Search and rescue (SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services. The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence For an overview of the whole Huey family of aircraft see Bell Huey WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. No 417 (City of Windsor Squadron is an Air Force unit with the Canadian Forces. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies Often well-trained volunteers are sent to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick, or injured in remote or inaccessible areas. The term can also be applied in urban situations when young children or dementia patients wander away from their homes and cannot be found.
Mountain Rescue relates to search and rescue operations specifically in rugged terrain such as mountains, desert and forest. Mountain rescue refers to Search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in Also referred to as wilderness search and rescue which includes areas such as sea, lakes, rivers or caves. Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of Wilderness rescue in which injured trapped or lost Cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various
Urban search and rescue (Also known as Suburban Search and Rescue as USAR Teams often relates to structural collapses and other technical rescue) operations are Search and Rescue operations conducted in a city. Urban search and rescue also known as USAR, or Urban SAR involves the location extrication and initial medical stabilization of victims trapped in confined Urban search and rescue also known as USAR, or Urban SAR involves the location extrication and initial medical stabilization of victims trapped in confined Technical rescue refers to those aspects of saving life or property that employ the use of tools and skills that exceed those normally reserved for Fire fighting, Medical One of the most common is searching for people buried as a result of a building collapse, as might happen after an earthquake. Sometimes, urban searches are performed for missing persons with certain criteria (example, a missing Alzheimer's patient with a history of wandering away from their home). Alzheimer's disease ( AD) also called Alzheimer disease or simply Alzheimer's, is the most common form of Dementia. Also, a wilderness search may transition into an urban search. This is common when lost children are involved.
Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) is a function of special military units during wartime. A military organization is a way of structuring the armed forces of a State as a need to offer Military capability required by the National defence policy CSAR consists of operations carried out to retrieve, rescue and provide assistance to downed aircrews or allies behind enemy lines. CSAR missions generally have the mission's aircrews well armed as they cross into enemy territory. The USAF Pararescue jumpers are an example of a CSAR unit. Pararescuemen ( AFSC 1T2X1 also called PJs (a nickname pronounced 'pee jays' are United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC and One famous CSAR mission was the rescue of US Air Force Captain Scott O'Grady after he was shot down over Bosnia in 1995. Scott F O'Grady (born October 12, 1965 in Brooklyn, New York) is a former United States Air Force captain who gained prominence Other examples include the more recent Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan, and the famous Battle of Mogadishu in which the "Black Hawk Down" incident occurred. Operation Anaconda is the code name for an operation in early March 2002 in which the United States military, along with allied Afghan military forces attempted to The Battle of Mogadishu (also referred to as the Battle of the Black Sea) or
Air Sea Rescue (ASR) specifically can refer to both the use of aircraft to search for and locate or recover personnel lost at sea and the recovery of downed airmen at sea. The RAF "Air Sea Rescue Service" used dedicated and/or amphibian aircraft together with armed high speed launches to recover aircrew from the English Channel and other coastal areas during the Second World War while long range flying boats and other aircraft would pick up aircrew (or drop equipment to them) further from shore. An amphibious or amphibian aircraft is an Aircraft that can take off and land on either land or water Known as the "Whaleback" from the distinctive curve to its deck the Type 2 HSL (High Speed Launch was used to rescue Allied aircrew World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A flying boat is a specialised form of Aircraft that is designed to take off from and land on water using its Fuselage as a floating hull.
Search is “An operation, using available personnel & facilities to locate persons in distress. ” and Rescue is “An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs, and deliver them to a place of safety. ”
In other words, “The use of available resources to assist persons or property in potential or actual distress. ”
Search and Rescue operations have several distinct phases or parts.
The alerting phase consists of two key elements:
SAR authorities are alerted of a distress situation via distress radiobeacons such as emergency locater transmitters, emergency position-indicating radio beacons, or personal locater beacons. The hertz (symbol Hz) is a measure of Frequency, informally defined as the number of events occurring per Second. In the field of Search and Rescue (SAR distress radio beacons, also collectively known as distress beacons, emergency beacons, or simply beacons They may also be notified by telephone, fax, or other means. In the case of distress radiobeacons, the alert may also provide a lat-lon position of the distress to SAR authorities. In the field of Search and Rescue (SAR distress radio beacons, also collectively known as distress beacons, emergency beacons, or simply beacons A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system.
In the initial phase of the operation, steps are taken to ascertain a likely location of the person being searched for, so that a search area can be established if they are in fact in need of rescue. Essential information is gathered so that leaders can determine not only who is missing, but how they are equipped, how experienced, how familiar with the area, etc. . This information is then factored with other considerations to determine the initial urgency and scale of the mission.
In the Search phase, a search is performed by personnel on foot, horse, or using vehicles, often aided by (dog) teams and, when available, air support. Mounted search and rescue ( MSAR) is a specialty within Search and rescue (SAR using Horses for transportation and to search for Missing persons History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Specific procedures are followed during a Search, including an initial hasty team sent to the most likely locations, containment teams which are posted or patrol likely routes of a lost subject who may be moving, and the assignment of search personnel to specific areas which are mapped out using a combination of theory, prior experience and local knowledge of the terrain. Traditional knowledge (TK indigenous knowledge (IK and local knowledge generally refer to the matured long-standing Traditions and practices of A substantial body of mathematical theory called search theory, some initially developed for anti-submarine warfare, has been developed and can be used to help choose the search area priorities for maritime and inland search operations. The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. Bayesian search theory is the application of Bayesian statistics to the search for lost objects Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older form A/S is a branch of Naval warfare that uses surface Warships Aircraft, space craft or other Submarines Search is usually an iterative process over many hours or even days, with returning field teams interviewed or debriefed to glean information to be incorporated into plans for additional deployments of field teams.
Advances in distress radiobeacon technology are aiming to significantly reduce the amount of time spent searching for persons in distress. In the field of Search and Rescue (SAR distress radio beacons, also collectively known as distress beacons, emergency beacons, or simply beacons See MEOSAR. Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite-based Search and rescue (SAR Distress alert detection and information distribution system established by Canada
In the Rescue phase, aid is rendered to the person where they are found, sufficient to allow them to be safely transported to a place where more intensive aid can be provided. This extrication of the patient often includes some aspects of technical rescue. Technical rescue refers to those aspects of saving life or property that employ the use of tools and skills that exceed those normally reserved for Fire fighting, Medical In certain situations, the subject(s) are in a known position and the operation goes directly to the Rescue phase. The wide availability of cellular phones and increasing coverage areas has increased the number of such calls for rescue without requiring a lengthy Search phase.
The recovery of the body of a deceased person may be considered an aspect of Search and Rescue in some countries, though the actual Rescue phase of the operation is often known as recovery rather than rescue. In other countries rescuers are not permitted to move dead bodies as this is the sole responsibility of a coroner. A coroner is an official responsible for investigating deaths particularly some of those happening under unusual circumstances and determining the cause of death
Once the subject has been found, rescued or recovered, then the operation is recalled and with large operations, this phase is sometimes called demobilization.
Afterwards, there is often a critique phase where each phase of the operation is analysed to determine what did or did not work well, and any lessons learned, this is called a debrief. During debriefs searchers and search administrators discuss what took place during the search, the condition of the subject, and what changes could be made next time for the better.
With or without formal underlying foundations, numerous SAR organisations develop their own proprietary training curricula and operational protocols, which are available and applicable only to their own members. These include the Mountain Rescue Association (MRA), the US National Association of Search and Rescue (NASAR), and the US NFPA. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA is a US organization (albeit with some international members charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and requirements
In the US SAR standards are developed primarily by ASTM International and the US NFPA. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the ASTM International ( ASTM) originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials is an international Standards organization that develops and publishes The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA is a US organization (albeit with some international members charged with creating and maintaining minimum standards and requirements
Within ASTM International, most standards of relevance to SAR are developed by Committee F32 on Search and Rescue. ASTM International ( ASTM) originally known as the American Society for Testing and Materials is an international Standards organization that develops and publishes Formed in 1988, the committee had 85 current members and jurisdiction of 38 approved standards. 
International waters are divided into various regions according to the SOLAS convention. The Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS is the most important treaty protecting the safety of merchant ships See the map provided by the IMO ocean atlas
Antigua & Barbuda
Antigua Barbuda Search And Rescue (ABSAR) has been providing emergency medical and rescue services to the Antiguan Yachting community for a number of years.
ABSAR is a non-profit organization of volunteers dedicated to saving lives. A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage Based at the Antigua Yacht Club Marina, it specializes in medical emergencies, but also offers assistance for search and rescue, helicopter aerial searches and medevac operations in conjunction with Caribbean Helicopters. A medical emergency is an Injury or Illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Medical evacuation, often termed MEDEVAC or medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to the wounded being ABSAR rescue relies 100% on donations.
AusSAR, which is part of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), provides a national search and rescue service.
AusSAR operates a 24 hour Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) in Canberra and is responsible for the national coordination of both maritime and aviation search and rescue. Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. AusSAR is also responsible for the management and operation of the Australian ground segment of the Cospas-Sarsat distress beacon detection system. Cospas-Sarsat is an international satellite-based Search and rescue (SAR Distress alert detection and information distribution system established by Canada The service that spans the nation and covers 52. 8 million square kilometres of the Indian, Pacific and Southern Oceans.
AusSAR's RCC is staffed by SAR specialists who have a naval, merchant marine, air force, civil aviation or police service background. Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying representing all non- Military aviation, both private and commercial The RCC also coordinates medical evacuations, broadcasts maritime safety information and operates the Australian Ship Reporting System (AUSREP). 
State search and rescue
State Police in many states operate state-based search and rescue squads, such as the Victoria Police Search and Rescue Squad, which provides specialist expertise, advice and practical assistance in land search and rescue on most terrain including snow and vertical cliff search and rescue. Mount Dom Dom ( is a mountain (elevation metres in Victoria, Australia 65 km from Melbourne. State police are a type of sub-national Territorial police force, particularly in Australia and the United States. 
There are also state-based volunteer search and rescue groups such as the Bushwalkers Wilderness Rescue Squad in New South Wales and Bushwalkers Search and Rescue in Victoria. These state-based groups draw searchers from bushwalking, mountaineering and specialist rescue clubs within their State.
Search and rescue duties along the Belgian part of the North Sea are executed by the Belgian Air Component. The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. The Air Component, formerly the Belgian Air Force, is the air arm of the Belgian Armed Forces. From its Koksijde Air Base it operates 5 Westland Sea King Mk.48 helicopters. Koksijde Air Base is a Belgian Air Component facility in Koksijde, Belgium. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout 
British Virgin Islands
Virgin Islands Search and Rescue (VISAR) is the officially recognised search and rescue organisation in the British Virgin Islands. The British Virgin Islands ( BVI) is a British overseas territory, located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico. VISAR is a voluntary organisation dedicated to saving life at sea, and provides 24-hour cover every day of the year in close co-operation with the Royal British Virgin Islands police, fire and ambulance services.
Unlike many other search & rescue organisation, such as the United States Coast Guard, VISAR is a charity and is funded almost entirely by charitable donation. With running costs in the region of US$150,000 per year, and a population of just 20,000 in the British Virgin Islands, VISAR relies very heavily on donations made by tourists, who visit the British Virgin Islands to come sailing. The British Virgin Islands ( BVI) is a British overseas territory, located in the Caribbean to the east of Puerto Rico.
Search and Rescue in Canada is overseen by a federal agency called the National Search and Rescue Program, and is coordinated by the National Search and Rescue Secretariat, which liaises with the provincial and territorial governments of Canada and other emergency services. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The National Search and Rescue Program (NSP is the name given by the Government of Canada to the collective Search and rescue (SAR activities in Canada The National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS is an independent agency of the Government of Canada. Each province and territory also maintains its own emergency management organizations. Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks Generally, air rescue is handled by the Canadian Forces, maritime rescue by the Canadian Coast Guard, and ground and inland water rescue is under the legal authority of the individual provinces and territories (most are handled by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)). The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence The Canadian Coast Guard ( CCG) ( Garde côtière canadienne ( GCC) is the Coast guard of Canada. Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination, or bureaucratic Extensive use of volunteer SAR groups is made by all provinces and territories.
See also Heavy Urban Search and Rescue and Toronto Police's Toronto Police Marine Unit. Heavy Urban Search and Rescue or HUSAR is a joint unit of Toronto Fire Services, Toronto Police Service and Toronto EMS created to deal The Toronto Police Service ( TPS) formerly the Metropolitan Toronto Police, is the Police force for the City of Toronto, Ontario
Search and Rescue in Denmark is provided by 722 Squadron of the Royal Danish Air Force. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe The Royal Danish Air Force ( Danish: Flyvevåbnet) is the Air force of Denmark, it is an expeditionary Air Force with capability organised The Air Force operates eight AgustaWestland EH101s in SAR configuration. Three aircraft are always on call at bases in Aalborg (EKYT), Skrydstrup (EKSP) and Roskilde (EKRK). Aalborg ( IPA ˈʌlb̥ɒːˀ is a city in Denmark. Its population as of 2006 is 121540 making it the fourth largest in the country after Copenhagen, Aalborg Airport is a dual-use (civilian/military airport located in Nørresundby, Denmark, which is 3 Roskilde (ˈʁʌskilə is the main city in Roskilde Municipality, Denmark on the island of Zealand. Roskilde Airport, officially known as Copenhagen Airport Roskilde ( is located 4 Nautical miles (7 km) southeast of Roskilde near the In rough weather a fourth aircraft is posted on the island of Bornholm (EKRN) in the Baltic Sea. Bornholm (b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm]) ( Old Norse: Burgundarholm ' is a Danish Island in the Baltic Sea located The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude.
The Danish SAR choppers carry a crew of 6: two pilots, navigator, SAR technichian, medic and physician.
Search and Rescue in German waters is conducted by the German Navy, the German Coast Guard or the Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbrüchiger DGzRS (literally translated: German Society for Saving Shipwrecked, more common: German Maritime Rescue Service GMRS). The Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbrüchiger or DGzRS (literally translated German Society for the Resue of Shipwrecked Sailors but more commonly referred to in English The German Navy ( Deutsche Marine ( is the Navy of Germany and part of the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces The German Navy ( Deutsche Marine ( is the Navy of Germany and part of the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces The German Federal Coast Guard (Koordinierungsverbund Küstenwache is a civilian law enforcement organisation whose primary missions are border protection maritime environmental The Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbrüchiger or DGzRS (literally translated German Society for the Resue of Shipwrecked Sailors but more commonly referred to in English Besides the offshore Search And Rescue services, the German Air Force provides such as well, using Bell UH-1D "Huey" helicopters. 
Search and Rescue operations in Iceland are mainly handled by the Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue (Slysavarnafélagið Landsbjörg) which operates numerous vehicles and boats across the country, along with the Icelandic Coast Guard which operates SAR helicopters and patrol vessels. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders The Hong Kong Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre ( Chinese 香港海事救援協調中心 HKMRCC) is responsible for coordinating maritime search and rescue in The Government Flying Service ( GFS) is a disciplined unit of the Government of Hong Kong SAR. Fire Services Department ( of the Hong Kong Government is an emergency service responsible for fire-fighting and rescue on land and sea The Airport Authority Hong Kong (abbreviated as AA or AAHK) ( abbreviated as 機管局 is the statutory body of the Government of Hong Kong The Hong Kong Police Force is the police force of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The Icelandic Coast Guard is the armed service responsible for Iceland's coastal defense and maritime search and rescue 
The unique thing about Iceland Association for Search and Rescue is that it is operated almost solely on volunteer’s contribution. The rescue units are more than 100 in total and are located in almost every part of the country. All the units contain groups of specially trained individuals. 
SAR services are provided by a civilian body, the Irish Coast Guard. The Irish Coast Guard (IRCG (Garda Cósta na hÉireann is part of the Department of Transport.  It has responsibility for the Irish Search and Rescue Region. 
Also Civil Defence in Ireland also known as Civil Defence Search and Rescue or Recovery, a volunteer based Rescue Service take care of most rescues. Civil defense or civil defence (see spelling differences) is an effort to prepare Civilians for Military attack In Dublin, Ireland Civil Defence Search and Rescue, is the only rescue service in the county, who also provide for Wicklow and surrounding areas. This unit also do Fire, Radioactive monitoring, extricating, treating and looking after most of the Casualty or casualties found. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction. Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable Atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting ionizing particles and Radiation. It is funded by the state and Defence Forces.
Irish Coast Guard who also help Civil Defence was formerly provided by the Irish Air Corps, from 1963 to the early 21st century. The Irish Coast Guard (IRCG (Garda Cósta na hÉireann is part of the Department of Transport. The Irish Air Corps (Aer Chór na hÉireann provides the air defence function of Oglaigh na hÉireann ( the Irish Defence Forces) in support of the Army and The need for longer range helicopters encouraged the Irish Government to create a civilian organisation which hires private companies to provide the service. The Government of Ireland (Rialtas na hÉireann n̪ˠə ˈheːɾʲən̪ˠ is the Cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland.
This procedure has worked successfully, providing a greatly increased SAR range and forward basing of the SAR service on coastal bases, greatly improving their speed to incident and time on site compared to previous centralised military operations near Dublin. A forward operating base (FOB is any secured forward position that is used to support tactical operations This article describes three distinct but related terms military operations Operations as military events and operational level of war
The introduction of the privatised service also allowed Ireland to field the first female SAR helicopter pilot in Europe, at the time.
The responsibility for SAR at sea in the Malta Search and Rescue Region falls under the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM). The Armed Forces of Malta is the name given to the combined armed services of Malta. It is carried out by maritime patrol aircraft, helicopters and vessels under the co-ordination, command and control of the Rescue Co-ordination Centre. 
The AFM, in close collaboration with the US Coast Guard, also runs a Search and Rescue Training Centre for International Students in Maritime SAR Mission Co-ordination and Planning.  To date more than 30 foreign students from 15 countries including Albania, Cameroon, Croatia, Equatorial Guinea and Kenya have attended these courses. 
Malta is also in talks with Libya about enhancing SAR cooperation between the two countries. Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab 
SAR responsibility in the Netherlands is held by the Dutch Coast Guard, carried out by vessels and aircraft from various organisations among which the Koninklijke Nederlandse Redding Maatschappij, Ministry of Transportation and Water Management and the Navy and Air Force. The Ministry of Transportation and Water Management ( Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat; V&W is the Dutch ministry responsible for the Dutch system of Water The Koninklijke Marine ( Royal Netherlands Navy) is the Navy of the Netherlands. The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF, Dutch Koninklijke Luchtmacht (KLu, is the aviation branch of the Netherlands armed forces 
New Zealand's Search and Rescue Region extends from the South Pole to the southern border of the Honolulu region, including Norfolk, Tonga, Samoa, and Cook Islands. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth. Honolulu is the Capital and most populous Census-designated place (CDP in the U The Cook Islands ( Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) are a self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. 
Land-based search and rescue operations (called LSAR, for Land Search and Rescue), such as for lost hikers, are controlled by the local police. The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage The New Zealand Police ( Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa) is the national Police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal and Maritime search and rescue, as well as reports of overdue aircraft, fall under the control of the National Rescue Coordination Centre, based in Wellington, which coordinates response from local coastguard, helicopter operators, merchant marine, air force and naval resources. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the The Royal New Zealand Air Force ( RNZAF) is the air arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. The Royal New Zealand Navy ( RNZN) (Maori Te Taua Moana, The Sea Army) is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. 
Norwegian SAR-services are carried out through cooperation between government agencies, voluntary organisations and private companies who have resources appropriate for rescue services. The Norwegian Joint Rescue Coordination Centres ("Hovedredningssentralene") have the overall operational responsibility during search and rescue operations.
Typical providers of SAR are the The Norwegian Coast Guard (Kystvakten), the Norwegian police, firebrigades and the military.
In addition many privately owned institutions exists such as The Rescue Company (Redningsselskapet) and the Norwegian Air Ambulance (Norsk Luftambulanse). Funding is typically provided from its members and the government.
Philippine SAR Operations are the responsibility of the Philippine Air Force and the Philippine Coast Guard. The Philippine Air Force (PAF is the Air force of the Republic of the Philippines, and one of the three main services of the Armed Forces of the Philippines The Philippine Coast Guard ( PCG) ( Filipino: Tanurang Baybayin ng Pilipinas) ( TBP) is a maritime law enforcement agency operating under the The Air Force has a dedicated SAR formation, the 505th Search and Rescue Group. The group is equipped with the Bell UH-1, Bell 205 and the Sikorsky S-70 helicopters, along with the locally upgraded Huey II helicopter. For an overview of the whole Huey family of aircraft see Bell Huey WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. For an overview of the whole Huey family of aircraft see Bell Huey WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. For an overview of the whole Huey family of aircraft see Bell Huey WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. The 505th SAR has the capability of carrying out search and rescue in mountainous areas as well as over the ocean.
The Coast Guard patrols Philippine waters and conducts search and rescue operations with '78 Halter patrol craft.
SAR Service takes part in search and rescue of human life at the sea and the tasks related to combating sea pollution. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Because Poland is a part of International Conventions like The International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue and The Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, Maritime Search and Rescue Service (called SAR Service) was established. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude.
The SAR Service is a state owned budget unit subordinated to the competent Minister for Maritime Economy.
Major search and rescue events, such as missing ships or aircraft, are coordinated by SASAR, the South African Search and Rescue Organisation. These operations are often carried out in conjunction with the South African National Defence Force, the Civil Aviation Authority and the South African Police Services. The South African National Defence Force ( SANDF) is the name of the Armed forces of South Africa. Local search and rescue efforts are coordinated by provincial emergency services often in conjunction with the South African Police Services. There are numerous specialist search and rescue organisations such as the National Sea Rescue Institute and the Mountain Club of South Africa's search and rescue team. The Mountain Club of South Africa (MCSA is the largest and oldest Mountaineering club in South Africa. Many of these teams are staffed by volunteers.
In the UK, maritime search and rescue is coordinated by HM Coastguard, while land-based operations are usually coordinated by the local Police force. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Her Majesty's Coastguard is the service of the Government of the United Kingdom concerned with co-ordinating Rescue at sea Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in Scotland, Northern Ireland, England and Wales (administration of Police matters The operation itself is carried out with aircraft from the Royal Navy, RAF or Coastguard, RNLI lifeboats and police, military or volunteer mountain rescue or ALSAR (Association of Lowland Search and Rescue) teams. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) The founder Sir William Hillary Sir William Hillary came to live on the Isle of Man in 1808 A lifeboat is a boat designed to save the lives of people in trouble at sea Mountain rescue refers to Search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in Aircraft coordination is carried out by the UK Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre (ARCC) based at RAF Kinloss in the north of Scotland. The UK Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre' (ARCC is based at RAF Kinloss, near Forres in Moray The centre is responsible for tasking and coordinating all of the UK's search and rescue helicopter and RAF mountain rescue teams. 
In 2006, the government announced controversial plans to effectively privatise provision of search and rescue helicopters in order to replace the aging Sea Kings currently in use, although they have suggested that crews may, at least partially, still be made up of military personnel. Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. 
The National Search and Rescue plan designates the United States Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR and the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain Rescue Coordination Centers to coordinate this effort. The jurisdiction for local lost person SAR operations varies from state to state in the United States, and depends upon the nature of the operation. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Urban SAR operations involve searching through debris and are often but not always under the jurisdiction of the fire department especially when a rescue is involved. A fire station (also called stationhouse) is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus (i If there is a criminal element, such as abduction, then a law enforcement agency will usually have jurisdictional authority. Law enforcement agency ( LEA) is a term used to describe either an organisation that enforces the laws of one or more governing bodies or an organisation that actively and directly
Authority for Wilderness SAR and Mountain Rescue varies, with some states (e. Mountain rescue refers to Search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in g. , New Mexico) supervising operations from a state-wide office such as state police or office of emergency management. New Mexico ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. An Office of Emergency Management (OEM is an agency at the local state or national level that holds responsibility of comprehensively planning for and responding to all manner of Many states place authority for SAR with the local sheriff of the county in which the incident took place (e. SHERIFF is a telecom fraud detection and management system originally developed by BT and MCI. g. , Colorado). The United States Forest Service may also be involved. State fish and game wardens may also be responsible (e. g. , New Hampshire). New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Within U.S. national parks and monuments, the National Park Service maintains authority, "exclusive jurisdiction," regardless of state law. The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation The National Park Service ( NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation State law in the United States, is the Law of each separate U Most wilderness SAR operations involve volunteer groups such as members of NCCERT, Mountain Rescue Association and US-HERO, who work for the jurisdictional authority. NCCERT (North Carolina Canine Emergency Response Team is a State-wide volunteer organization providing Search and rescue services to local state and federal agencies US-HERO is a volunteer organization providing qualified Search and rescue and Disaster relief services to local state and federal agencies
In addition to their responsibilities in the area of missing aircraft SAR, the Civil Air Patrol (USAF Aux) often assists in wilderness SAR when activated by the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center. The Civil Air Patrol ( CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF
SAR on federal waters is usually the responsibility of the United States Coast Guard, but in inland and joint jurisdiction waters state and local government agencies assume some or all responsibility for SAR. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State.
In some situations, body recovery may fall under a separate command, such as the state medical investigator or county medical examiner, depending upon the local laws. A coroner is an official responsible for investigating deaths particularly some of those happening under unusual circumstances and determining the cause of death
Missing Aircraft and ELT beacon searches
Where downed aircraft are involved, the state aeronautics commission (or their delegate) is responsible for the recovery and subsequent investigation. Most states use the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) in conjunction with their local SAR team. The Civil Air Patrol ( CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF CAP is the Air Force Auxiliary. CAP SAR teams are activated through the United States Air Force Rescue Coordination Center to conduct searches for possible or actual missing aircraft. CAP conducts over 95% of all federal search and rescue missions directed by the Center for possible or actual missing aircraft. CAP also helps with missing person searches as requested by county, state and other agencies.
Urban operations are generally staffed with paid personnel from fire, EMS, law enforcement agencies and volunteer teams with mutual aid agreements. Emergency medical services (abbreviated to the initialism "EMS" in many countries are a branch of Emergency services dedicated to providing out-of-hospital
Wilderness operations are usually staffed with a combination of paid and volunteer personnel. Volunteers may be members of a public safety agency such as a fire department or county sheriff but are also likely to be members of an independent non-profit group with specialized skills such as ground search and rescue, airborne search, wilderness navigation, cave rescue, mountain rescue, ski patrol and wilderness first aid. Public security Public safety involves the prevention of and protection from events that could endanger the Safety of the general public from significant Danger SHERIFF is a telecom fraud detection and management system originally developed by BT and MCI. Navigation is the process of reading and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another Cave rescue is a highly specialized field of Wilderness rescue in which injured trapped or lost Cave explorers are medically treated and extracted from various Mountain rescue refers to Search and rescue activities that occur in a mountainous environment although the term is sometimes also used to apply to search and rescue in ski patrol is an organization that provides First aid and rescue services to skiers and participants of other snow sports either at a ski area or in a back country Wilderness first aid is the specific discipline of First aid which relates to care in remote areas where Emergency medical services will be difficult to obtain or Large operations can bring a dozen or more separate groups and government agencies to a single operation, which is usually managed using the Incident Command System (ICS) originally developed for management of diverse resources to combat large wildfires. The Incident Command System (ICS is a standardized on-scene all-hazard incident management concept in the United States. A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, brush fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, Peat fire, The managing agency tends to be state law enforcement, or the county that the search is being staged in.
Marine operations in the U. S. are generally staffed by the United States Coast Guard including its Auxiliary, and on inland waters county and state public safety agencies will also participate. The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary was established on June 23 1939 by an act of Congress as the United States Coast Guard Reserve and re-designated as the Auxiliary
Aviation search operations in the U. S. are staffed by Civil Air Patrol volunteers, which include both aircrews and ground teams trained for wilderness search in coordination with aircraft. The Civil Air Patrol ( CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF CAP members also perform SAR and disaster relief activities of other natures, in the effort to assist local, state, and national authorities as directed by CAP Incident Commanders and the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center.
Most SAR units in the United States are all-volunteer groups that work under the jurisdictional authorities. These may be sponsored by a jurisdictional authority (Sheriff's Office or Police Department) or be an independent group with a Mutual Aid Agreement with the jurisdictional authorities. The Independent Group (IG met at the Institute of Contemporary Arts (ICA London from 1952-55 Examples of all volunteer groups are NCCERT, US-HERO, ASRC, Explorer Search and Rescue, and US Search And Rescue Task Force. NCCERT (North Carolina Canine Emergency Response Team is a State-wide volunteer organization providing Search and rescue services to local state and federal agencies US-HERO is a volunteer organization providing qualified Search and rescue and Disaster relief services to local state and federal agencies Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, or ASRC, is one of thirteen Alaska Native Regional Corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Explorer Search and Rescue (ESAR are teams of Explorers in the Learning for Life program of the Boy Scouts of America who are trained and deployed for