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The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices are confidential. The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery. Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior "which would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" fear of Injury or Harm. Bribery, a form of pecuniary corruption is an act usually implying money or gift given that alters the behaviour of the recipient in ways not consistent with the duties of that person
The system is one means of achieving the goal of political privacy. Political privacy has been a concern since Voting systems emerged in ancient times Secret ballots are suitable for many different voting systems. A voting system allows voters to choose between options often in an Election where candidates are selected for public office.
The most basic form may be blank pieces of paper, upon which each voter writes only their choice. Without revealing their vote to anyone, the voters place the ballots into a sealed box, which is emptied later for counting. A ballot is a device (originally a small ball—see blackball) used to record choices made by Voters Each voter uses one ballot and ballots are not
One of the most common forms in the modern world provides for pre-printed ballot papers with the name of the candidates or questions and respective checkboxes. Provisions are made at the polling place for the voter to record their preferences in secret. The ballots are specifically designed to eliminate bias and to prevent anyone from linking voter to ballot. This system is also known as the Australian ballot, because it originated in Australia during the 1850s. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Events and Trends Industry Production of Steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman In the United States, it is also known as the Massachusetts ballot since Massachusetts was the first U.S. state to use the secret ballot. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government
In Ancient Greece, secret ballots were used in several occasions, like ostracism and also to remain hidden from people seeking favors. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ostracism ( ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which a prominent Citizen could be expelled from the City-state In Ancient Rome, Laws regulating elections are collectively known as Tabellariae Leges, the first of which was introduced in 139 BC (gabinia lex). Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Today the practice of casting secret ballots is so commonplace that most voters would not consider that any other method might be used, yet in the 19th century it was highly controversial. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar
Article 31 of the French Constitution of 1795 states that All elections are to be held by secret ballot. The Constitution of 1795, Constitution of 22 August 1795, Constitution of the Year III, or Constitution of 5 Fructidor was a national Constitution
The demand for a secret ballot was one of the six points of Chartism. For chartism in financial markets see Technical analysis, and for the British socialist journal see Chartist (magazine Chartism was  The Parliament of the time refused to even consider the Chartist demands but it is notable that Baron Macaulay, in his speech of 1842, while rejecting Chartism's six points as a whole, admitted that secret ballot was one of the two points he could support. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The secret ballot was eventually introduced in the Ballot Act 1872, substantially reducing the cost of campaigning. In 1872 Gladstone introduced the Ballot Act, which required that British general elections to Parliament and local government election use the
Modern developments have removed the secret ballot in theory if not in practise; see below.
Chartist ideas influenced the miners of Eureka Stockade in 1854 in Victoria where they adopted all of Chartism's six points including the secret ballot. For chartism in financial markets see Technical analysis, and for the British socialist journal see Chartist (magazine Chartism was The Eureka Stockade was the setting of a gold miners' Revolt in 1854 near Ballarat, Victoria, Australia against the officials supervising the Year 1854 ( MDCCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year
Secret balloting appears to have been first implemented in the former Australian colony — now a state — of Tasmania on February 7, 1856. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government Tasmania is an Australian island and state of the same name It is located south of the eastern side of the Continent, being separated from it by Bass Events 457 - Leo I becomes emperor of the Byzantine Empire. 1074 - Battle of Montesarchio in which the Prince Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Until the original Tasmanian Electoral Act of 1856 was 're-discovered' recently, credit for the first implementation of the secret ballot often went to the colonies of Victoria and South Australia. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country  Victoria enacted legislation for secret ballots on March 19, 1856, and South Australian Electoral Commissioner William Boothby generally gets credit for creating the system finally enacted into law in South Australia on April 2 of that same year (a fortnight later). The Electoral Act 1856 was an act of the Government of Victoria which introduced voting by Secret ballot. Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. Year 1856 ( MDCCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of
In the United States, most states had moved to secret ballots soon after the presidential election of 1884. The United States presidential election of 1884 featured excessive mudslinging and personal acrimony However, the last U. S. State in the Union to retire the practice of the oral ballot was the Commonwealth of Kentucky which did so in 1891. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Therefore, the first President of the United States elected completely under the Australian ballot was president Grover Cleveland in 1892. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. The United States presidential election of 1892 was held on November 8 1892
Elections in the United States are now almost always held by secret ballot.  The Constitution for the State of West Virginia still allows voters to cast "open ballots". West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by The Populists, a short-lived American political party during 1870s through 1890s, listed the Australian ballot as one of their party platforms in the Ocala Demands. The Populist Party (also known as the People's Party) was a relatively short-lived Political party in the United States in the late 18th century Events and Trends Technology The invention of the prototype telephone by Alexander G The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the " Mauve Decade" because William Henry Perkin 's aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that The Ocala Demands was a platform for economic and political reform that was later adopted by the People's Party.
The UK secret ballot arrangements are sometimes criticised because it is possible to link a ballot paper to the voter that cast it. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Each ballot paper is individually numbered and each elector has a number. When an elector is given a ballot paper, their number is noted down on the counterfoil of the ballot paper (which also carries the ballot paper number). This means, of course, that the ballot is not secret at all.
This measure is thought to be justified as a security arrangement so that if there was an allegation of fraud, false ballot papers could be identified. The process of matching ballot papers to voters is permissible only if an Elections Court requires it, and this is an extremely unlikely occurrence. The legal authority for this system is set out in the Parliamentary Elections Rules in Schedule 1 of the Representation of the People Act 1983. The Representation of the People Act 1983 changed the British electoral process in the following ways Amended the 1969 Representation 
In the United States, sometimes the number on the ballot is printed on a perforated stub which is torn off and placed on a ring (like a shower curtain ring) before the ballot is cast into the ballot box. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A shower (also called shower bath is a booth for washing usually in a Bathroom, having an overhead nozzle that sprays water down on the body The stubs prove an elector has voted and ensure he can only vote once, but the ballots themselves are anonymous. At the end of voting day, the number of ballots inside the box must match the number of stubs on the ring, certifying that every ballot was cast by a registered elector, and that none of them were lost or fabricated.