Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. It is not to be confused with succession, the act of following in order or sequence.
Mainstream political theory largely ignored theories of secession until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia in the early 1990s through secession. Political philosophy is the study of questions about the City, Government, Politics, Liberty, Justice, Property, Rights The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia.  Theories of secession address a fundamental problem of political philosophy: the legitimacy and moral basis of the state’s authority, be it based on “God’s will,” consent of the people, the morality of goals, or usefulness to obtaining goals. 
In his 1991 book Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec philosophy professor Allen Buchanan outlined limited rights to secession under certain circumstances, mostly related to oppression by people of other ethnic or racial groups, and especially those previously conquered by other peoples. Allen Buchanan is the James B Duke Professor of Philosophy at Duke University. 
In the fall of 1994 the Journal of Libertarian Studies published Robert W. The Journal of Libertarian Studies is a scholarly journal published annually by the Ludwig von Mises Institute and Llewellyn H McGee’s article ”Secession Reconsidered. ” He writes from a libertarian perspective, but holds that secession is justified only if secessionists can create a viable, if minimal, state on contiguous territory. Libertarianism is a term used by a broad spectrum of political philosophies which prioritize individual Liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the Contiguity is a series of things in continuous connection a grouping of parts in contiguous physical contact 
In April 1995 the Ludwig Von Mises Institute sponsored a secession conference. The Ludwig von Mises Institute ( LvMI) based in Auburn Alabama, is a Libertarian academic organization engaged in research and scholarship in the fields Papers from the conference were later published in the book Secession, State and Liberty by David Gordon. Among articles included were: “The Secession Tradition in America” by Donald Livingston; “When is Political Divorce Justified?” by Steven Yates; “The Ethics of Secession” by Scott Boykin; “Nations by Consent: Decomposing the Nation-State” by Murray Rothbard; “Yankee Confederates: New England Secession Movements Prior to the War Between the States” by Thomas DiLorenzo; “Was the Union Army's Invasion of the Confederate States a Lawful Act? by James Ostrowski. Donald Livingston is an American philosophy professor based at Emory University with an expertise in the writings of David Hume. Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2 1926 – January 7 1995 was an American economist of the Austrian School who helped define modern Libertarianism Thomas J DiLorenzo (born 1954 is an American Economics Professor at Loyola College in Maryland. 
In July 1998 the Rutgers University journal “Society” published papers from a “Symposium on Secession and Nationalism at the Millennium” including the articles “The Western State as Paradigm” by Hans-Herman Hoppe, “Profit Motives in Secession” by Sabrina P. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey (also known as Rutgers University) is the largest institution for higher education in the state of New Jersey Hans-Hermann Hoppe (born September 2, 1949) is an Austrian school Economist of the anarcho-capitalist tradition and a former economics Ramet, “Rights of Secession” by Daniel Kofman, “The Very Idea of Secession” by Donald Livingston and “Secession, Autonomy, & Modernity” by Edward A. Tiryakian. In 2007 the University of South Carolina sponsored a conference called “Secession As an International Phenomenon” which produced a number of papers on the topic. This article is about the University of South Carolina in Columbia 
Some theories of secession emphasize a general right of secession for any reason (“Choice Theory") while others emphasize that secession should be considered only to rectify grave injustices (“Just Cause Theory”).  Some theories do both. A list of justifications may be presented supporting the right to secede, as described by Allen Buchanan, Robert McGee, Anthony Birch,, Walter Williams, Jane Jacobs, Frances Kendall and Leon Louw, Leopold Kohr, Kirkpatrick Sale, Human Scale, Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1980. Walter (or Walt) Williams may refer to Walter Williams (comedian filmmaker, best known as the Saturday Night Live writer who Jane Jacobs, OC, OOnt ( May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an Kirkpatrick Sale ( Ithaca New York 1937 is an Independent scholar and Author who has written prolifically on Environmentalism, technology and </ref> and various authors in David Gordon’s “Secession, State and Liberty,” includes:
Aleksandar Pavkovic, associate professor at the Department of Politics and International Studies at Macquarie University in Australia and the author of several books on secession describes five justifications for a general right of secession within liberal political theory:
Allen Buchanan, who supports secession under limited circumstances, lists arguments that might be mustered against secession :
Movements that work towards political secession may describe themselves as being autonomy, separatist, independence, self-determination, partition, devolution decentralization, sovereignty, self-governance or decolonization movements instead of, or in addition to, being secession movements. An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a State to government at subnational level __FORCETOC__ Decentralization or Decentralisation (see Spelling differences) is the process of dispersing Decision-making governance closer to the people Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of Organization. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction
See more complete lists of historical and active autonomist and secessionist movements. This is a list of historical autonomist and Secessionist movements around the world This is a list of currently active autonomist and Secessionist movements around the world
During the 19th century, the single British colony in eastern mainland Australia, New South Wales (NSW) was progressively divided up by the British government as new settlements were formed and spread. A number of proposals for further states of Australia have been made in the past century The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. South Australia (SA) was separated in 1836, Victoria (Vic) in 1851 and Queensland (Qld) in 1859. South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern corner of the mainland continent
However, settlers agitated to divide the colonies throughout the later part of the century; particularly in central Queensland (centred in Rockhampton) in the 1860s and 1890s, and in North Queensland (with Bowen as a potential colonial capital) in the 1870s. Central Queensland is an ambiguous geographical division of Queensland (a state in Australia) that centres on the eastern coast around the Tropic Rockhampton can refer to Rockhampton Queensland is a city in Queensland Australia Rockhampton City Queensland, a suburb of Rockhampton North Queensland is the northern part of the state of Queensland in Australia. Bowen is a town on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. Other secession (or territorial separation) movements arose and these advocated the secession of New England in northern central New South Wales, Deniliquin in the Riverina district also in NSW, and Mount Gambier in the eastern part of South Australia. Deniliquin, known locally as "Deni" is a town and Local Government Area (see Deniliquin Council) in the Riverina region of New South The Riverina is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales (NSW Australia South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country
Secession movements have surfaced several times in Western Australia (WA), where a 1933 referendum for secession from the Federation of Australia passed with a two-thirds majority. Secessionism has been a recurring feature of Western Australia 's political landscape since shortly after European settlement in 1829. Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South The referendum had to be ratified by the British Parliament, which declined to act, on the grounds that it would contravene the Australian Constitution. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates
On August 25, 1830, during the reign of William I, the nationalistic opera La muette de Portici was performed in Brussels. The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the William Frederick (William I, born Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau ( The Hague, 24 August 1772 - Berlin, 12 December 1843 was a Prince of La muette de Portici ( The mute girl of Portici) originally entitled Masaniello ou La muette de Portici, is an Opera in five acts Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Soon after, the Belgian Revolt occurred, which resulted in the Belgian secession from The Netherlands.
Throughout Canada's history, there has been tension between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians. The partition of Belgium, or the dissolution of the Belgian State through the separation of the Dutch-speaking peoples of the Flanders region from the Throughout the history of Canada, there have been movements seeking secession from Canada. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Under the Constitutional Act of 1791, the Quebec colony (including parts of what is today Quebec, Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador) was divided in two: Lower Canada (which retained French law and institutions, including seigneurial land tenure, and the privileges accorded to the Roman Catholic church) and Upper Canada (a new colony intended to accommodate the many English-speaking settlers, including the United Empire Loyalists, who had arrived from the United States following the American Revolution). The Constitutional Act of 1791 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (1791 (31 Geo The Province of Lower Canada (French Province du Bas-Canada) was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the The seigneurial system of New France was the semi- feudal system of land distribution used in the colonies of New France. The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario The name United Empire Loyalists is a honorific name which has been given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The intent was to provide each group with its own colony. In 1841, the two Canadas were merged into the Province of Canada. The Province of Canada or the United Province of Canada was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867 The union proved contentious, however, resulting in a legislative deadlock between English and French legislators. The difficulties of the union lead to the adoption of a federal system in Canada, and the Canadian Confederation in 1867. A federation ( Latin: foedus, covenant is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central ("federal" Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed beginning 1 July 1867 from the The federal framework did not eliminate all tensions, however, leading to the Quebec sovereignty movement in the latter half of the 20th century. The Quebec sovereignty movement ( Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement aimed at either attaining independent statehood ( Sovereignty) or some
Other secessionist movements have also existed from time to time in Canada, including anti-Confederation movements in 19th century Atlantic Canada (see Anti-Confederation Party), the North-West Rebellion of 1885, and various small separatism movements in Alberta particularly (see Alberta Separatism) and Western Canada generally (see, for example, Western Canada Concept). Atlantic Canada, also known as the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Canada comprising four provinces located on the Atlantic coast: Anti-Confederation was the name used in what is now Atlantic Canada by several parties opposed to Canadian confederation. The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance or the Saskatchewan Rebellion) of 1885 was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Alberta separatism is a movement that advocates the Secession of the province of Alberta from Canada either by forming an independent nation or by Western Canada, commonly referred to as the West, is a region of Canada normally including all parts of Canada west of the province The Western Canada Concept was a Western Canadian political party founded in 1980 to promote the separation of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan
At the Third session of the Tenth National People's Congress (March 14, 2005) the Chinese government adopted the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China. The Anti-Secession Law ( is a Law of the People's Republic of China. It was created for the purpose of 'opposing and checking Taiwan's secession from China by secessionists in the name of "Taiwan independence"'. The Law includes that Taiwan is part of China and that the unification of China "is the sacred duty of all Chinese people, the Taiwan compatriots included. "
Timor Leste formerly known as East Timor successfully seceded from Indonesia on May 20, 2002. East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. East Timor had been a Portuguese colony since the 16th Century. In 1975 Portugal passed law 7/75 allowing for a transitional government with elections to be run in 1976. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Portuguese sovereignty was to be terminated in October of 1978. Such a peaceful transition was not to be. On August 11, 1975 one of the political parties UDT staged a coup in the capital of Dili. Events 2492 BC - Traditional date of the defeat of Bel by Hayk, progenitor and founder of the Armenian nation Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Dili, also spelled Díli, is the Capital and largest city of Timor Leste (formerly called East Timor. Other political parties responded such as FRETILIN; essentially civil war broke out. The Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor ( Portuguese: Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente or FReTiLIn) is a The Portuguese were not capable of controlling the conflict and retreated. On the November 28, 1975 FRETILIN declared unilateral independence and established the Government of the Democratic of the Republic of East Timor. For the town in Argentina, see 28 de Noviembre. Events Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The other parties declared their independence from that idea and instead accepted the proposed integration to Indonesia. Following the visit of an Indonesian delegation to East Timor the proposal was accepted and on July 17, 1976 it was made official by the Indonesian Parliament. Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It took from then until 1999 (a time of much bloodshed most sources say more than a 100,000 deaths) when Indonesia allowed the Timorese to vote for their independence. They voted overwhelmingly for their independence and on May 20, 2002 they were officially an independent country. 
The Constitution of India does not allow Indian states to declare independence, and separatist political parties have been banned. The Constitution of India ( Hindi: भारतीय़ संविधान see names in other Indian languages) is the supreme law of India. Secessionist movements in Kashmir and Punjab have been suppressed by the military.
Pakistan and the Kashmiri separatist movement allege that the state of Jammu and Kashmir has the right, under international law, to leave the Indian Union after a plebiscite. ( Dogri: जम्मू और कश्मीर Urdu: جموں و کشمیر is the northernmost state of India. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita India rejects this argument, arguing that the UN resolutions on which this right is based are archaic, on three grounds: 1) Pakistan has not withdrawn its troops from its share of Kashmir-a prerequisite for a referendum; 2) The Kashmiri legislature ratified the union of Kashmir and India; 3) Indian Kashmir has been integrated into India, and secession is literally impossible.
In the 1970s and 1980s, some Sikhs began a movement to create a Sikh state known as Khalistan in the Punjab region bordering both India and Pakistan. Sikhism ( IPA: or; ਸਿੱਖੀ sikkhī, IPA:) founded on the teachings of Nanak and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism. Khālistān (ਖਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ official title Sikh Republic of Khalistan or the Holy Sikh Kingdom of Khalistan, was the name given by Jagjit Singh Indian military forces crushed the violent insurgency in the 1980s, destroying part of the famous Golden Temple during one incident. 
The northern-Italian party Lega Nord has declared in 15 September 1996 the secession of Padania (Northern-Italy) for the differences of culture and economy between North and South, for opposition to the centralism of Rome. Lega Nord (Northern League LN whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for Independence of Padania) is an Italian Padania is an alternative name for Northern Italy. It was sparingly used until the early 1990s when the Lega Nord political party proposed the term as a possible The politics of secession has been turned off by Lega Nord, after the coalition with the Centre-Right parties and the proposals of devolution and federalism. Lega Nord (Northern League LN whose complete name is Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania (Northern League for Independence of Padania) is an Italian Although, an ineffective Parliament has been conserved into the Party and its regional sections are named as "national".
Norway and Sweden had entered into a loose personal union in 1814. Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Following a constitutional crisis, in 1905 the Norwegian Parliament declared that King Oscar II had failed to fulfill his constitutional duties on 7 June. The Storting ( Stortinget, literally "the Great Thing /Assembly" is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Early life At his birth in Stockholm Oscar Frederik was created Duke of Östergötland. Events 1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins He was therefore no longer King of Norway and because the union depended on the two countries sharing a king, it was thus dissolved. Sweden agreed to this on 26 October. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death
Somaliland seceded from Somalia in 1991. Somalia ( Soomaaliya; الصومال) officially the Somali Republic ( Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya, جمهورية الصومال) and formerly known To date, it is unrecognized by the UN or any other state.
Between 1967 and 1970, the unrecognised state of Biafra (The Republic of Biafra) seceded from Nigeria, resulting in a civil war that ended with the state returning to Nigeria. The Military Head of State at the time, Col. Yakubu Gowon, proclaimed of the war, "No victor, no vanquish". However, Biafra evidently lost.
The United Kingdom has a number of different secession movements:
The Republic of Ireland comprises the only territory that has withdrawn from the United Kingdom proper; as the Irish Free State it gained independence in 1922 (independence had been declared in 1916). Ireland ( Irish: Éire, ˈeːrʲə is a country in north-western Europe. The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann (1922&ndash1937 was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by
By some theories, the American Revolution was a secession, rather than a revolution. Attempts or aspirations of Secession have been a feature of the politics of the United States since the country's birth In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots"  Discussions and threats of secession have offen surfaced in American politics, most notably in the case of the Confederate States of America. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861
In the early 1990s, Croatia, Slovenia, and later Bosnia and Herzegovina decided to secede from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which resulted in the bloody Yugoslav wars of secession and the dissolution of Yugoslavia. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Macedonian: The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and The Slovenia war was brief and of low intensity, with fewer than 100 deaths on both sides. The Ten-Day War (Desetdnevna vojna sometimes called the Slovenian Independence War (Slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna was a brief military conflict between Slovenia However, large Serbian minorities in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina fought against secession, sometimes aided by the Yugoslav army, and formed their own secessionist enclaves. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan However, the secession of Macedonia in 1991 was not resisted. The Republic of Macedonia (Република Serbian attempts to repress secessionists in Albanian-majority Kosovo led to the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (code-named Operation Allied Force) was NATO 's military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that Kosovo declared independence on February 17, 2008 and was recognized by the United States and some other countries a day later and over the next few days, but remains under United Nations administration. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Montenegro peacefully separated from its union with Serbia in 2006. Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE!