometimes retained Carolingian titles, but lost their Carolingian character, as the culture of Septimania evolved into the culture of Languedoc. The first comites ( counts) of Toulouse were the administrators of the city and its environs under the Merovingians No succession of such royal Roussillon ( French: Roussillon, ʀusiˈjɔ̃ Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced; Spanish: Rosellón, pronounced) is Foix (fwa is a commune, the capital of the Ariège département in France. Languedoc ( in French Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former Province of France, now continued in the modern-day ''régions'' of Languedoc-Roussillon
The name was used because the area was populated by a higher concentration of Goths than in surrounding regions. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The rulers of this area, when joined with several counties, were titled the Marquesses of Gothia (and, also, the Dukes of Septimania). A marquess (ˈmɑrkwɪs or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/ is a Nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom