Scientific citation is the process by which conclusions of previous scientists are used to justify experimental procedures, apparatus, goals or theses. A citation is a reference to a source (not always the original source published or unpublished(citation needed A conclusion is a Proposition, which is arrived at after the consideration of Evidence, Arguments or Premises Logic A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices A goal or objective consists of a projected state of affairs which a Person or a System plans or intends to achieve or bring about — a personal or A dissertation (also called thesis or disquisition) is a document that presents the author's Research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature Typically such citations establish the general framework of influences and the mindset of research, and especially as "part of what science" it is, and to help determine who conducts the peer review. A framework is a basic conceptual structure used to solve or address complex issues A mindset, in Decision theory and general systems theory, refers to a Set of assumptions methods or notations held by one or more people or groups Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are
In the mathematically-predictive hard sciences, citation is usually viewed as a necessary evil. Hard science is a term used to describe Natural sciences and Physical sciences as distinct from Social science. Evil, in many cultures is used to describe acts or thoughts which are contrary to some particular religion Developing arguments 'from fundamentals' is more desirable but often impossible as the long chains of logic are harder to follow and remember. Accordingly, some reliance on authoritative prior scientific consensus is the norm, either with citation or not, e. Scientific consensus is the collective judgement position and Opinion of the community of Scientists in a particular field of Science at a particular g. a paper citing F=ma does not in general include a formal citation to Isaac Newton, although that's implied. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements It is more recent or controversial work that will in general require citations, and thus reliance on a very few such works is advised by most scientists, to avoid building on a still-shifting foundation. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices A foundation is a Structure that transfers loads to the earth
In the more model-driven 'soft' or 'human' sciences, where prediction and experiment and controls are less common, citation is viewed somewhat differently. A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular Event will occur in the Future in more certain terms than a forecast. In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Terminology rather than logic is the key to an effective peer review, and so citation establishes the glossary and the definitions which the reviewers should keep in mind while reading. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are See also List of glossaries A glossary is a list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms A definition is a statement of the meaning of a Word or Phrase. See also Critic. A review is an evaluation of a publication such as a movie, Video game, Musical composition The number of citations should still be few, as there is risk of some 'name space clash', resulting in confusion or inexact application of abstractions to concretes. --> Abstraction is the process or result of generalization by reducing the information Concrete is a construction material composed of Cement (commonly Portland cement) as well as other cementitious materials such as Fly ash and Slag This constraint tends to make papers in the soft sciences more clearly associated with a 'school of thought' and more explicitly dependent on readers' knowledge of some body of prior knowledge. Paper is thin material mainly used for writing upon printing upon or packaging Soft science is a colloquial term often used for Academic Research or Scholarship which is purportedly "scientific" however it is not based
Disciplined citation of prior works in mathematics and science is known at least as far back as Euclid. Euclid ( Greek:.) fl 300 BC also known as Euclid of Alexandria, is often referred to as the Father of Geometry Late in the first millennium, Islamic scholars developed their practice of isnad, or "backing", which established the validity of sayings of Muhammad in the hadith. Ulema ( ar علماء,, singular ar عالِم,, "scholar" refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several A Hadith was originally just an Arabic story As the stories began to be used formally it became common to provide their chain of transmitters (or sanad سند plural The term validity (also called logical truth, analytic truth, or necessary truth) as it occurs in Logic refers generally to a property of IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic The Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy extended this into fiqh or jurisprudence, while the Mutazilite school used the traditional methods and applied them to science. The Ash'ari theology ( Arabic الأشاعرة al-asha`irah) is a school of early Muslim speculative theology founded by the theologian Abu al-Hasan Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Jurisprudence is the Theory and Philosophy of Law. Scholars of jurisprudence or legal philosophers hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature Muʿtazilah ( Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Sunni Islam. Roman Catholic practice included constant quotation of Saints or Apostles and citing incidents of their lives as moral examples. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e
In some form, then, achieving authority by constant citation is thus a near-universal idea among the peoples of the Mediterranean, whose educated people were exposed to one or other of these practices well before the European Renaissance and the emergence of scientific method. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena
In patent law the citation of previous works, or prior art, helps establish the uniqueness of the invention being described. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Prior art (also known as or State of the art, which also has other meanings in most systems of Patent law constitutes all Information that In Mathematics and Logic, the phrase "there is one and only one " is used to indicate that exactly one object with a certain property exists An invention is a new form composition of matter device or Process. However, the focus in this practice is to claim originality for commercial purposes, and so the author appears to be strongly motivated to avoid citing works that cast doubt on its uniqueness. Originality is the aspect of created or invented works by as being new or novel and thus can be distinguished from reproductions, clones forgeries, or Thus this does not appear to be "scientific" citation. However, inventors and lawyers have a legal obligation to cite all relevant art. (Not to do so risks invalidating the patent. ) The patent examiner is obliged to list all further prior art found in searches.
Modern scientists are sometimes judged by the number of times their work is cited by others - this is actually a key indicator of the relative importance of a work in science. Importance Accordingly, while the scientist is motivated to have his work cited early and often and as widely as possible, all other scientists are motivated to have total numbers of citations kept low in order to retain the integrity of this means of judgment. Integrity is Consistency of actions values methods measures and principles In non-legal contexts a judgment is a balanced weighing up of evidence preparatory to making a decision A formal citation index tracks which referred and reviewed papers have referred which other such papers. A citation index is an index of Citations between publications allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents Baruch Lev and other advocates of accounting reform consider the number of times a patent is cited to be a significant metric of patent quality and thus of innovation. Accounting reform is an expansion to Accounting rules that goes beyond the realm of financial measures for both individual economic entities and national economies A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations