Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) is a very common wild flower in the family Asteraceae that is found throughout Europe, usually in dry, open places, and has also been widely distributed as a weed elsewhere. Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for The family Asteraceae or Compositae (known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family) is the largest family of Flowering
Alternative names include Cushag (Isle of Man), Buachalán Buí (Ireland), Tansy Ragwort, St. James-wort, Ragweed, Stinking Nanny/Ninny/Willy, Staggerwort, Dog Standard, Cankerwort, Stammerwort and Mare's Fart. The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world In the western US it is generally known as "Tansy Ragwort", or even more confusingly "Tansy", though its resemblance to the true tansy is superficial at best. Tansy ( Tanacetum vulgare) is a perennial herbaceous Flowering plant of the aster family that is native to temperate Europe and This is a potentially dangerous misuse of names, since the true tansy has been used for culinary purposes.
The plant is biennial or perennial. The stems are erect, straight, have no or few hairs, and reach a height of 0. 3-2. 0 metres. The leaves are pinnately lobed and the end lobe is blunt. Pinnate is a term used to describe Feather -like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis in Plant or Animal structures and comes The many names that include the word "stinking" (and Mare's Fart) arise because of the unpleasant smell of the leaves. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. The hermaphrodite flower heads are 1. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also 5-2. 5 cm diameter, and are borne in dense, flat-topped clusters; the florets are bright yellow. It has a long flowering period lasting from June to November (In the northern Hemisphere).
Pollination is by a wide range of bees, flies and moths and butterflies. Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea True flies are Insects of the Order Diptera ( Greek: di = two and pteron = wing possessing a single pair of Lepidoptera is an order of Insect that includes Moths and butterflies. Over a season, one plant may produce 2,000 to 2,500 yellow flowers in 20- to 60-headed, flat-topped corymbs. A panicle is a compound Raceme, a loose much-branched indeterminate Inflorescence with pedicellate Flowers (and Fruit This number of seeds produced may be as large as 75,000 to 200,000, although in its native range in Eurasia very few of these would grow into new plants and research has shown that most seeds do not travel a great distance from the parent plant.
Two subspecies are accepted:
Ragwort can be found along road sides and waste grounds, and grows in all cool and high rainfall areas.
The Ragwort is native to the Eurasian continent. In Europe it is widely spread, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. In Britain and Ireland it is listed as a weed. In the USA it has been introduced, and is present mainly in the North West and North East: California, Idaho, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Washington.
In South America it grows in Argentina, in Africa in the north, and on the Asian continent in India and Siberia. It is widespread weed in New Zealand and Australia. WEED (1390 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Spanish format In many Australian states ragwort has been declared a noxious weed. This status requires landholders to remove it from their property, by law. The same applies to New Zealand where farmers sometimes bring in helicopters to spray their farms if the ragwort is too widespread.
Ragwort is foodplant for the larvae of Cochylis atricapitana, Phycitodes maritima, and Phycitodes saxicolais. Inachis io caterpillarjpg|thumb|right| Inachis io on Urtica sp Ragwort is best known as the food of caterpillars of the Cinnabar moth Tyria jacobaeae. Caterpillars are the Larval form of a member of the order Lepidoptera (the Insect order comprising butterflies and Moths The Cinnabar moth ( Tyria jacobaeae) is a brightly coloured arctiid moth found in Europe and western and central Asia They absorb alkaloids from the plant and become distasteful to predators , a fact advertised by the black and yellow warning colours. The red and black, day-flying adult moth is also distasteful to many potential predators. The moth is used as a control for ragwort in countries in which it has been introduced and become a problem, like New Zealand and the western United States. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In both countries, the ragwort flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae) has been introduced to combat the plant. Longitarsus jacobaeae is a species of Flea beetle known as the tansy ragwort flea beetle.
In the UK, where the plant is native, at least 30 species of invertebrate, many of them rare or declining, are entirely dependent on ragwort as a food source and hundreds of species will feed on its nectar, making it a vitally important component of the native flora.
Ragwort is hostplant for Longitarsus ganglbaueri.
Ragwort contains many different alkaloids, making it poisonous to animals. This article is about the chemical compounds alkaloids For the Pharmaceutical company in the Republic of Macedonia see Alkaloid (company. (EHC 80,section 9.1.4). Alkaloids which have been found in the plant confirmend by the WHO report EHC 80 are -- jacobine, jaconine, jacozine, otosenine, retrorsine, seneciphylline, senecionine, and senkirkine (pp322 Appendix II). Other alkaloids claimed to be present but from an undeclared source are acetylerucifoline, (Z)-erucifoline, (E)-erucifoline, 21-hydroxyintegerrimine, integerrimine, jacoline, riddelline, senecivernine, spartioidine, and usaramine.
Ragwort is of concern to people who keep horses and cattle. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. In areas of the world where ragwort is a native plant, such as Britain and continental Europe, documented cases of proven poisoning are rare. Horses do not normally eat fresh ragwort due to its bitter taste. It looses this taste when dried and can be come a danger in hay. The result, if sufficient quantity is consumed, can be irreversible cirrhosis of the liver. Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic Liver Disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrous Scar tissue as well as regenerative Signs that a horse has been poisoned include yellow mucus membranes, depression, and lack of coordination. Animals may also resort to the consumption of ragwort when there is shortage of food. In rare cases they can even become addicted to it. Sheep, in marked contrast, eat small quantities of the plant with relish. Sheep and goats suffer the same process of liver destruction but at a reduced rate to horses and pigs. They seem to profit slightly from eating it, according to some reports the alkaloids kill worms in the sheep's stomach.
The danger of Ragwort is that the toxin can have a cumulative effect. The alkaloid does not actually accumulate in the liver but a breakdown product can damage DNA and progressively kills cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known About 3-7% of the body weight is sometimes claimed as deadly for horses, but an example in the scientific literature exists of a horse surviving being fed over 20% of its body weight. The effect of low doses is lessened by the destruction of the original alkaloids by the action of bacteria in the digestive tract before they reach the bloodstream. There is no known antidote or cure to poisoning, but at examples are known from the scientific literature of horses making a full recovery once consumption has been stopped. 
Ragwort poses little risk to the livers of humans since, although it is theoretically poisonous to humans, it is distasteful and is not used as a food. The alkaloids can be absorbed in small quantities through the skin but studies have show that the absorption is much less than by ingestion and since they are in the N-oxide form which only becomes toxic after conversion inside the digestive tract they will be excreted harmlessly. Some sensitive individuals can suffer from an allergic reaction because ragwort like many members of the compositae family contains sesquiterpine lactones which can cause compositae dermatitis.
Honey collected over Ragwort has been found to contain small quantities of jacoline, jacobine, jacozine, senecionine, and seneciphylline, but the quantities have been judged as too minute to be of concern. .
In the Republic of Ireland, The Noxious Weeds (Thistle, Ragwort, and Dock) Order 1937, issued under The Noxious Weeds Act 1936, declares ragwort as a noxious weed, requiring landowners to control its growth. Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe.
In the United Kingdom, Common Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) is one of the five plants named as an injurious weed under the provisions of the Weeds Act 1959. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The word injurious in this context indicates that it could be harmful to agriculture not that it is dangerous to animals, as all the other injurious weeds listed are non-toxic. Under the terms of this act, a land occupier can be required by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs to prevent the spread of the plant. The Secretary of State for Environment Food and Rural Affairs is a UK cabinet-level position in charge of the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs However, the growth of the plant is not made illegal by the act and there is no statutory obligation for control placed upon landowners in general. 
A private member's bill, the Ragwort Control Bill, was introduced by John Greenway and was passed by the House of Commons in 2003. A Private Member's Bill is a proposed Law introduced by a backbench member of Parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side to that John Robert Greenway (born February 15, 1946) is a British politician and Conservative Member of Parliament for Ryedale The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The act provides for a code of practice on ragwort but does not place any further legal responsibilities on landowners to control the plant. 
From medieval times to the mid 20th century, Ragwort was used against inflammations of the eye, for sore and cancerous ulcers, rheumatism, sciatica and gout, for painful joints. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Ulcers are healing wounds that develop on the skin mucous membranes or eye Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the Heart, Bones Joints Kidney, Skin Sciatica is a set of symptoms including Pain that may be caused by general compression and/or irritation of one of five nerve roots that give rise to the Sciatic nerve Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease created by a buildup of Uric acid.
According to some, it would relieve the pain of bee stings.
All applications should be outward only, never internally, and only under professional supervision.
With the large range of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are known to inhibit or reduce cell division, some researchers hope to use them to slow down or arrest the growth of cells in cancer. Cell division is a process by which a cell, called the parent cell divides into two or more cells called daughter cells. Cancer (medical term Malignant Neoplasm) is a class of Diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled
In ancient Greece and Rome a supposed aphrodisiac was made from the plant; it was called satyrion. In Greek mythology, Satyrion is the name of a Nymph, perhaps from the region of Taranto, Italy.
Also, the leaves can be used to obtain good green dye, as yellow dye is obtained from the flowers, as can be done for brown and orange.
The Greek physician Dioscorides (c. The theatre of ancient Greece, or ancient Greek drama, is a theatrical Culture that flourished in ancient Greece between c Pedanius Dioscorides (Πεδάνιος Διοσκορίδης ca 40-90 CE) recommended the herb. The two "fathers" of herbalism, Gerard and Culpeper, also recommended the herb. See also John Gerard SJ John Gerard ( Nantwich, 1545 &ndash February 1611/12 in London) was an English Nicholas Culpeper ( 18 October 1616 &ndash 1654 in London) was an English botanist, Herbalist, Physician
Josephine Kermode (1852-1937) wrote the following poem about the Cushag. Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Year 1937 ( MCMXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Donald Macalastair of Druim-a-ghinnir on the Isle of Arran told a story of the fairies journeying to Ireland. Manx ( Gaelg or Gailck, ɡilk or) also known as Manx Gaelic, is a Goidelic language once spoken on the Isle The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical The ragwort was their transport and every one of them picked a plant, sat astride and arrived in Ireland in an instant. 
Ragwort is not cultivated. There are no varieties known.
Ragwort is wrongly called the national flower of the Isle of Man, where it is known as Cushag. The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn or Mann (Mannin) is a self-governing Crown dependency, located in the Irish Sea at the geographical The true national flower is the Mugwort ("Bollan Bane" in Manx)
Leaves eaten by caterpillar