|Second Anglo-Dutch War|
| Dutch Republic|
|Michiel de Ruyter|
Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam
Pieter de Bitter
Cornelis de Witt
Willem Joseph van Ghent
Claus von Ahlefeldt
|Duke of York|
Sir Thomas Teddiman
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
About 290 Ships, 1500 Marines
Fortress, 250 men
|About 320 Ships, 6 Companies of Soldiers|
|Casualties and losses|
23 warships lost
10 civillians killed
2 Ships Captured
29 warships lost
The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter ( 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous Admirals in Dutch history Jacob Banner Lord of Wassenaer Lord Obdam Hensbroek Spanbroek Opmeer Zuidwijk and Kernhem (1610 The Hague – 13 June 1665 off Lowestoft Pieter de Bitter (circa 1620 - 15 June 1666) was a 17th century Dutch officer of the Dutch East India Company. Cornelis de Witt ( ( 15 June 1623 – 20 August 1672) was a Dutch Politician. For the nursery rhyme see The Grand Old Duke of York. The title Duke of York is a title of Nobility in the British Peerage Thomas Teddiman († 13 May 1668 Old Style) was an English Admiral of the 17th century George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Denmark–Norway ( Danish: Danmark-Norge Norwegian: Danmark-Norge or Danmark-Noreg is the historiographical name for a former political entity union England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade. After initial English successes, the war ended in a Dutch victory. English and French resentment, however, would soon lead to renewed warfare.
The First Anglo-Dutch War was concluded with an English victory in the Battle of Scheveningen in August 1653, although a peace treaty was not signed for another eight months. The First Anglo–Dutch War (Eerste Engelse Zeeoorlog (1652–54 (called the First Dutch War in England and the First English Sea-War in the Netherlands was The Battle of Scheveningen (also known as the Battle of Texel or the Battle of Ter Heijde) was the final Naval battle of the First Anglo-Dutch The Commonwealth government of Oliver Cromwell tried to avoid further conflict with the Dutch Republic. The Commonwealth of England was the Republican government which ruled first England (including Wales) and then Ireland and Scotland Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known It did not come to the aid of its ally, Sweden, when the Dutch thwarted the Swedish attempt to conquer Denmark in the Battle of the Sound. "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The naval Battle of The Sound took place on 8 November 1658 ( 29 October OS during the Dutch-Swedish War, near the Sound or Oresund The Commonwealth was at war with Spain and feared Dutch intervention, in part because the Republic contained a strong Orangist party hostile to Cromwell and under the influence of exiled English royalists. However the Treaty of Westminster planted the seeds of future conflict as its secret annex, the Act of Seclusion, forbade the Dutch from installing any member of the House of Orange as their stadtholder. The Treaty of Westminster was signed on May 8, 1654, which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War ( 1652 -1654 The Act of Seclusion is a secret annex in the Treaty of Westminster (1654 between the United Provinces and the Commonwealth of England in which William The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau) a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life A Stadtholder ( Dutch: stadhouder, " steward " or literally "place-keeper" or "stead-holder" in older Dutch in the Low
The Restoration of Charles II in 1660 produced a general surge of optimism in England. The English Restoration, or simply The Restoration began in 1660 when the English monarchy, Scottish monarchy and Irish monarchy were restored Charles II (Charles Stuart 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685 was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Many in the kingdom hoped to reverse the Dutch control of the seas. At first, however, Charles II sought to remain on friendly terms with the Republic, as he was personally greatly in debt to the House of Orange, which had lent enormous sums to Charles I during the English Civil War. Charles I, (19 November 1600 &ndash 30 January 1649 was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Nevertheless, a conflict soon developed with the States of Holland over the education and future prospects of his nephew William III of Orange, the posthumous son of Dutch stadtholder William II of Orange, over whom he had been made a guardian by his late sister Mary. States of Holland and West Frisia ( Dutch: Staten van Holland en Westfriesland) were the representation of the two Estates ( William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" William II Prince of Orange ( May 27, 1626 &ndash November 6, 1650) Stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands Princess Mary Princess Royal Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau ( 4 November 1631 &ndash 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of The Dutch tried to placate the king with prodigious gifts, such as the Dutch Gift of 1660. The Dutch Gift of 1660 was a collection of 28 mostly Italian Renaissance paintings and 12 classical sculptures along with a Yacht, the ''Mary'', and Negotiations were started in 1661 to solve these issues, which ended in the treaty of 1662, in which the Dutch conceded on most points. In 1663 Louis XIV of France stated his claim to portions of the Habsburg Southern Netherlands, and this led to a short rapprochement between England and the Republic as Lord Clarendon for a time saw France as the greatest danger. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish Edward Hyde 1st Earl of Clarendon ( 18 February 1609 &ndash 9 December 1674) was an English Historian and statesman and
In 1664, however, the situation quickly changed. Clarendon's enemy, Lord Arlington, became the favourite of the king and began to cooperate with the king's brother James, the Duke of York and Lord High Admiral in order to bring about war with the Dutch, from which both expected great personal gain. Henry Bennet 1st Earl of Arlington KG (1618 &ndash July 28, 1685) was an English statesman James II of England and Ireland James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 &ndash 16 September 1701 was King of England, King of Scots, Later that same year James James headed the Royal African Company and hoped to seize the possessions of the Dutch West India Company. The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in Dutch West India Company ( Dutch: Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie or GWC; English: Chartered West India Company was a company of The two were supported by the English ambassador in The Hague, George Downing, who despised the Dutch government, and reported that the Republic was politically divided between Orangists, who gladly would collaborate with an English enemy in case of war, and a States faction consisting of wealthy merchants that would give in to any English demand in order to protect their trade interests. Arlington planned to subdue the Dutch completely by permanent occupation of key Dutch cities.
As enthusiasm for war rose among the English populace, privateers began to attack Dutch ships, capturing about 200 of them. A privateer was a private Warship authorized by a country's Government by Letters of marque to attack foreign shipping Dutch ships were obligated by the new treaty to salute the English flag first. The Flag of England is the St George's Cross. The red cross appeared as an emblem of England during the Middle Ages and the Crusades and In 1664, English ships began to provoke the Dutch by not saluting in return. Though ordered by the Dutch government to continue saluting first, many Dutch commanders could not bear the insult. Still, these flag incidents were not the casus belli, as in the previous war. Casus belli is a Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war To provoke open conflict, James sent Robert Holmes, in service of the Royal African Company, to capture Dutch trading posts and colonies in West Africa. Sir Robert Holmes ( ca 1622 &ndash 18 November 1692) was a British Admiral of the Restoration Navy. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. At the same time, the English invaded and occupied the Dutch colony of New Netherland in North America. New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast The Dutch responded by sending a fleet under Michiel de Ruyter that recaptured their African trade posts and crossed the Atlantic for a punitive expedition against the English in America. Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter ( 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous Admirals in Dutch history In December 1664, the English suddenly attacked the Dutch Smyrna fleet. Though their expedition failed, the Dutch in January 1665 allowed their ships to open fire on British warships in the colonies when threatened. Charles used this as a pretext to declare war on the Netherlands on 4 March 1665. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth
The war was supported in England by much propaganda; the cause célèbre was the previous Amboyna Massacre of 1623. A cause célèbre (plural causes célèbres, French famous case) is The Amboyna massacre was the torture and execution in 1623 of twenty men ten of which were in the service of the British East India Company, by agents of the That year, ten English factors, resident in the Dutch fortress of Victoria on Ambon were executed by beheading on accusations of treason. During the trial the English prisoners were allegedly hung up with cloth placed over their faces, upon which water dripped until the victims inhaled water. After some time, they were taken down to vomit up the water, only to repeat the experience. The Dutch also allegedly placed candles on the victims' bodies to demonstrate the translucence of the flesh. The English at the time milked the alleged atrocity for all it was worth in a long drawn-out diplomatic incident. The EIC published an extensive pamphlet in 1631, setting out its case against the Dutch VOC, and this was used for anti-Dutch propaganda during the First Anglo-Dutch War. Though the matter was supposed to be settled with the Treaty of Westminster (1654) now pamphleteers reminded the public of it as the war neared. The Treaty of Westminster was signed on May 8, 1654, which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War ( 1652 -1654 Additionally, broadsheets demonized the Dutch as drunken and profane, with Andrew Marvell's 1653 insult of Holland, "The Character of Holland," reprinted ("This indigested vomit of the Sea,/ Fell to the Dutch by Just Propriety"). Andrew Marvell ( 31 March 1621 &ndash 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, and the son of a Church of When De Ruyter recaptured the West African trading posts, many pamphlets were written about presumed new Dutch atrocities, although these contained no basis in fact.
A major cause of the conflict was mercantile competition. The English sought to take over the Dutch trade routes and colonies while excluding the Dutch from their own colonial possessions. Contraband shipping had gone on from English colonies in America and Surinam for a decade, and the English felt that they were being cheated of their revenues. The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of the land that would become the United States from the start of European settlement to the time of independence Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by The Dutch, for their part, considered it their right to trade with anyone anywhere, defending the principle of the mare liberum. International waterways Several international treaties have established freedom of navigation on semi-enclosed seas However, they enforced a monopoly in the Dutch Indies, and threatened to expand it to India, after having expelled the Portuguese from that region. See http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/WikipediaFootnotes for an explanation of how to generate footnotes using the tags and the template below The vilification of Dutch traders in England was at least partially an expression of unease with the presence of notable Cromwellian politicians and officers in Holland in exile. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style &ndash 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known Charles II had reason to be nervous about the possibility of a Dutch invasion coordinated with an uprising within England. In addition, many members of the English elite would gain personally if Dutch ships were captured.
After their defeat in the First Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch had become much better prepared. Beginning in 1653, a "New Navy" was constructed, a core of sixty new, heavier ships with professional captains. Losses had been consequently replaced after this. However, these ships were still much lighter than the ten "big ships" of the English navy. In 1664, when war threatened, it was decided to completely replace the fleet core with still heavier ships. Upon the outbreak of war in 1665, these new vessels were mostly still under construction, and the Dutch only possessed four heavier ships of the line. During the second war, the new ships were quickly completed, with another twenty ordered and built. England, meanwhile, could only construct a dozen ship, due to financial difficulties.
In 1665, England boasted a population about four times as large as that of the Dutch Republic. This population was dominated by poor peasants, however, and so the only source of ready cash were the cities. The Dutch urban population exceeded that of England in both proportional and absolute terms. The outbreak of war was followed ominously by the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London, hitting the only major urban centre of the country. The Great Plague (1665-1666 was a massive outbreak of Disease in England that killed 75000 to 100000 people up to a fifth of London 's population This article is about the Great Fire of 1666 For other great fires in London see Early fires of London or Second Great Fire of London. These events, occurring in such close succession, virtually brought England to its knees, as the English fleet had suffered from cash shortages even before these calamities. The navy did not pay its sailors with money, but with "tickets", or debt certificates. Charles lacked an effective means to enforcing taxation. The only way to finance the war, in effect, was to capturing Dutch trade fleets. English penury made the war's outcome dependent on the fortunes of its privateers.
The first encounter between the nations was, as in the First Anglo-Dutch War, at sea. Fighting began in earnest with the Battle of Lowestoft on 13 June, where the English gained a great victory; it was the worst defeat of the Dutch Republic's navy in history. The naval Battle of Lowestoft took place on 13 June ( New Style) 1665 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for The English, though, were unable to capitalise on the victory. The leading Dutch politician, the Grand Pensionary of Holland Johan de Witt, quickly restored confidence by joining the fleet personally. The Grand Pensionary (Dutch raad(spensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. A maritime and economic power in the 17th century Holland today consists of the Dutch provinces of Johan de Witt ( Dordrecht, Netherlands, 24 September 1625 &ndash The Hague, Netherlands, 20 August Under de Witt, ineffective captains were removed and new tactics formalised. In August De Ruyter returned from America to a hero's welcome and was given supreme command of the confederate fleet. The Spice Fleet from the Dutch East Indies managed to return home safely after the Battle of Vågen, though at first blockaded at Bergen, causing the financial position of England to deteriorate. The Battle of Vågen was a naval battle between a Dutch merchant and treasure fleet and an English flotilla of warships in August 1665 as part of the Second Anglo-Dutch is the second largest city in Norway. It is located on the south-western coast of Norway in the county of Hordaland in between a group of mountains known as De syv fjell For every warship the English built during the conflict, the Dutch shipyards turned out seven.
In the summer of 1665 the bishop of Münster, Bernhard von Galen, an old enemy of the Dutch, was induced by promises of English subsidies to invade the Republic. The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Christoph Bernhard Freiherr von Galen ( October 12, 1606 &ndash September 19, 1678) was Prince-bishop of Münster. At the same time the English made overtures to Spain. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Louis XIV, though obliged by a 1662 treaty to assist the Republic in a war with England, had postponed his aid on the pretence of wanting to negotiate a peace. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent Louis was now greatly alarmed by the attack by Münster and the prospect of an English-Spanish coalition. Intent on conquering the Spanish Netherlands, Louis feared that a collapse of the Republic could create a powerful Habsburg entity on his northern border, as the Habsburgs were the traditional allies of the German bishops. The Southern Netherlands (Zuidelijke Nederlanden Países Bajos del Sur Pays-Bas du sud were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain ( Spanish He immediately promised to send a French army corps, and French envoys — under the grand name of the célèbre ambassade — arrived in London to begin negotiations in earnest, threatening the wrath of the French monarch if the English failed to comply. These events caused great consternation at the English court. It now seemed that the Republic would end up as either a Habsburg possession or a French protectorate. Either outcome would be disastrous for England's strategic position. Clarendon, always having warned about "this foolish war", was ordered to quickly make peace with the Dutch without French mediation. Downing used his Orangist contacts to induce the province of Overijssel, whose countryside had been ravaged by Von Galen's troops, to ask the States-General for a peace with England conceding — so the Orangists naively thought — to the main English demand that the young William III would be made Captain-General and Admiral-General of the Republic and ensured of the stadtholderate. Overijssel (Transiselania is a Province of the Netherlands in the central eastern part of the country Captain General (and its literal equivalent in several languages is a high Military rank and a gubernatorial title The sudden return of De Witt from the fleet prevented the Orangists from seizing power. In November, the States-General promised Louis never to conclude a separate peace with England. On 11 December it openly declared that the only acceptable peace terms would be either a return to the Status quo ante bellum or a quick end to hostilities under a uti possidetis clausule. The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally as things were before the war. Uti possidetis ( Latin for "as you possess" is a principle in International law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at
In the winter of 1666 the Dutch created a strong anti-English alliance. In January, Louis declared war. In February Frederick III of Denmark did the same after having received a large sum. Frederick III ( March 18, 1609 &ndash February 19, 1670) was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death Then Brandenburg threatened to attack Münster from the east. Brandenburg ( Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of the sixteen states of Germany. Von Galen, the English subsidies having remained largely hypothetical, made peace with the Republic in April at Cleves. Cleves redirects here for the Duchy of Cleves and the conjoined states of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, see those articles By the spring of 1666, the Dutch had rebuilt their fleet with much heavier ships — thirty of them possessing more cannon than any Dutch ship in early 1665 — and threatened to join with the French. Charles made a new peace offer in February, employing a French nobleman in Orange service, Henri Buat, as messenger. In it he vaguely promised to moderate his demands if the Dutch would only appoint William in some responsible function and pay £200,000 in "indemnities". De Witt considered it a mere feint to create dissension among the Dutch and between them and France. A new confrontation was inevitable.
The Four Days Battle, one of the longest naval engagements in history, ended with both sides claiming victory: the English because they contended Dutch Lieutenant Admiral Michiel de Ruyter had retreated first, the Dutch because they had inflicted much greater losses on the English, who lost ten ships against the Dutch four. The Four Days Battle was a Naval battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Lieutenant Admiral is a senior naval Military rank in some countries of the world Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter ( 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous Admirals in Dutch history In fact, it was the English fleet that had retreated first, although the Dutch had reached their harbours earlier, having sustained less damage. Administrative difficulties in the English navy continued whilst a fleet of 80 ships under General at Sea George Monck, the Commonwealth veteran, (after the Duke of Albemarle) set sail at the end of May 1666. George Monck 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG ( 6 December 1608 &ndash 3 January 1670) was an English soldier and politician Prince Rupert of the Rhine was detached with 20 of these ships to intercept a French squadron on 29 May (in the Julian calendar), which had been thought to be passing through the English Channel, presumably to join the Dutch fleet. Rupert Count Palatine of the Rhine Duke of Bavaria (German Ruprecht Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog von Bayern) commonly called Prince Rupert of the Rhine, (17 Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita In fact, the French fleet was still largely in the Mediterranean.
Leaving the Downs, Albemarle came upon De Ruyter's fleet of 85 ships at anchor, and he immediately engaged the nearest Dutch ship before the rest of the fleet could come to its assistance. The Dutch rearguard under Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Tromp set upon a starboard tack, taking the battle toward the Flemish shoals, compelling Albemarle to turn about, to prevent being outflanked by the Dutch rear and centre, culminating in a ferocious unremitting battle that raged until nightfall. Sir Cornelis Martinus Tromp, 1st Baronet ( September 9 1629 &ndash May 29 1691) was a Commander in chief of the Dutch and Danish At daylight on 2 June, Albemarle's strength was reduced to 44 ships, but with these he renewed the battle tacking past the enemy four times in close action. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks With his fleet in too poor a condition to continue to challenge, he retired towards the coast with the Dutch in pursuit.
The following day Albemarle ordered the damaged ships forward covering their return on the 3rd until Prince Rupert, returning with his 20 ships, joined him. During this stage of the battle Vice-Admiral George Ayscue on the grounded Prince Royal — one of the nine remaining "big ships" — surrendered, the last time in history for an English admiral in battle. Admiral Sir George Ayscue (ca 1616&ndash1671 was an English naval officer who served in the Civil War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars. With the return of the fresh squadron under Prince Rupert the English now got more ships, yet the Dutch decided the battle on the fourth day, breaking the English line several times. When the English retreated, De Ruyter was reluctant to follow, perhaps because of lack of gunpowder.
One more major sea battle would be fought in the conflict. The St. James's Day Battle on 4 and 5 August, ended in English victory but failed to decide the war as the Dutch fleet escaped certain annihilation. The naval St James' Day Battle (also known as the St James' Day Fight, the Battle of the North Foreland and the Battle of Orfordness) took place on At this stage simply surviving was sufficient for the Dutch, as the English could hardly afford even a victory. Tactically indifferent with the Dutch losing two ships and the English one, the battle would have enormous political implications. Cornelis Tromp, commanding the Dutch rear, had defeated his English counterpart, but was accused by De Ruyter of being responsible for the plight of the main body of the Dutch fleet by chasing the English rear squadron as far as the English coast. As Tromp was the champion of the Orange party, the conflict led to much party strife; because of this on 13 August Tromp was fired by the States of Holland. Five days later Charles made another peace offer to De Witt, again using Buat as an intermediary. Among the letters given to the Grand Pensionary, by mistake was included one containing the secret English instructions to their contacts in the Orange party, outlining plans for an overthrow of the States regime. Buat was arrested; his accomplices in the conspiracy fled the country to England, among them Tromp's brother-in-law Johan Kievit. De Witt now had proof of the collaborationist nature of the Orange movement and the major city regents distanced themselves from its cause. Buat was condemned for treason and beheaded. The mood in the Republic now turned very belligerent, also because in August British vice-admiral Robert Holmes during his raid on the Vlie estuary in August 1666, destroyed about 130 merchantmen (Holmes's Bonfire) and sacked the island of Terschelling. The Vlie or Vliestroom is the seaway between the Dutch islands of Vlieland and Terschelling. Holmes's Bonfire was a Raid on the Vlie estuary in The Netherlands, executed by the Royal Navy during the Second Anglo-Dutch War on Terschelling ( Skylge Terschelling dialect: Schylge) is a Municipality and an Island in the northern Netherlands, one In this he was assisted by a Dutch captain, Laurens Heemskerck, who had fled to England after having been condemned to death for cowardice shown during the Battle of Lowestoft.
After the Fire of London in September, the next peace offer by Charles came, again reducing his demands. Small "indemnities", the return of the nutmeg island of Paulu Run and a deal over India would suffice now; no more mention was made of the position of William. Run is one of the smallest Islands of the Banda Islands which are a part of Indonesia. The States-General simply referred to its declaration of 11 December 1665, no longer willing to make a slight concession that would allow Charles to withdraw from the war without losing face.
Early 1667, the financial position of the English crown became desperate. The kingdom simply lacked the money to make the entire fleet seaworthy, so it was decided in February that the heavy ships would remain laid up at Chatham. Clarendon explained to Charles that he had but two options: either to make very substantial concessions to Parliament or to begin peace talks with the Dutch under their conditions. In March these were indeed started at Breda, in the southern Generality Lands, as negotiations in the provinces themselves would by the conventions of the day be considered a sign of inferiority for the Dutch. Breda ( is a Municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. The Generality Lands, Lands of the Generality or Common Lands (Generaliteitslanden were about one fifth of the territories of the United Provinces of the Charles, however, did not negotiate in good faith. He had already decided to turn to a third option: becoming a secret ally of France to obtain money and undermine the Dutch position. On 18 April he concluded his first secret treaty with Louis, stipulating that England would support a French conquest of the Spanish Netherlands. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. In May the French invaded, starting the War of Devolution; Charles hoped by procrastinating the talks at Breda to gain enough time to ready his fleet in order to obtain concessions from the Dutch, using the French advance as leverage. The War of Devolution ( 1667 &ndash 1668) saw Louis XIV 's French armies overrun the Hapsburg controlled Spanish Netherlands and
De Witt was aware of Charles's general intentions (though not of the secret treaty). He decided to end the war with one stroke. Ever since its actions in Denmark in 1659, involving many landings to liberate the Danish Isles, the Dutch navy had made a special study of amphibious operations. In 1665 the Dutch Marine Corps (then under the name of Regiment de Marine) had been created. The Korps Mariniers is the Marine corps of the Netherlands. The Dutch Marine Corps is the elite Amphibious infantry component of the Royal Netherlands De Witt personally had arranged for the planning of a landing of marines at Chatham. At both the Four Days' Battle and the St James's Day Fight a Dutch marine contingent had been ready to land in the Medway immediately following a possible Dutch victory at sea. Conditions had not allowed for this in either battle, however. But now there was no English fleet of any quality able to contest command of the North Sea. It lay effectively defenceless at Chatham and De Witt ordered it destroyed.
In June, De Ruyter, with Cornelis de Witt supervising, launched the Dutch "Raid on the Medway" at the mouth of the River Thames. Cornelis de Witt ( ( 15 June 1623 – 20 August 1672) was a Dutch Politician. The Raid on the Medway, sometimes called the Battle of Medway or the Battle of Chatham, was a successful Dutch attack on the largest English The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. After capturing the fort at Sheerness, the Dutch fleet went on to break through the massive chain protecting the entrance to the Medway and, on the 13th, attacked the laid up English fleet. Sheerness (ˈʃɪərnɪs is a town located beside the mouth of the River Medway on the northwest corner of the Isle of Sheppey in north Kent, England The daring raid remains England's greatest naval disaster. Fifteen of the Navy's remaining ships were destroyed, either by the Dutch or by being scuttled by the English to block the river. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Three of the eight remaining "big ships" were burnt: the Royal Oak, the new Loyal London and the Royal James. The largest, the English flagship HMS Royal Charles, was abandoned by its skeleton crew, captured without a shot being fired, and towed back to the Netherlands as a trophy. Its coat of arms is now on display in the Rijksmuseum. A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short in European tradition is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people Rijksmuseum ( English: State Museum is the general name for a National museum in the Dutch language. Fortunately for the English, the Dutch marines spared the Chatham Dockyard, England's largest industrial complex; a land attack on the docks themselves would have set back English naval power for many years. Chatham Dockyard, located on the River Medway and of which two-thirds is in Gillingham and one third in Chatham, Kent, England
The Dutch success made a major psychological impact throughout England, with London feeling especially vulnerable just a year after the Great Fire (which was generally interpreted in the Dutch Republic as divine retribution for Holmes's Bonfire). This article is about the Great Fire of 1666 For other great fires in London see Early fires of London or Second Great Fire of London. This, together with the cost of the war, of the Great Plague and the extravagant spending of Charles's court, produced a rebellious atmosphere in London. The Great Plague (1665-1666 was a massive outbreak of Disease in England that killed 75000 to 100000 people up to a fifth of London 's population Clarendon ordered the English envoys at Breda to sign a peace quickly, as Charles feared an open revolt.
On July 31, 1667, the Treaty of Breda sealed peace between the two nations. For other meanings see Treaty of Breda (disambiguation. The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31 Events 30 BC - Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves a minor victory over Octavian 's forces but most of his army subsequently The treaty allowed the English to keep factual possession of New Netherland (renamed New York, after James), while the Dutch kept control over Paulu Run and the valuable sugar plantations of Suriname which they had conquered in 1667. New Netherland (Dutch Nieuw-Nederland, Latin Novum Belgium or Nova Belgica) 1614–1674 is the name of the former Dutch territory on the eastern coast New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by This temporary uti possidetis solution would be made official in the Treaty of Westminster (1674). Uti possidetis ( Latin for "as you possess" is a principle in International law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at The Treaty of Westminster of 1674 was the Peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. The Act of Navigation was moderated in favour of the Dutch. The English Navigation Acts were a series of Laws which restricted the use of foreign Shipping and trade between England (later the Kingdom of Great
The peace was generally seen as a personal triumph for De Witt. The Republic was jubilant about the Dutch victory. De Witt used the occasion to induce four provinces to adopt the Eternal Edict abolishing the stadtholderate forever. He used the weak position of Charles to force him into the Triple Alliance of 1668 which again forced Louis to temporarily abandon his plans for the conquest of the Southern Netherlands. The Triple Alliance ( 1668) of England, Sweden, and the United Provinces was formed to halt the expansion of Louis XIV 's France But De Witt's success would eventually produce his downfall and nearly that of the Republic with it. Both humiliated monarchs intensified their secret cooperation and would, joined by the bishop of Münster, attack the Dutch in 1672 in the Third Anglo-Dutch War. The Third Anglo-Dutch War or Third Dutch War ( Dutch: Derde Engelse Oorlog or Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog) was a military conflict between De Witt was unable to counter this attack, as he had not dared to create a strong Dutch army for fear that it would strengthen the position of the young William III. William III or William of Orange (14 November 1650 &ndash 8 March 1702 He is informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy" The same year Cornelis Tromp and Johan Kievit arranged his assassination, allowing William to become stadtholder. Sir Cornelis Martinus Tromp, 1st Baronet ( September 9 1629 &ndash May 29 1691) was a Commander in chief of the Dutch and Danish