Scott Joplin (between June 1867 and January 1868 – April 1, 1917) was an American musician and composer of ragtime music. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Ragtime (alternately spelled Rag-time) is an American musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity between 1897 and 1918 He remains the best-known ragtime figure and is regarded as one of the three most important composers of classic ragtime, along with James Scott and Joseph Lamb, and also a precursor to Stride Jazz. Classic Rag (or classical ragtime) is a term used to describe the style of Ragtime composition pioneered by Scott Joplin and the Missouri school of ragtime James Sylvester Scott (February 12 1885 &ndash August 30 1938 was an African-American Ragtime Composer, regarded as one of the three most important For Sir Joseph Lamb 1930s Staffordshire politician see Joseph Lamb (politician Sensation Rag Sheet Music Stride, also known as New York ragtime, is a jazz piano style where the pianist's left hand may play a four-beat pulse with a bass note or tenth interval on the first and third
Scott Joplin, the second of six children, was born in eastern Texas, near Linden, to Florence Givins and Giles or Jiles Joplin. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Linden is a city in Cass County, Texas, United States. The population was 2256 at the 2000 census November 24, 1868 has been assumed as the correct birth date of Scott Joplin. The 1870 census lists Scott, age 2, as the son of Jiles and Florence Joplin. The exact location of his birth is uncertain. 
After 1871, the Joplin family moved to Texarkana, Texas, and Scott's mother cleaned homes so Scott could have a place to practice his music. Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, Texas, United States. It effectively functions as one half of a city which crosses a state line — the other By 1882 his mother had purchased a piano. Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Showing musical ability at an early age, the young Joplin received free piano lessons from a German music teacher, Julius Weiss, who gave him a well rounded knowledge of classical music form, which would serve him well in later years and fuel his ambition to create a "classical" form of ragtime.
Joplin had opportunities to perform in the East Texas town where he lived. Texarkana had several lodges, and these halls would be turned over to young people for dancing after about 10:00 PM, and polkas, schottisches, walzes, and two-steps were played. Joplin himself played in these dance halls, where he heard popular tunes played in a syncopated style. One very popular tune was The Banjo by composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Louis Moreau Gottschalk ( May 8, 1829 &ndash December 18, 1869) was an American Composer and Pianist, best known 
At the 1893 World's Fair, in Chicago, Illinois, he heard the latest music, including the concert band of John Phillip Sousa, who played there daily. The World's Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago World's Fair) a World's Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. John Philip Sousa ( November 6, 1854 &ndash March 6, 1932) was an American Composer and conductor of the late He would later further his musical education by attending George R. Smith College in Sedalia, Missouri, studying music theory, harmony, and composition. Sedalia is a city located about 30 miles south of the Missouri River in Pettis County Missouri.
By the late 1880s, Scott Joplin had left home to start a life of his own. He may have joined or formed various quartets and other musical groups and traveled around the Midwest to sing. In the Queen City Concert Band, he played first cornet. The cornet is a Brass instrument very similar to the Trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape and mellower tone quality After organizing the Texas Medley Quartette (actually an octet) with his brothers Robert and Will, he toured the East and Midwest, including Syracuse, New York where he published his first piece, "Please Say You Will". Syracuse (locally ˈsɛrəkjuːs sometimes ˈsɪrəkjuːs or /ˈsɪərəkjuːs/ by non-natives is a city in Central New York, USA. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous  He was also part of a minstrel troupe in Texarkana about 1891. The Texarkana TX-Texarkana AR Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, is a two-county region anchored by Year 1891 ( MDCCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In 1895, Joplin was in Syracuse, selling two songs, "Please Say You Will" and "A Picture of Her Face". Year 1895 ( MDCCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year
Despite all his traveling, Joplin's home was in Sedalia, to which he moved in 1894, working as a pianist in the Maple Leaf and the Black 400, social clubs for "respectable [black] gentlemen". Sedalia is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sedalia Colorado Sedalia Indiana Sedalia
By 1898 Joplin had sold six pieces for the piano. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Of the six, only "Original Rags", a compilation of existing melodies that he wrote collaboratively, is a ragtime piece. The other five were "Please Say You Will", "A Picture of Her Face", two marches, and a waltz. A march, as a Musical genre, is a piece of music with a strong regular rhythm which in origin was expressly written for marching to and most frequently performed by a Military The waltz is a ballroom and folk Dance in time, performed primarily in Closed position.
In 1899, Joplin sold what would become one of his most famous pieces, "Maple Leaf Rag", to John Stark & Son, a Sedalia music publisher. Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The "Maple Leaf Rag" (copyright registered September 18, 1899) is an early Ragtime composition for piano by Scott Joplin. John Stillwell Stark (April 11 1841 &ndash November 20 1927 was a United States Publisher of Ragtime Music. Joplin received a one-cent royalty for each copy and ten free copies for his own use, as well as an advance. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Royalties (sometimes running royalties) are usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee" to another (the "licensor" for ongoing use of an In the field of Intellectual property licensing an advance against royalties is a payment made by the licensee to the licensor at the start of the period of licensing It has been estimated that Joplin made $360 per year on this piece in his lifetime.
Becoming the first instrumental to sell over one million copies,"Maple Leaf Rag" boosted Joplin to the top of the list of ragtime performers and moved ragtime into prominence as a musical form.
With a growing national reputation based on the success of "Maple Leaf Rag", Joplin moved to St. Louis, Missouri, in early 1900 with his new wife, Belle. Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Belle was a sister-in-law of Scott Hayden, who collaborated with Joplin in the composition of four rags.  While living in St. Louis from 1900 to 1903, he produced some of his best-known works, "The Entertainer", "Elite Syncopations", "March Majestic", and "Ragtime Dance". " The Entertainer " is a 1902 piano rag written by Scott Joplin.
Perhaps his dearest love, Freddie Alexander, died on September 10, 1904, of complications resulting from a cold, two months after their wedding. Events 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul meet in the Council of Agde. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Joplin's first work copyrighted after Freddie's death, "Bethena" (1905), is a very sad, musically complex ragtime waltz. Year 1905 ( MCMV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting
In 1907 Scott Joplin moved to New York City, where he met Lottie Stokes, whom he married in 1909. Despite months of faltering, Joplin continued writing and publishing. During this period, he produced the award-winning opera Treemonisha, although the score to his earlier ragtime opera, A Guest of Honor, is lost. Treemonisha is an opera composed by the famed African-American Ragtime composer Scott Joplin. A Guest of Honor was the first opera created by Scott Joplin, the celebrated ragtime composer Treemonisha was never fully staged during his Joplin's lifetime, and its sole performance was a concert read-through with piano in 1915 at the Lincoln Theater in Harlem, New York City, funded by Joplin himself. Harlem is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, long known as a major African American cultural and business center The City of New York One of Joplin's friends, Sam Patterson, described this performance as "thin and unconvincing, little better than a rehearsal. . . its special quality (would have been) lost on the typical Harlem audience (that was) sophisticated enough to reject their folk past but not sufficiently so to relish a return to it". 
In 1913, Scott and Lottie formed the Scott Joplin Music Company, which published his "Magnetic Rag. Magnetic Rag (July 21 1914 is a ragtime composition for piano by Scott Joplin. "
It's unclear today how advanced Joplin's skills as a pianist were. In 1898, a newspaper in Sedalia referred to him as "one of the best pianists in the world", and in 1911 a New York-based music magazine spoke in glowing terms of Joplin's 'musicianly way' of playing ragtime. Sedalia is a city located about 30 miles south of the Missouri River in Pettis County Missouri. Year 1911 ( MCMXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous However, in St. Louis, opinions differed. Arthur Marshall, a good friend and student of Joplin, said "he played slowly, but exceedingly good. Arthur Marshall ( November 20, 1881 - August 18, 1968) was an African-American composer and performer of Ragtime music . had an execution that you would stand back and listen and wonder how he got to do that stuff". Joe Jordan, another famous ragtime musician, said that although he never played anything other than his own pieces, he did play them well. However, Jordan is also on record as describing Joplin's playing as reminding him of a "stationary Indian". Sam Patterson said Joplin "never played well" and Artie Matthews recalled the delight the Saint Louis players took in outplaying Joplin with his own music. Artie Matthews ( November 15, 1888 - October 25, 1958) was a Songwriter, Pianist, and Ragtime composer John Stark's own son stated that Joplin was a rather mediocre pianist and that he composed on paper, rather than at the piano. One student of Joplin's recalled in later years he played slowly and methodically, and regularly reminded the student to place a strong accent on the first beat of each measure.
Researcher Edward Berlin theorizes that by the time Joplin reached St Louis, he was already beginning to suffer the physical effects of syphilis, which would take his life in 1917. Syphilis is a Sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal Bacterium Treponema pallidum pallidum. One of the symptoms, which can manifest up to 20 years prior to death, is discoordination of the fingers. This may explain the differences in opinion of those observing Joplin's playing in the late 1890s and in the early 1910s. Year 1890 ( MDCCCXC) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
While Joplin never made an audio recording, he did record seven piano rolls in 1916; "Maple Leaf Rag" (for Connorized and Aeolian companies), "Something Doing," "Magnetic Rag," "Ole Miss Rag," "Weeping Willow Rag" and "Pleasant Moments - Ragtime Waltz" (all for Connorized). A piano roll is the music Storage medium used to operate the Player piano, pianola or a Reproducing piano. These are the only records of his playing we have, and are interesting for the embellishments added by Joplin to his Connorized performances, although studying other Connorized rolls of that era reveals they may well have been added during the production process by staff artists, rather than Joplin himself. The roll of "Pleasant Moments" was thought lost until August 2006, when a piano roll collector in New Zealand discovered a surviving copy. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island It has been claimed that the uneven nature of some of Joplin's piano rolls, such as one of the recordings of "Maple Leaf Rag" mentioned above, documented the extent of Joplin's physical deterioration due to syphilis. A comparison of the two "Maple Leaf Rag" player-piano rolls made by Joplin in 1916, one in April the other in June, has been described as ". . . shocking. The second version is disorganized and completely distressing to hear. " While the irregularities may also be due to the primitive technology used to record the rolls, rolls recorded by other artists for the same company around the same time are noticeably smoother.
Joplin wanted to experiment further with compositions like Treemonisha, but by 1916 he was suffering from the effects of terminal syphilis. Syphilis is a Sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal Bacterium Treponema pallidum pallidum. He suffered later from dementia, paranoia, paralysis and other symptoms. Dementia (from Latin de- "apart away" + Mens ( genitive mentis) "mind" is the progressive decline Paranoia is a disturbed thought process characterized by excessive Anxiety or Fear, often to the point of Irrationality and Delusion. Paralysed redirects here For other uses see xx Paralysed (disambiguation Paralysis is the complete loss of Muscle function
In mid-January 1917 Joplin was hospitalized at Manhattan State Hospital in New York City, and friends recounted that he would have bursts of lucidity in which he would jot down lines of music hurriedly before relapsing. Manhattan State Hospital on Ward's Island in New York City was opened in 1899 when The New York State Department of Mental Hygiene took over The City of New York Joplin died there on April 1, 1917. Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Joplin was 49 or 50 years of age (his exact birthdate is unknown).
Joplin's death did not make the headlines for two reasons: Ragtime was quickly losing ground to jazz and the United States would enter World War I within days. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All He was buried in St. Michael's Cemetery in the Astoria section of Queens. Astoria is a Neighborhood in the northwestern corner of the borough of Queens in New York City.
Joplin's musical papers, including unpublished manuscripts, were willed to Joplin's friend and the executor of his will, musician and composer Wilbur Sweatman. Wilbur C Sweatman ( Brunswick Missouri, February 7 1882 - New York City, March 9, 1961) was an African-American Sweatman took care of these papers and generously shared access to them to those who inquired. However, these were unfortunately few, since Joplin's music had come to be considered passé. After Sweatman's death in 1961 the papers were last known to go into storage during a legal battle among Sweatman's heirs; their current location is not known, nor even if they still exist.
There was, however, an important find in 1971: a piano roll of the lost "Silver Swan Rag," manufactured sometime around 1914. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. A piano roll is the music Storage medium used to operate the Player piano, pianola or a Reproducing piano. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year It had not been published in sheet-music form in Joplin's lifetime. Before this, his only posthumously published piece had been "Reflection Rag," published by Stark in 1917 from an older manuscript he'd kept back. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Almost all Joplin scholars agree that the piece is a genuine Joplin composition.
After his death, Joplin's music and ragtime in general waned in popularity as new forms of musical styles, such as jazz and novelty piano, emerged. Ragtime (alternately spelled Rag-time) is an American musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity between 1897 and 1918 Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Novelty Piano is a Genre of piano music that was popular during the 1920's However, a number of revivals of ragtime have occurred since. Scott Joplin created many different styles of ragtime and made it what it is today.
In 1970, Joplin was inducted in the Songwriters Hall of Fame, by the National Academy of Popular Music. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Songwriters Hall of Fame is an arm of the National Academy of Popular Music. The National Academy of Popular Music (NAPM is an American organization which administers the Songwriters Hall of Fame, and sponsors a series of workshops and showcases 
In the early 1940s, many jazz bands began to include ragtime in their repertoire and released ragtime recordings on 78 RPM records. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In 1970, Joshua Rifkin released a Grammy nominated recording of Joplin's rags on the classical label Nonesuch. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Joshua Rifkin (born April 22, 1944 in New York) is an American conductor, keyboard player and musicologist. The Grammy Awards (originally called the Gramophone Awards)—or Grammys —are presented annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Nonesuch Records is an American Record label, owned by Warner Music Group and distributed through WEA International with business affairs handled  In 1972, Joplin's opera Treemonisha was finally staged at Morehouse College in Atlanta. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Treemonisha is an opera composed by the famed African-American Ragtime composer Scott Joplin. Morehouse College is a private, all-male, historically black college located in Atlanta, Georgia. Marvin Hamlisch's adaptation of the Joplin rag "The Entertainer," featured in the Oscar-winning film The Sting, reached #3 on the Billboard Hot 100 music chart in 1974. Marvin Frederick Hamlisch (born June 2, 1944) is an American Composer. "The Oscar" redirects here for the film see The Oscar (film. The Sting is a 1973 Caper film set in September 1936 and revolving around a complicated plot by two professional grifters ( Paul Ironically, Hamlisch's slightly-abbreviated arrangements and performances of Joplin's rags for The Sting, were anachronistic, as the film was set in the 1930s, well past the peak of the ragtime era. Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In 1974, Kenneth MacMillan created a ballet for the Royal Ballet, Elite Syncopations, based on tunes by Joplin, Max Morath and others. Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. It is still performed occasionally. The same year saw the premiere by the Los Angeles Ballet of Red Back Book, choreographed by John Clifford to orchestrated Joplin rags from the collection of the same name, as well as to solo piano works of the composer. For this production, music director Clyde Allen orchestrated the previously unorchestrated "Antoinette. "
Scott Joplin was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize in 1976 for his special contribution to American music. The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  He also has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. The St Louis Walk of Fame honors well-known people from St Louis Missouri who made contributions to Culture of the United States. Motown Productions produced a Scott Joplin biographical film starring Billy Dee Williams as Joplin, which was released by Universal Pictures in 1977. de Passe Entertainment is an American Film and Television production company run by entertainment executive Suzanne de Passe. A biographical motion picture &mdash often shortened to biopic &mdash is a film that dramatizes the life of an actual person or people Billy Dee Williams (born April 6, 1937) is an American Actor, Artist, and Writer, best known for his role as Lando Calrissian Universal Studios (sometimes called Universal Pictures or Universal City Studios) a subsidiary of NBC Universal, is a major Global American Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays
In 1983, the United States Postal Service issued a stamp of the composer as part of its Black Heritage commemorative series. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar)
In 1987 Scott Joplin was inducted in the Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar)
A Scott Joplin festival takes place each spring in Sedalia. Sedalia is the name of several places in the United States of America: Sedalia Colorado Sedalia Indiana Sedalia Ragtime players from around the globe perform at numerous locations throughout the town. At the site of the Maple Leaf club, which is now a parking lot, everyone who would like to can sign up to take a turn playing.
In 2002, Scott Joplin ragtime compositions on piano rolls (1900s), was included by the National Recording Preservation Board in the Library of Congress, National Recording Registry. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->The recordings preserved  The board selects songs in an annual basis that are "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. "
Even at the time of publication, Joplin's publisher John Stark was claiming that the rags had obtained classical status, and "lifted ragtime from its low estate and lined it up with Beethoven and Bach". John Stillwell Stark (April 11 1841 &ndash November 20 1927 was a United States Publisher of Ragtime Music. . Later critics also saw merit in Joplin's compositions:
He combined the traditions of Afro-American folk music with nineteenth-century European romanticism; he collected the black Midwestern Folk rag ideas as raw material for the creation of original strains. Thus, his rags are the most heavily pentatonic, with liberal use of blue notes and other outstanding features that characterize black folk music. In this creative synthesis, . . . the traditional march became the dominant form, and the result was a new art form, the Classic rag – a unique conception which paradoxically both forged the way for early serious ragtime composition, and, at the same time, developed along insular lines, away from most other ragtime playing and composing. Classic Rag (or classical ragtime) is a term used to describe the style of Ragtime composition pioneered by Scott Joplin and the Missouri school of ragtime 
It is sometimes claimed that ragtime is one of the earliest forms of jazz.  Although it may be a precursor, it lacks elements often cited as essential in jazz, namely improvisation and blue notes. Improvisation (also called extemporization) is the practice of acting singing talking and reacting of making and creating in the moment and in response to the stimulus of In Jazz and Blues, a blue note (also "worried" note is a Note sung or played at a slightly lower pitch than that of the
Joplin left little doubt as to how his compositions should be performed: as a precaution against the prevailing tendency of the day to up the tempo, he explicitly wrote in many of his scores that "ragtime should never be played fast. " According to Joplin biographer Rudi Blesh,
Joplin's injunction needs to be read in the light of his time, when a whole school of "speed" players . . . were ruining the fine rags. Most frequently felled by this quack-virtuoso musical mayhem was the Maple Leaf. The "Maple Leaf Rag" (copyright registered September 18, 1899) is an early Ragtime composition for piano by Scott Joplin. Joplin's concept of "slow" was probably relative to the destructive prestos of his day. 
Inconsistencies exist between certain titles and subtitles, and their respective cover titles, possibly reflecting "an editorial casualness. . . the substitution of terms would also indicate that the designations: cakewalk, march, two-step, rag, and slow drag were interchangeable, inasmuch as they alluded to a genre of music in duple meter to which a variety of dance steps might be performed. "
There are also inconsistencies between the publishing date, and registering of copyright. In some instances, copyright notices were not registered. In all cases, musical compositions are listed by date of publication using their cover titles and subtitles.