Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, or wood. Three-dimensional space is a geometric model of the physical Universe in which we live The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Stone sculpture is the result of forming 3-dimensional visually interesting objects from stone In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across Wood is hard fibrous lignified structural tissue produced as secondary Xylem in the stems of Woody plants notably trees but also shrubs Some sculptures are created directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Kilns are thermally insulated chambers or Ovens in which controlled temperature regimes are produced Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials usually Metals or Thermoplastics by causing coalescence. Molding is the process of Manufacturing by shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or model called a pattern. Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually poured into a mold which A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor.
Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. Materials are physical Substances used as inputs to production or Manufacturing. Plastic arts are those Visual arts that involve the use of Materials that can be moulded or modulated in some way often in three dimensions The majority of public art is sculpture. The term public art properly refers to works of Art in any media that has been planned and executed with the specific intention of being sited Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden. A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature. A sculpture garden is an outdoor garden dedicated to the presentation of Sculpture, usually several permanently-sited works in durable materials in landscaped surroundings
Some common forms of sculpture are:
Sculptors have generally sought to produce works of art that are as permanent as possible, working in durable and frequently expensive materials such as bronze and stone: marble, limestone, porphyry, and granite. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size Realism is a visual art style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see An entity is something that has a distinct separate Existence, though it need not be a material existence The term person is used in Common sense to mean an individual Human being. For other uses of Object see Object. In Philosophy, an object is a thing an Entity, or a Being. A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure depicting a person's head and Neck, as well as a variable portion of An equestrian statue is a Statue of a Horse -mounted rider The term is from the Latin " eques," meaning " Knight In Fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation such as a Song, Book, Film, Video game, Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Porphyry is a variety of Igneous rock consisting of large-grained Crystals such as Feldspar or Quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. More rarely, precious materials such as gold, silver, jade, and ivory were used for chryselephantine works. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, More common and less expensive materials were used for sculpture for wider consumption, including hardwoods (such as oak, box/boxwood, and lime/linden); terra cotta and other ceramics, and cast metals such as pewter and zinc (spelter). The term hardwood is used to describe Wood from broad-leaved angiosperm Trees mostly Deciduous, but not necessarily in the case of tropical The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Buxus is a Genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names include box (majority of English-speaking countries or boxwood Tilia is a Genus of about 30 species of Trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Pewter is a Metal Alloy, traditionally between 85 and 99 percent Tin, with the remainder consisting of Copper and Antimony, acting Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30
Many sculptors seek new ways and materials to make art. Jim Gary used stained glass and automobile parts, tools, machine parts, and hardware. Jim Gary ( March 17, 1939 – January 14, 2006) was an American sculptor popularly known for his large colorful creations For the Blackford Oakes novel see Stained Glass (novel The term stained glass refers either to the material of coloured Glass or to the art One of Pablo Picasso's most famous sculptures included bicycle parts. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind Alexander Calder and other modernists made spectacular use of painted steel. Alexander Calder (22 July 1898 – 11 November 1976 also known as Sandy Calder, was an American sculptor and Artist most famous for inventing Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 Since the 1960s, acrylics and other plastics have been used as well. In Organic chemistry, the acryl group is the Functional group with structure H 2 C =CH-C(= O)- it is the Acyl group Andy Goldsworthy makes his unusually ephemeral sculptures from almost entirely natural materials in natural settings. Andy Goldsworthy (born 26 July 1956 is a British sculptor, Photographer and environmentalist living in Scotland who produces Some sculpture, such as ice sculpture, sand sculpture, and gas sculpture, is deliberately short-lived. Ice sculpture is a form of Sculpture that uses Ice as the Raw material. Gas sculpture is a proposal made by Joan Miró in his late writings to make Sculpture out of gaseous materials
Sculptors often build small preliminary works called maquettes of ephemeral materials such as plaster of Paris, wax, clay, or plasticine, as Alfred Gilbert did for 'Eros' at Piccadilly Circus, London. This article is about the architectural or sculptural model For the Italian animator please see Bruno Bozzetto. The term plaster can refer to plaster of Paris Lime plaster, or Cement plaster. This is an article about the sculptor see also Alfred Carlton Gilbert for the inventor and toymaker In Retroarchaeology, these materials are generally the end product. Retroarchaeology is a subset of the Sensationalist movement in art
Many different forms of sculpture were used in Asia, with many pieces being religious art based around Hinduism and Buddhism (Buddhist art). Sacred art is Imagery intended to uplift the Mind to the spiritual. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Buddhist art originated on the Indian subcontinent following the historical life of Gautama Buddha, 6th to 5th century BCE and thereafter evolved by contact with A great deal of Cambodian Hindu sculpture is preserved at Angkor, however organized looting has had a heavy impact on many sites around the country. Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to In Thailand, sculpture was almost exclusively of Buddha images. Many Thai sculptures or temples are gilded, and on occasion enriched with inlays. See also Thai art
The first known sculptures are from the Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in modern-day Pakistan. The Indus Valley Civilization (Mature period 2600&ndash1900 BCE abbreviated IVC, was an ancient Civilization that flourished in the Indus River basin Mohenjo-daro (موئن جودڑو موئن جو دڙو मोहन जोदड़ो Mound of the Dead was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization Harappa ( Urdu:, Hindi: हड़प्पा) is a City in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 35km (22 miles southwest Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and These are among the earliest known instances of sculpture in the world. Later, as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism developed further, India produced bronzes and stone carvings of great intricacy, such as the famous temple carvings which adorn various Hindu, Jain and Buddhist shrines. Hinduism is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Some of these, such as the cave temples of Ellora and Ajanta, are examples of Indian rock-cut architecture, perhaps the largest and most ambitious sculptural schemes in the world. Ellora ( Marathi: Verul is an archaeological site 30 km (186 miles from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra Indian rock-cut architecture is more various and found in greater abundance than any other form of rock-cut architecture around the world
During the 2nd to 1st century BC in northern India, in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more anatomically realistic, often representing episodes of the life and teachings of Gautama Buddha. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through symbols such as the stupa. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m स्तूप stūpa, literally meaning "heap" is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist This alteration in style may have occurred because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in ancient Afghanistan acquired Greek and Persian influence. Gandhāra ( Sanskrit: गन्धार Urdu: گندھارا Gandḥārā; also known as Waihind in Persian is the name of an ancient The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present particularly in the areas of Sculpture The Iranian cultural region - consisting of the modern nations of Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is characterized by wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, and acanthus leaf decorations, among other things. Acanthus is a Genus of about 30 species of Flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis.
The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta Empire period (4th-6th century AD) to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. Mathura ( IAST mathurā)( Hindi: मथुरा is a holy City in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The Gupta Empire ( Hindi: गुप्त राजवंश was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 550 C Gupta period art would later influence Chinese styles during the Sui dynasty, and the artistic styles across the rest of east Asia. Newer sculptures in Afghanistan, in stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The schists form a group of medium-grade Metamorphic rocks chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar Minerals such as Micas chlorite The celebrated bronzes of the Chola dynasty (c. 850-1250) from south India are of particular note; the iconic figure of Nataraja being the classic example. South India is the area encompassing India 's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union Nataraja /nɐtɐrɑdʒɐ/ ( The Lord (or King of Dance) Tamil கூத்தன் is the dancing posture of the Hindu god Shiva, who performs his The traditions of Indian sculpture continue into the 20th and 21st centuries with for instance, the granite carving of Mahabalipuram derived from the Pallava dynasty. WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Mahabalipuram (மகாபலிபுரம் also known as Mamallapuram (மாமல்லபுரம் Origins See also Origin of Pallava The exact origin of the Pallavas is shrouded in mystery Contemporary Indian sculpture is typically polymorphous but includes celebrated figures such as Dhruva Mistry. Dhruva Mistry, (b 1957 is a sculptor born in Kanjari, Gujarat, India and who having worked in Great Britain between 1981 and 1997 returned to Vadodara
Buddhist, 1st-2nd century AD
Hindu, Chola period, 1000 AD
Buddhist, 2nd century
Chola-ra bronze, 11th-12th centuries
13th century Ganesha
Siva and Parvarti
Ellora Kailash temple Shiva
14th century sculpture
in Ellora cave
Sculpture at Parsurameswar Temple, Bhubaneswar
Sculpture of Dancing Woman at Parsurameswar Temple
Lord Bishnu at Bhubaneswar
A Sculpture in Mukteswar temple, Bhubaneswar
Artifacts from China date back as early as 10,000 BC and skilled Chinese artisans had been active very early in history, but the bulk of what is displayed as sculpture comes from a few select historical periods. Bhubaneswar ( Oriya: BUbEnSvr Hindi: भुवनेश्वर in Sanskrit and Oriya/oDiA "The Lord of the Universe" is the capital and The Liao Dynasty ( 907 - 1125, also known as the Khitan Empire (契丹國 was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria For the character from the Oz series see Polychrome (fictional character. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size Guanyin (觀音 pinyin guānyīn, Wade-Giles kuan-yin) is the Bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists ( Postal map spelling: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the People's Republic of China. In Archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing The first period of interest has been the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050-771 BC), from which come a variety of intricate cast bronze vessels. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. The next period of interest was the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), beginning with the spectacular Terracotta Army assembled for the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the important but short-lived Qin Dynasty that preceded the Han. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China Tombs excavated from the Han period have revealed many figures found to be vigorous, direct, and appealing 2000 years later.
The first Buddhist sculpture is found dating from the Three Kingdoms period (3rd century), while the sculpture of the Longmen Grottoes near Luoyang, Henan Province (Northern Wei, 5th and 6th century) has been widely recognized for its special elegant qualities. The Three Kingdoms period ( is a period in the History of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties following immediately the loss of The Longmen Grottoes ( ch 龍門石窟/ 龙门石窟 lóngmén shíkū lit Luoyang ( is a Prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. Henan ( is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 Pinyin: běi wèi 386 - 534) also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓拔魏 Later Wei (後魏 or Elegance is the attribute of being unusually effective and simple
The period now considered to be China's golden age is the Tang Dynasty, coinciding with what in Europe is sometimes called the Dark Ages). In the Buddhist context a bodhisattva (बोधिसत्त्व bodhisattva;; Vietnamese Bồ Tát; बोधिसत्त bodhisatta The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms The Chinese Golden age in the Tang Dynasty ( 618 - 907) describes a period of peace when Chinese art trade and literature prospered The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by This article is about the phrase "Dark Age(s" as a characterization of the Early Middle Ages in Western Europe Decorative figures like those shown below became very popular in 20th century Euro-American culture, and were made available in bulk, as warlords in the Chinese civil wars exported them to raise cash. Considered especially desirable, and even profound, was the Buddhist sculpture, often monumental, begun in the Sui Dynasty, inspired by the Indian art of the Gupta period, and many are considered treasures of world art.
Following the Tang, Western interest in Chinese artifacts drops off dramatically, except for what might be considered as ornamental furnishings, and especially objects in jade. Jade is an Ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different Silicate minerals. Pottery from many periods has been collected, and again the Tang period stands out apart for its free, easy feeling. Chinese sculpture has no nudes --other perhaps than figures made for medical training or practice -- and very little portraiture compared with the European tradition. One place where sculptural portraiture was pursued, however, was in the monasteries.
Almost nothing, other than jewelry, jade, or pottery is collected by art museums after the Ming Dynasty ended in the late 17th century -- and absolutely nothing has yet been recognized as sculpture from the tumultuous 20th century, although there was a school of Soviet-influenced social realist sculpture in the early decades of the Communist regime, and as the century turned, Chinese craftsmen began to dominate commercial sculpture genres (the collector plates, figurines, toys, etc) and avant garde Chinese artists began to participate in the Euro-American enterprise of contemporary art. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led
Wine jar, Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 BC-771 BC)
Calvalryman, Qin Dynasty
Chimera (from a tomb) , Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD)
Tomb figure, Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD)
Tang Dynasty rider (618-907)
Tang Dynasty girl figurine (618-907)
Boddisatva, Tang Dynasty (618-907)
The Leshan Giant Buddha, Tang Dynasty, completed in 803. The Zhou Dynasty ( POJ: Chiu Tiau 1122 BC to 256 BC was preceded by the Shang Dynasty and followed by the Qin Dynasty in China. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China The Terracotta Army ( are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang the First Emperor of China. Not to be confused with the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty of China The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 Pinyin: běi wèi 386 - 534) also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓拔魏 Later Wei (後魏 or Maitreya ( Sanskrit) or Metteyya ( Pāli) is a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by The Leshan Giant Buddha ( was built during the Tang Dynasty ( 618 - 907) The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by
Portrait of monk, Song Dynasty, 11th century
Doctor's lady, mid-19th century
Countless paints and sculpture were made, often under governmental sponsorship. Most Japanese sculpture is associated with religion, and the medium' use declined with the lessening importance of traditional Buddhism. During the Kofun period of the third century, clay sculptures called haniwa were erected outside tombs. The are Terra cotta clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century AD of the History Inside the Kondo at Hōryū-ji is a Shaka Trinity (623), the historical Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and also the Guardian Kings of the Four Directions The wooden image ( 9th c. is a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Its full name is Hōryū Gakumonji (法隆学問寺 or Learning Temple ) of Shakyamuni, the "historic" Buddha, enshrined in a secondary building at the Muro-ji, is typical of the early Heian sculpture, with its ponderous body, covered by thick drapery folds carved in the hompa-shiki (rolling-wave) style, and its austere, withdrawn facial expression. The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture.
African art has an emphasis on Sculpture - African artists tend to favor three-dimensional artworks over two-dimensional works. Ife (Ifè also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba City in south-western Nigeria. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on earth Although anthropologists argue that the earliest known sculptures in Africa are from the Nok culture of Nigeria that date around 500 BC, the art of Pharaonic Africa date much earlier than the Nok period. Metal sculptures from the eastern portions of west Africa such as Benin, are considered among the best ever produced.
Art plays an essential role in the lives of the African peoples and communities across the continent. The beauty of African art is simply in meaning. African art constitutes one of the most diverse legacies on earth These objects mean a great deal to the people and they are of significant meaning to the traditions that produce them. Their beauty and content protect the community and the individual artists, and tell much of the artists who use them. Later exhibitions of African art in the West have been able to get much detailed catalogues that attempt to cover the art of the whole continent.
Sculptures are created to symbolize and reflect the regions from which they are made. Right from the materials and techniques used, the pieces have functions that are very different from one region to the other.
In West Africa, the figures have elongated bodies, angular shapes, and facial features that represent an ideal rather than an individual. These figures are used in religious rituals. They are made to have surfaces that are often coated with materials placed on them for ceremonial offerings. In contrast to these sculptures of West Africa are the ones of Mande-speaking peoples of the same region. The Mande pieces are made of wood and have broad, flat surfaces. Their arms and legs are shaped like cylinders.
In Central Africa, however, the key characteristics include heart shaped faces that are curve inward and display patterns of circles and dots. Although some groups prefer more of geometric and angular facial forms, not all pieces are exactly the same. Also, not all pieces are made of the same material. The materials used range from mostly wood all the way to ivory, bone, stone, clay, and metal. Overall, though, the Central African region has very striking styles that is very easy to identify. With the distinctive style, one can easily tell which area the sculpture was produced in.
Eastern Africa is not known for their sculptures but one type that is done in this area is pole sculptures. These are a pole carved in a human shape and decorated with geometric forms, while the tops are carved with figures of animals, people, and various objects. These poles are then placed next to graves and are associated with death and the ancestral world.
Southern Africa’s oldest known clay figures date from 400 to 600 A. D. and have cylindrical heads. These clay figures have a mixture of human and animal features. Other than clay figures, there are also wooden headrests that were buried with their owners. The headrests had styles ranging from geometric shapes to animal figures. Each region had a unique style and meaning to their sculptures. The type of material and purpose for creating sculpture in Africa reflect the region from which the pieces are created.
The monumental sculpture of Ancient Egypt is world-famous, but refined and delicate small works are also a feature. Ancient Egyptian art refers to the style of painting sculpture crafts and architecture developed by the Civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now The ancient art of Egyptian sculpture evolved to represent the ancient Egyptian gods, and Pharaohs, the divine kings and queens, in physical form. Very strict conventions were followed while crafting statues: male statues were darker than the female ones; in seated statues, hands were required to be placed on knees and specific rules governed appearance of every Egyptian god. Artistic works were ranked according to exact compliance with all the conventions, and the conventions were followed so strictly that over three thousand years, very little changed in the appearance of statues except during a brief period during the rule of Akhenaten and Nefertiti when naturalistic portrayal was encouraged. Akhenaten (often alt: Akhnaten, or rarely Ikhnaton) (In English ˌɑkəˡnɑtən or approximately "AHK-en-AHT-en" his royal name Amenhotep Nefertiti (pronounced at the time something like *nafratiːta (c
Sculpture in what is now Latin America developed in two separate and distinct areas, Mesoamerica in the north and Peru in the south. The history of sculpture in the United States reflects the country's 18th century foundation in Roman republican civic values as well as Protestant Christianity Pre-Columbian Art is the art of Mexico, Central and South America in the time prior to the arrival of European colonizers in the 16th century Northwest Coast art is the term commonly applied to a style of art created primarily by artists from Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Kwakwaka'wakw Inuit art refers to Artwork produced by Inuit, that is the people of the Arctic sometimes known as Eskimos Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Mesoamérica is a Region extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua, defined Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. In both areas, sculpture was initially of stone, and later of terra cotta and metal as the civilizations in these areas became more technologically proficient. Terra cotta ( Italian: "baked earth" is a Ceramic. Its uses include vessels water & waste water pipes and surface embellishment in Building construction  The Mesoamerican region produced more monumental sculpture, from the massive block-like works of the Olmec and Toltec cultures, to the superb low reliefs that characterize the Mayan and Aztec cultures. The Olmec were an ancient Pre-Columbian people living in the Tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in what are roughly the modern-day states Toltec-style Vessel 1jpg|thumb|250px|right|A rather expressive orange-ware clay vessel in the Toltec style A relief is a Sculptured Artwork where a modeled form is raised (or alternatively lowered from a flattened background without being disconnected from it The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political In the Andean region, sculptures were typically small, but often show superb skill. In North America, wood was sculpted for totems, totem poles, masks, and boats. A totem is any supposed entity that watches over or assists a group of people such as a family Clan or tribe ( Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary and Webster's Totem poles are monumental Sculptures carved from great Trees usually cedar but mostly Western Redcedar, by a number of Indigenous cultures along The arrival of European Catholic culture readily adapted local skills to the prevailing Baroque style, producing enormously elaborate retablos and other mostly church sculptures in a slightly hybrid style. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc A retablo (or lamina) is painting typically done on a wood carving Later, artists trained in the Western academic tradition followed European styles until in the late nineteenth century they began to draw again on indigenous influences.
The history of sculpture in the United States after Europeans' arrival reflects the country's 18th-century foundation in Roman republican civic values and Protestant Christianity. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Compared to areas colonized by the Spanish, sculpture got off to an extremely slow start in the British colonies, with next to no place in churches, and was only given impetus by the need to assert nationality after independence. American sculpture of the mid- to late-19th century was often classical, often romantic, but showed a bent for a dramatic, narrative, almost journalistic realism. Public buildings of the first half of the 20th century often provided an architectural setting for sculpture, especially in relief. By the 1950s, traditional sculpture education would almost be completely replaced by a Bauhaus-influenced concern for abstract design. ("House of Building" or "Building School" is the common term for the, a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts and was famous Abstract art uses a Visual language of form color and line to create a composition which exists independently of visual references to the world Minimalist sculpture often replaced the figure in public settings. Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design especially Visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features Modern sculptors use both classical and abstract inspired designs. Beginning in the 1980s, there was a swing back toward figurative public sculpture; by 2000, many of the new public pieces in the United States were figurative in design.
Features unique to the European Classical tradition:
Features that the European Classical tradition shares with many others:
The topic of Nudity
An unadorned figure in Greek classical sculpture was a reference to the status or role of the depicted person, deity or other being. Athletes, priestesses and gods could be identified by their adornment or lack of it.
The Renaissance preoccupation with Greek classical imagery, such as the 5th century B. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere C. Doryphoros of Polykleitos, led to nude figurative statues being seen as the 'perfect form' of representation for the human body. The Doryphoros ( Greek δορυφόρος, lit "Spear-Bearer" Latinized as Doryphorus) is one of the best known sculptures Polykleitos (or Polyklitos, Polycleitus, Polyclitus; Greek Πολύκλειτος) called the Elder was a Greek Subsequently, nudity in sculpture and painting has represented a form of ideal, be it innocence, openness or purity. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Nude sculptures are still common. As in painting, they are often made as exercises in efforts to understand the anatomical structure of the human body and develop skills that will provide a foundation for making clothed figurative work. Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration
Nude statues are usually widely accepted by most societies, largely due to the length of tradition that supports this form. Occasionally, the nude form draws objections, often by fundamentalist moral or religious groups. Classic examples of this are the removal of penises from the Vatican collection of Greek sculpture and the addition of a fig leaf to a plaster cast of Michelangelo's sculpture of David for Queen Victoria's visit to the British Museum. The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani in Viale Vaticano in Rome, inside the Vatican City, are one of the greatest museums in the world since they display works Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London.
Gothic sculpture evolved from the early stiff and elongated style, still partly Romanesque, into a spatial and naturalistic feel in the late 12th and early 13th century. The architectural statues at the Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral (c. 1145) are the earliest Gothic sculptures and were a revolution in style and the model for a generation of sculptors. Prior to this there had been no sculpture tradition in Ile-de-France—so sculptors were brought in from Burgundy. Île-de-France ( pronounced /il d̪ə fʁɑ̃s/ literally "Island of France" is one of the twenty-six administrative regions of France. Bamberg Cathedral had the largest assemblage of 13th century sculpture. The Bamberg Cathedral (Bamberger Dom official name Bamberger Dom St In England sculpture was more confined to tombs and non-figurine decorations. In Italy there was still a Classical influence, but Gothic made inroads in the sculptures of pulpits such as the Pisa Baptistery pulpit (1269) and the Siena pulpit. Dutch-Burgundian sculptor Claus Sluter and the taste for naturalism signaled the beginning of the end of Gothic sculpture, evolving into the classicistic Renaissance style by the end of the 15th century. Claus Sluter (born 1340s in Haarlem; died in 1405 or 1406 Dijon) was a sculptor of Dutch origin
Although the Renaissance began at different times around Europe (some areas created art longer in the Gothic style than other areas) the transition from Gothic to Renaissance in Italy was signalled by a trend toward naturalism with a nod to classical sculpture. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all David is a Masterpiece of Renaissance Sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504 One of the most important sculptors in the classical revival was Donatello. Donatello ( Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c 1386 &ndash December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian The greatest achievement of what art historians refer to as his classic period is the bronze statue entitled David (not to be confused with Michelangelo's David), which is currently located at the Bargello in Florence. At the time of its creation, it was the first free-standing nude statue since ancient times. Conceived fully in the round and independent of any architectural surroundings, it is generally considered to be the first major work of Renaissance sculpture.
During the High Renaissance, the time from about 1500 to 1520, Michelangelo was an active sculptor with works such as David and the Pietà, as well as the Doni Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Orgetorix, and members of the Medici family. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Michelangelo's David is possibly the most famous sculpture in the world, which was unveiled on September 8, 1504. David is a Masterpiece of Renaissance Sculpture sculpted by Michelangelo from 1501 to 1504 It is an example of the contrapposto style of posing the human figure, which again borrows from classical sculpture. Contrapposto is an Italian term meaning "counterpoise" used in the Visual arts to describe a human figure standing with most of its weight on one foot Michelangelo's statue of David differs from previous representations of the subject in that David is depicted before his battle with Goliath and not after the giant's defeat. Instead of being shown victorious over a foe much larger than he, David looks tense and battle ready.
During the Mannerist period, more abstract representations were praised, giving more thought to color and composition rather than realistic portrayal of the subjects in the piece. Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna ( 1529 - August 13 1608) was Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of This is exemplified in Giambologna's Abduction/Rape of the Sabine Women, where the figures are not positioned in a way which is at all comfortable, or even humanly possible, but the position and emotion still come across. Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna ( 1529 - August 13 1608) was Another exemplar of the form is Benvenuto Cellini's 1540 salt cellar of gold and ebony, featuring Neptune and Amphitrite (earth and water) in elongated form and uncomfortable positions. Benvenuto Cellini A salt cellar is a bowl usually small for holding Salt. The use of salt cellars continued through the 1940s but has been in decline since and been gradually replaced with Neptune (Neptūnus is the god of water and the sea in Roman mythology, a brother of Jupiter and Pluto. In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (Ἀμφιτρίτη (not to be confused with Aphrodite) was a sea-goddess
In Baroque sculpture, groups of figures assumed new importance, and there was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms— they spiralled around an empty central vortex, or reached outwards into the surrounding space. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Sigismund III Vasa (Zygmunt III Waza ( 20 June 1566 Warsaw (Warszawa; also known by other names) is the Capital and Largest city of Poland. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland For the first time, Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or water fountains. Often, Baroque artists fused sculpture and architecture seeking to create a transformative experience for the viewer. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was undoubtedly the most important sculptor of the Baroque period. "Bernini" redirects here For people named Bernini see Bernini (surname. His first works were inspired by Hellenistic sculpture of ancient Greece and imperial Rome. One of his most famous works is Ecstasy of St Theresa
The sculpture examples they actually embraced were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures. The Ecstasy of St Teresa (alternatively St Teresa in Ecstasy or Transverberation of St Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Étienne Maurice Falconet (1716 - 1791 is counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, whose patron was Mme de Pompadour. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River In sculpture, the most familiar representatives are the Italian Antonio Canova, the Englishman John Flaxman and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen. John Flaxman ( 6 July 1755 - 7 December 1826) was an English sculptor and draughtsman. (Albert Bertel Thorvaldsen ( November 19, 1770 – March 24, 1844) was a Danish / Icelandic sculptor The European neoclassical manner also took hold in the United States, where its high tide occurred somewhat later and is exemplified in the sculptures of William Henry Rinehart (1825-1874). William Henry Rinehart, American Sculptor (1825 - 1874 was born in Maryland and studied sculpture in Baltimore, at what is now called the Maryland
Modern Classicism contrasted in many ways with the classical sculpture of the 19th century which was characterized by commitments to naturalism (Antoine-Louis Barye) -- the melodramatic (François Rude) sentimentality (Jean Baptiste Carpeaux)-- or a kind of stately grandiosity (Lord Leighton) Several different directions in the classical tradition were taken as the century turned, but the study of the live model and the post-Renaissance tradition was still fundamental to them. Antoine-Louis Barye ( September 24, 1796 - June 25, 1875) was a French sculptor most famous for his work as an Animalier François Rude ( January 4, 1784 - November 3, 1855) was a French sculptor. Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux ( May 11 1827 – October 12 1875) was a French Sculptor and painter. Frederic Leighton 1st Baron Leighton PRA ( 3 December 1830 &ndash 25 January 1896) was an English painter and sculptor
Auguste Rodin was the most renowned European sculptor of the early 20th century. Auguste Rodin (born François-Auguste-René Rodin; November 12 1840–November 17 1917 was a French artist most famous as a sculptor. He might be considered as sui generis -- that is, if anyone successfully composed in his turbulent, virtuosic style, they have yet to be discovered. But he is often considered a sculptural Impressionist, as are Medardo Rosso, Count Troubetski, and Rik Wouters, attempting to frame the charm of a fleeting moment of daily life. Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Medardo Rosso (born 21 June 1858, Turin, Italy - died 31 March 1928, Milan) was an Italian sculptor Rik Wouters ( August 21, 1882, Mechelen &mdash July 11, 1916, Amsterdam) was a Belgian fauvist
Modern Classicism showed a lesser interest in naturalism and a greater interest in formal stylization. Cyprian Kamil Norwid, aka Cyprian Konstanty Norwid ( September 24, 1821 &ndash May 23, 1883) is a nationally esteemed Polish Wawel Cathedral &ndash the Cathedral Basilica of Sts Stanisław and Vaclav &ndash is Poland 's national sanctuary located on Wawel Hill in Kraków Kraków, in English also spelled Krakow or Cracow (ˈkrækaʊ M-W: krăk'ou krāk'ō is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland Czesław Dźwigaj (born June 18 1950 in Nowy Wiśnicz) - polish artist sculptor professor Greater attention was paid to the rhythms of volumes and spaces - as well as greater attention to the contrasting qualities of surface (open, closed, planar, broken etc) while less attention was paid to story-telling and convincing details of anatomy or costume. Greater attention was given to psychological realism than to physical realism. Greater attention was given to showing what was eternal and public, rather than what was momentary and private. Greater attention was given to examples of ancient and Medieval sacred arts:Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Meso-American. Grandiosity was still a concern, but in a broader, more world-wide context.
Early masters of modern classicism included: Aristide Maillol, Alexander Matveev, Joseph Bernard, Antoine Bourdelle, Georg Kolbe, Libero Andreotti, Gustav Vigeland, Jan Stursa, Constantin Brancusi. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Aristide Maillol ( December 8 1861 &ndash September 27 1944) was a French Catalan sculptor and painter Alexander Matveev (1878-1960 was the leading Russian sculptor of his generation working in a simple vigorous modern classical style similar to Aristide Maillol Joseph Bernard (1866-1931 was a modern classical French sculptor featured on the frontispiece of Elie Faure 's 1927 survey of modern art "Spirit of Forms" Antoine Bourdelle, originally Émile Antoine Bourdelle, ( October 30, 1861 - October 1, 1929) was a French sculptor Georg Kolbe ( 15 April 1877 in Waldheim ( Sachsen) – 20 November 1947 in Berlin) was the leading German figure Libero Andreotti ( June 18 1875 - April 4 1933) was an Italian sculptor illustrator and ceramics artist Gustav Vigeland ( April 11 1869 &ndash March 12 1943) was a Norwegian sculptor. Jan Štursa ( May 15, 1880 in Nové Město na Moravě - May 2, 1925 in Prague, suicide was a Czech sculptor Constantin Brâncuşi, ( February 19, 1876 &ndash March 16, 1957) konstanˈtin brɨnˈkuʃʲ was an internationally renowned Romanian
As the century progressed, modern classicism was adopted as the national style of the two great European totalitarian empires: Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia, who co-opted the work of early masters, like Kolbe and Arno Breker in Germany, and Matveev in Russia. Arno Breker ( July 19, 1900 &ndash February 13, 1991) was a German sculptor best known for his public works in Nazi Germany, which Nazi Germany had a 15-year run; but over the 70 years of the USSR, new generations of sculptors were trained and chosen within their system, and a distinct style, socialist realism, developed, that returned to the 19th century's emphasis on melodrama and naturalism. Socialist realism is a teleologically -oriented style of realistic art which has as its purpose the furtherance of the goals of Socialism and Communism
Classical training was rooted out of art education in Western Europe (and the Americas) by 1970 and the classical variants of the 20th century were marginalized in the history of modernism. But classicism continued as the foundation of art education in the Soviet academies until 1990, providing a foundation for expressive figurative art throughout eastern Europe and parts of the Middle East. By the year 2000, the European classical tradition maintains a wide appeal to viewers - especially tourists - and especially for the ancient, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods -- but awaits an educational tradition to revive its contemporary development.
In the rest of Europe, and the United States the modern classical became either more decorative/art deco (Paul Manship, Jose de Creeft, Carl Milles) or more abstractly stylized or more expressive (and Gothic) (Anton Hanak, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Ernst Barlach, Arturo Martini) -- or turned more to the Renaissance (Giacomo Manzu, Venanzo Crocetti) or stayed the same (Charles Despiau, Marcel Gimond). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Paul Howard Manship ( December 24, 1885 &ndash January 28, 1966) was a prominent American sculptor of the 20th century Jose De Creeft (1884 Guadalajara, Spain &ndash 1982 New York, United States) was a Spanish-born American Sculptor Carl Milles, born Carl Emil Wilhelm Andersson son of lieutenant Emil "Mille" Andersson and his wife Walborg Tisell, ( June 23 1875 Anton Hanak (1875 - 1934 is among the best known Austrian Sculptors of the early 20th century Wilhelm Lehmbruck (* January 4 1881 in Duisburg, † March 25 1919 in Berlin) was a German sculptor Ernst Barlach ( January 2, 1870 &ndash October 24, 1938) was a German expressionist sculptor, printmaker Arturo Martini (1889-1947 was a leading Italian sculptor between World War I and II. Giacomo Manzù ( December 22, 1908 - January 17, 1991 was the best known Italian Sculptor of the 20th century Venanzo Crocetti (1913 - 2003 was an Italian sculptor He was born in Giulianova, Abruzzo. Charles Despiau ( November 4 1874 – October 30 1946) was a French sculptor Marcel Gimond (1894–1961 was a French sculptor born in the Ardeche region of France.
In the early days of the 20th century Pablo Picasso revolutionized the art of sculpture when he began creating his constructions fashioned by combining disparate objects and materials into one constructed piece of sculpture, - by addition. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Picasso reinvented the art of sculpture with his innovative use of constructing a work in three dimensions with disparate material. Just as collage was a radical development in two dimensional art; so was construction a radical development in three dimensional sculpture. In later years Pablo Picasso became a prolific ceramicist, revolutionizing the way Ceramic art is perceived. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Ceramics and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired to form a ceramic. Ceramics and ceramic art in the art world means artwork made out of clay bodies and fired to form a ceramic. George E. Ohr and more contemporary sculptors like Peter Voulkos, Kenneth Price and others have effectively used ceramics as an important integral medium for their work. George E Ohr (1857-1918 was an early American pottery artist who broke new ground in the late 1890s as he experimented with modern clay forms Peter Voulkos ( January 29 1924 – 2002 popular name of Panagiotis Voulkos, was an American artist of Greek descent Kenneth Price is an American ceramic artist and printmaker who was born in Los Angeles California in 1935
In Europe, by the 1930s and 1940s Modernism in sculpture became more abstract and stylized, exemplified by Picasso, Gaston Lachaise, Sir Jacob Epstein, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, Joan Miró, Julio González and Jacques Lipschitz. Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986 was an English artist and sculptor. The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge and is located on Trumpington Street Cambridge, England. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935 was a French-American sculptor, active in the early 20th century Sir Jacob Epstein ( 10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK where Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986 was an English artist and sculptor. Alberto Giacometti ( October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman, Joan Miró i Ferrà ( April 20, 1893 &ndash December 25, 1983) was an ethnic Catalan (of Spanish nationality Julio González ( 21 September, 1876 - 27 March, 1942) was a Spanish abstract, Cubist painter and Jacques Lipchitz ( August 22, 1891 - May 16, 1973) was a Cubist sculptor Eventually artists like Isamu Noguchi, David Smith, Alexander Calder, Richard Lippold, George Rickey Louise Bourgeois and Louise Nevelson came to characterize the look of modern sculpture. was a prominent Japanese American Artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades from the 1920s onward David Roland Smith ( March 9, 1906 - May 23, 1965) was an American Abstract Expressionist sculptor best Alexander Calder (22 July 1898 – 11 November 1976 also known as Sandy Calder, was an American sculptor and Artist most famous for inventing Richard Lippold ( 3 May 1915 &ndash 22 August 2002) was an American sculptor, known for his geometric constructions using George Rickey ( June 6, 1907 &ndash July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor. Louise Bourgeois ( born in Paris, December 25, 1911) is an Artist and Sculptor. Louise Berliawsky Nevelson (born Leah Berliawsky, September 23 1899, Kiev, Czarist Russia - d By the 1960s Abstract expressionism, Geometric abstraction and Minimalism as exemplified by the Cubi's of David Smith, and the welded steel work of Sir Anthony Caro, the large scale work of John Chamberlain, and Mark di Suvero, and the Minimalist works by Tony Smith, Robert Morris, Donald Judd, Larry Bell, Anne Truitt, Richard Serra, Dan Flavin and others led contemporary abstract sculpture in new directions. Abstract expressionism was an American post– World War II Art movement. Geometric abstraction is a form of Abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design especially Visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features David Roland Smith ( March 9, 1906 - May 23, 1965) was an American Abstract Expressionist sculptor best Sir Anthony Caro, OM, CBE, (born 8 March 1924 in New Malden, then in Surrey) is an English, abstract John Angus Chamberlain (born April 16, 1927) is an American sculptor. Mark di Suvero (born as Marco Polo di Suvero) is an American Abstract expressionist sculptor born in Shanghai, China in 1933 Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design especially Visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features Tony Smith ( September 23, 1912 &ndash December 26, 1980) was an American Sculptor, Visual artist, and a noted Robert Morris (b February 9, 1931 Kansas City Missouri) is an American sculptor conceptual artist and writer Donald Clarence Judd ( June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist Artist (a term he stridently disavowed Larry Bell may refer to Lawrence Dale Bell (1894 - 1956 American industrialist and founder of Bell Aircraft Corporation Larry Bell (artist Anne Truitt (1921-2004 was a major American artist of the mid-20th century she is associated with both Minimalism and Color Field artists like Morris Louis Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and Video artist known for working with large Dan Flavin ( April 1, 1933, Jamaica New York – November 29, 1996, Riverhead New York) was an American
Since the 1950s Modernist trends in sculpture both abstract and figurative have dominated the public imagination and the popularity of Modernist sculpture has all but eliminated the traditional approach. George Segal ( November 26, 1924, New York - June 9 2000, New Brunswick New Jersey was an American painter and Sculptor IMPORTANT After careful consideration the title "Kent State Shootings" has been applied in this article rather than "Kent State Massacre Princeton University is a private Coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century During the 1960s and 1970s figurative sculpture by modernist artists as stylized as Leonard Baskin, Ernest Trova, Marisol Escobar, Paul Thek and Manuel Neri became popular, and by the 1980s the painter Fernando Botero emerged with monumental figures reminiscent of the fat characters in his paintings. Leonard Baskin (1922 – 2000 was an American sculptor book illustrator printmaker graphic artist writer and teacher Ernest Tino Trova, (1927-) a self-trained American Surrealist and Pop art painter and Sculptor, was born in St Maria Sol Escobar (born May 22, 1930) otherwise known simply as Marisol, is a sculptor born in Paris of Venezuelan Manuel Neri (born April 12, 1930) is an American Sculptor, painter, and Printmaker and a notable Picasso was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge 50-foot (15 m)-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 This article is about the architectural or sculptural model For the Italian animator please see Bruno Bozzetto. The term public art properly refers to works of Art in any media that has been planned and executed with the specific intention of being sited Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The Chicago Picasso (often just The Picasso) is an untitled monumental sculpture by Pablo Picasso in Chicago Illinois. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.
During the late 1950s and the 1960s abstract sculptors began experimenting with a wide array of new materials and different approaches to creating their work. Surrealist imagery, anthropomorphic abstraction, new materials and combinations of new energy sources and varied surfaces and objects became characteristic of much new modernist sculpture. The term Postminimalism became a rubric for a wide range of new sculpture. Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by or attempts to develop and go beyond the aesthetic of Minimalism. Bill Bollinger, Eva Hesse, Sol LeWitt, Jackie Winsor, Keith Sonnier, Bruce Nauman, Lucas Samaras, and Robert Smithson among others were pioneers of Postminimalist sculpture. Eva Hesse ( January 11, 1936 - May 29, 1970) was a German-born American sculptor known for her pioneering work in Sol LeWitt ( September 9, 1928 - April 8, 2007) was Keith Sonnier (born 1941, Mamou Louisiana) is a Minimalist, performance, video and light Artist. Bruce Nauman (born December 6, 1941, in Fort Wayne, Indiana Lucas Samaras was born in Kastoria Greece. He studied at Rutgers University on a scholarship where he met Allan Kaprow and George Segal Robert Smithson ( January 2, 1938 – July 20, 1973) was an American Artist famous for his Land art. Postminimalism is a term utilized in various artistic fields for work which is influenced by or attempts to develop and go beyond the aesthetic of Minimalism.
Also during the 1960s and 1970s artists as diverse as Stephen Antonakis, Chryssa, Walter De Maria, Dan Flavin, Robert Smithson, Robert Irwin, Claes Oldenburg, George Segal, Edward Kienholz, Duane Hanson, and John DeAndrea explored abstraction, imagery and figuration through Light sculpture, and installation art in new ways. Walter De Maria is an American sculptor and composer Walter De Maria was born in Albany California on October 1 1935 Dan Flavin ( April 1, 1933, Jamaica New York – November 29, 1996, Riverhead New York) was an American Robert Smithson ( January 2, 1938 – July 20, 1973) was an American Artist famous for his Land art. Robert Irwin may be Robert Irwin (artist, American Robert Graham Irwin, British historian & novelist Robert Irwin (author Claes Oldenburg (born January 28, 1929) is a sculptor, best known for his Public art installations typically featuring very large replicas of George Segal ( November 26, 1924, New York - June 9 2000, New Brunswick New Jersey was an American painter and Sculptor Edward Kienholz ( October 23, 1927 – June 10, 1994) was an American installation Artist whose work Duane Hanson ( January 17, 1925 – January 6, 1996) was an American Artist based in South Florida, a John DeAndrea (born Denver Colorado, Colorado, 1941 is an American Sculptor. Light, or visible light, is Electromagnetic radiation of a Wavelength that is visible to the Human eye (about 400–700 Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way a particular space is experienced
Modernist sculpture movements include Geometric abstraction, De Stijl, Suprematism, Constructivism, Dadaism, Cubism, Surrealism, Futurism, Minimalism, Formalism Abstract expressionism, Pop-Art, and Installation art among others. Geometric abstraction is a form of Abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions For the album by The White Stripes see De Stijl (album. De Stijl (in English, generally də ˈstaɪl after style; from the This term is not to be confused with Supremacism. black circle For other meanings see Dada (disambiguation DaDa is a Concept album by Alice Cooper, released Cubism was a 20th century Avant-garde Art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members Futurism was an Art movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design especially Visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features In art theory, formalism is the concept that a work 's artistic value is entirely determined by its Form --the way it is made its purely visual Abstract expressionism was an American post– World War II Art movement. Pop Art is a visual Art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in parallel in the late 1950s in the United States. Installation art uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way a particular space is experienced
Gaston Lachaise, Floating Figure 1927, bronze, no. Sir Jacob Epstein ( 10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was an American-born sculptor who worked chiefly in the UK where The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, USA, on 53rd Street between Fifth The City of New York Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935 was a French-American sculptor, active in the early 20th century 5 from an edition of 7, National Gallery of Australia
Julio González, Monsieur Cactus, 1939
Isamu Noguchi, Cronos, 1947 (cast 1963)
David Smith, Tanktotem 2, 1952-1953
Henry Moore, Three Piece Reclining figure No. The National Gallery of Australia is the premier art gallery and museum in Australia, holding over 120000 works of Art. Julio González ( 21 September, 1876 - 27 March, 1942) was a Spanish abstract, Cubist painter and was a prominent Japanese American Artist and landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades from the 1920s onward Alberto Giacometti ( October 10, 1901 – January 11, 1966) was a Swiss sculptor, painter, draftsman, The Metropolitan Museum of Art is an art museum located on the eastern edge of Central Park, along what is known as Museum Mile in New York City, Louise Bourgeois ( born in Paris, December 25, 1911) is an Artist and Sculptor. The Museum of Fine Arts Houston ( MFAH) located in Houston, is one of the largest museums in the country David Roland Smith ( March 9, 1906 - May 23, 1965) was an American Abstract Expressionist sculptor best Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986 was an English artist and sculptor. 1, 1961, Yorkshire
Tony Smith, Free Ride, 1962, 6'8 x 6'8 x 6'8 (the height of a standard US door opening)
Louise Nevelson, Transparent Horizon, 1975
Post-modern sculpture occupies a broader field of activities than Modernist sculpture, as Rosalind Krauss has observed. Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. Alexander Calder (22 July 1898 – 11 November 1976 also known as Sandy Calder, was an American sculptor and Artist most famous for inventing The Museum of Fine Arts Houston ( MFAH) located in Houston, is one of the largest museums in the country Tony Smith ( September 23, 1912 &ndash December 26, 1980) was an American Sculptor, Visual artist, and a noted Herbert Ferber (born Herbert Ferber Silvers, April 30 1906 &ndash August 1991 was an American sculptor and painter born in New York City. This article is about the National Gallery of the United States for other National Galleries see National Gallery. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso (October 25 1881 &ndash April 8 1973 Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. George Rickey ( June 6, 1907 &ndash July 17, 2002) was an American kinetic sculptor. Neue Nationalgalerie at the Kulturforum is a Museum for classical Modern art in Berlin, with main focus on early the 20th century Berlin is the capital city and one of sixteen states of Germany. Sir Anthony Caro, OM, CBE, (born 8 March 1924 in New Malden, then in Surrey) is an English, abstract The Tel Aviv Museum of Art was established in 1932 in Tel Aviv, Israel, in the home of Tel Aviv's first mayor Meir Dizengoff. Louise Berliawsky Nevelson (born Leah Berliawsky, September 23 1899, Kiev, Czarist Russia - d James Rosati was an American abstract sculptor He was born in 1911 in Washington Pennsylvania and died in 1988 in New York New York The Honolulu Academy of Arts was chartered in 1922 by Anna Rice Cooke (Mrs Donald Clarence Judd ( June 3, 1928 - February 12, 1994) was a minimalist Artist (a term he stridently disavowed Münster ( is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Joan Miró i Ferrà ( April 20, 1893 &ndash December 25, 1983) was an ethnic Catalan (of Spanish nationality Barcelona ( Catalan bəɾsəˈlonə Spanish baɾθeˈlona is the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and Video artist known for working with large Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel is a group of Steel alloys which were developed to obviate the need for painting and form a stable Liverpool Street station, also called London Liverpool Street, is a major railway station and connected London Underground station in the north eastern London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Mark di Suvero (born as Marco Polo di Suvero) is an American Abstract expressionist sculptor born in Shanghai, China in 1933 The National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden is the most recent addition to the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC. Land Art, Earthworks or Earth Art is an art movement which emerged in America in the late 1960s and early 1970s in which landscape and the work of art Joseph Beuys (ˈjoːzɛf ˈbɔʏs May 12, 1921 – January 23, James Turrell (born 1943, Los Angeles) is an artist primarily concerned with Light and Space. Her idea of sculpture in the expanded field identified a series of oppositions that describe the various sculpture-like activities that are post-modern sculpture:
Krauss' concern was creating a theoretical explanation that could adequately fit the developments of Land art, Minimalist sculpture, and Site-specific art into the category of sculpture. Land Art, Earthworks or Earth Art is an art movement which emerged in America in the late 1960s and early 1970s in which landscape and the work of art Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design especially Visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features Site-specific art is artwork created to exist in a certain place To do this, her explanation created a series of oppositions around the work's relationship to its environment.
Some modern sculpture forms are now practiced outdoors, and often in full view of spectators, thus giving them kinship to performance art in the eyes of some. This article is about Performance art For other uses see Performance (disambiguation Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material. Ice sculpture is a form of Sculpture that uses Ice as the Raw material. It's popular in China, Japan, Canada, Sweden, and Russia. Ice sculptures feature decoratively in some cuisines, especially in Asia. Kinetic sculptures are sculptures that are designed to move, which include Mobiles. Kinetic art is art that contains moving parts or depends on motion for its effect A mobile is a type of Kinetic sculpture constructed to take advantage of the principle of equilibrium Snow sculptures are usually carved out of a single block of snow about 6 to 15 feet (4. Snow sculpture is a Sculpture form comparable to Sand sculpture or Ice sculpture in that most of it is now practiced outdoors and often in full view of 6 m) on each side and weighing about 20 - 30 tons. The snow is densely packed into a form after having been produced by artificial means or collected from the ground after a snowfall. Sound sculptures take the form of indoor sound installations, outdoor installations such as aeolian harps, automatons, or be more or less near conventional musical instruments. Sound sculpture (related to Sound art and Sound installation) is an Intermedia and time based artform in which Sculpture or any kind of art object Sound sculpture is often site-specific. A Sand castle can be regarded as a sand sculpture. Weightless Sculpture (in outer space) as a concept is created in 1985 by the Dutch artist Martin Sjardijn. Martin Sjardijn (born 1947 is a painter sculptor Digital artist and Conceptual artist, who has created the Weightless Sculpture Project Martin Sjardijn (born 1947 is a painter sculptor Digital artist and Conceptual artist, who has created the Weightless Sculpture Project LEGO brick sculpting involves the use of common LEGO bricks to build realistic or artistic sculptures sometimes using hundreds of thousands of bricks. Lego, officially trademarked LEGO, is a line of construction Toys manufactured by the Lego Group, a privately
Worldwide, sculptors have usually been tradesmen whose work is unsigned. But in the Classical world, many Ancient Greek sculptors like Phidias began to receive individual recognition in Periclean Athens, and became famous and presumably wealthy. Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c Phidias (or Pheidias; in Ancient Greek,; c[[ 80 BC]] c 430 BC) son of Charmides was an ancient Greek In the Middle Ages, artists like the 12th century Gislebertus sometimes signed their work, and were sought after by different cities, especially from the Trecento onwards in Italy, with figures like Arnolfo di Cambio, Nicola Pisano and his son Giovanni. Gislebertus (flourished in the 12th century was a French Romanesque sculptor whose decoration (about 1120-1135 of the Cathedral of Saint Lazare at Autun The Trecento (Italian for 300 or from "mille trecento" 1300 refers to the 14th century in Italian cultural history Arnolfo di Cambio (c 1240 &ndash 1300/1310 was an Italian Architect and sculptor. Nicola Pisano (also called Niccolò Pisano Nicola de Apulia or Nicola Pisanus c Giovanni Pisano (c 1250 – c 1315 was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect Many sculptors also practised in other arts, sometimes painting, like Andrea del Verrocchio, or architecture, like Giovanni Pisano, Michelangelo, or Jacopo Sansovino, and maintained large workshops. Andrea del Verrocchio, born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, (c The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation Giovanni Pisano (c 1250 – c 1315 was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect Jacopo d'Antonio Sansovino ( July 2 1486 &ndash November 27 1570) was an Italian sculptor and architect known best for his works
From the High Renaissance artists like Michelangelo, Leone Leoni and Giambologna could become wealthy, and ennobled, and enter the circle of princes. The High Renaissance, in the History of art, denotes the culmination of the art of the Italian Renaissance between 1450 and 1527 Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all See also Leone Leoni (composer, (c 1560 - 1627. Leone Leoni (1509 — 22 July 1590) was an Italian sculptor of international Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna ( 1529 - August 13 1608) was Much decorative sculpture on buildings remained a trade, but sculptors producing individual pieces were recognised on a level with painters. From at least the 18th century, sculpture also attracted middle-class students, although it was slower to do so than painting. Equally women sculptors took longer to appear than women painters, and have generally been less prominent until the 20th century at least.
Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone. Petroglyphs are Images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising pecking carving and abrading Stone carving is an ancient activity where pieces of rough natural stone are shaped by the controlled removal of stone In Geology, rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of Minerals and/or Mineraloids The Earth's outer solid layer the ‘ Lithosphere Owing to the permanence of the material, evidence can be found that even the earliest societies indulged in some form of stone work. Materials are physical Substances used as inputs to production or Manufacturing.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze". Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually poured into a mold which Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal Sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze" Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mold. Their strength and lack of brittleness (ductility) is an advantage when figures in action are to be created, especially when compared to various ceramic or stone materials (see marble sculpture for several examples). The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός ( keramikos) Marble sculpture is the Art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble
Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool), resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract in nature) or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. Arnold Henry Savage Landor (1865– 26 December 1924) was an English painter explorer writer and anthropologist born in Florence Definitions of Tibet See also Definitions of Tibet Name In English The English word Tibet, like the word for Tibet in most European Wood carving is a form of working wood by means of a cutting tool held in the hand (this may be a power tool resulting in a wooden figure or figurine (this may be abstract
Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually) poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. Lost-wax casting, sometimes called by the French name of cire perdue, is the process by which a bronze is cast from an artist's sculpture in industrial uses the modern process Casting is a manufacturing process by which a liquid material is (usually poured into a mold which The solid casting is then ejected or broken out to complete the process. Casting may be used to form hot liquid metals or various materials that cold set after mixing of components (such as epoxies, concrete, plaster and clay). The Epoxies were an American band from Portland, Oregon formed in 2000 Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag The term plaster can refer to plaster of Paris Lime plaster, or Cement plaster. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Casting is most often used for making complex shapes that would be otherwise difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.
Casting is a 6000 year old process.  The oldest surviving casting is a copper frog from 3200 BC. Events c 3150 BC — According to the legend Narmer ( First Dynasty) started to rule in Ancient Egypt.  The casting process is subdivided into two distinct subgroups: expendable and non-expendable mold casting.
Other arts which are related to sculpture: