In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns, and typically expressing an independent statement, question, request, command, etc. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields  Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb, e. A finite verb is a Verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog". " The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog " is a Panagram (a Phrase that uses all the letters of the Alphabet) that has been used to test
Components of a sentence
A simple complete sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the In traditional Grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies The subject is typically a noun phrase, though other kinds of phrases (such as gerund phrases) work as well, and some languages allow subjects to be omitted. In grammatical theory, a noun phrase (abbreviated NP) is a Phrase whose head is a Noun or a Pronoun, optionally accompanied In Linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages As applied to English, The predicate is a finite verb phrase: it's a finite verb together with zero or more objects, zero or more complements, and zero or more adverbials. In Linguistics, a verb phrase or VP is a syntactic structure composed of the predicative elements of a sentence and functions An object in Grammar is a Sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. In Grammar the term complement is used with different meanings In Grammar an adverbial is a word (an Adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial Phrase or an adverbial Clause) that modifies or tells us something See also copula for the consequences of this verb on the theory of sentence structure.
A clause consists of a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate (dependent). An independent clause consists of a subject verb and also demonstrates a complete thought: for example, "I am sad. " A subordinate clause consists of a subject and a verb, but demonstrates an incomplete thought: for example, "Because I had to move. "
One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by the number and types of finite clauses:
- A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A finite verb is a Verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs In Grammar, a clause is a word or group of words that consists of a subject and a predicate, although in some Languages and some types of A simple sentence is a sentence structure that contains one Independent clause and no Dependent clauses Examples The singer In grammar an independent clause (or main clause) is a Clause that can stand by itself as a grammatically viable Simple sentence. A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence. In itself a dependent clause does not express a complete Thought; therefore it is usually attached to an
- A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. In the English language, a compound sentence is composed of at least two Independent clauses It does not require a Dependent clause. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
- A complex sentence consists of one or more independent clauses with at least one dependent clause. A complex sentence is a sentence with an Independent clause and at least one Dependent clause (subordinating clause
- A complex-compound sentence (or compound-complex sentence) consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause. In Syntax, a sentence with at least two Independent clauses and one or more Dependent clauses (which can also be called subordinate clause is referred to
Sentences can also be classified based on their purpose:
- A declarative sentence or declaration, the most common type, commonly makes a statement: I am going home.
- An interrogative sentence or question is commonly used to request information — When are you going to work? — but sometimes not; see rhetorical question. A question may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for Information, or else the request itself made by such an expression A Rhetorical question is a Figure of speech in the form of a Question posed for its persuasive effect without the expectation of a reply
- An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement: What a wonderful day this is!
- An imperative sentence or command is ordinarily used to make a demand or request: Go do your homework.
Major and minor sentences
A major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a subject and a predicate. According to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle, every sentence can be divided in two main constituents, one being the subject of the sentence and the In traditional Grammar, a predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies For example: I have a ball. In this sentence one can change the persons: We have a ball. However, a minor sentence is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb. For example, "Mary!" "Yes. " "Coffee. " etc. Other examples of minor sentences are headings (e. g. the heading of this entry), stereotyped expressions (Hello!), emotional expressions (Wow!), proverbs, etc. This can also include sentences which do not contain verbs (e. g. The more, the merrier. ) in order to intensify the meaning around the nouns (normally found in poetry and catchphrases). 
- ^ 'Sentence' - Definitions from Dictionary.com. An inflectional phrase (or IP) is essentially the same as a sentence in which the verb has finite form. In Grammar, a phrase is a group of Words that functions as a single unit in the Syntax of a sentence. In Grammar, a clause is a word or group of words that consists of a subject and a predicate, although in some Languages and some types of In Linguistics, the term T-unit was coined by Hunt in 1965 It is defined as the "shortest grammatically allowable sentences into which (writing can be split or minimally Dictionary.com. Referencecom is an online information source that provides Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Thesaurus, and other content Retrieved on 2008-05-23. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne
- ^ Exploring Language: Sentences
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