Science fiction film is a film genre that uses speculative, science-based depictions of imaginary phenomena such as extra-terrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, and time travel, often along with technological elements such as futuristic spacecraft, robots, or other technologies. In Film theory, genre refers to the primary method of film categorization based on similarities in the narrative elements from which films are constructed Speculative fiction is a term used as an inclusive descriptor covering a group of Fiction Genres that speculate about worlds that are unlike the real world in Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding See also List of extraterrestrials in fiction In Popular cultures Life forms -especially intelligent life forms that are of extraterrestrial Planets in science fiction are fictional Planets that appear in various media especially those of the Science fiction genre as story-settings or depicted locations This article details time travel itself For other uses see Time Traveler. This is a list of fictional Spacecraft, Starships and exo-atmospheric vessels that have been identified by name in published works of fiction (novels films television series A robot is a mechanical or Virtual Artificial agent In practice it is usually an electro-mechanical system which by its appearance or movements Science fiction films have often been used to provide social commentary on political or social issues, and to explore philosophical issues, such as "what makes us human. Social commentary is the act of rebelling against a government by means of rhetorical propaganda Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a Society and are considered to be problems controversies related to Moral values " In many cases, tropes derived from written science fiction may be used by filmmakers ignorant of or at best indifferent to the standards of scientific plausibility and plot logic to which written science fiction is traditionally held. A literary trope (from Greek τρόπος - tropos "turn" related to the root of τρέπω - trepō "to turn to direct
The genre has existed since the early years of silent cinema, when Georges Melies' A Trip to the Moon (1902) amazed audiences with its trick photography effects. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set A Trip to the Moon (French fr Le Voyage dans la lune) is a 1902 French Black and white silent Science fiction The year 1902 in film involved some significant events Events March 10 - Circuit Court's decision disallows Thomas Edison from having a monopoly The next major example in the genre was the 1927 film Metropolis. Metropolis is a silent Science fiction film directed by Fritz Lang and written by Lang and Thea von Harbou. From the 1930s to the 1950s, the genre consisted mainly of low-budget B-movies. A B movie is a motion picture made on a low or modest budget Originally the term was used for films intended for distribution as the less-publicized second half of a Double After Stanley Kubrick's 1968 landmark 2001: A Space Odyssey, the science fiction film genre was taken more seriously. The year 1968 in film involved some significant events Events October 30 - The film The Lion in Winter 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C In the late 1970s, big-budget science fiction films filled with special effects became popular with audiences. The hugely influential Star Wars trilogy, Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Alien appeared, paving the way for the blockbuster hits of subsequent decades, such as E.T. the Extra Terrestrial (1982), Independence Day (1996) and Men in Black (1997) and the hugely successful Matrix trilogy. Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded Close Encounters of the Third Kind is a 1977 Science fiction film directed and written by Steven Spielberg. Alien is a 1979 science fiction / Horror film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver. This article is about the 1982 film For the term "ET" which redirects here see ET. Events June 10 = Steven Spielberg 's Science fiction PG-rating film E Independence Day (also known by its promotional abbreviation ID4) is a 1996 Science fiction film about a hostile Alien invasion The year 1996 in film involved some significant events Major releases this year included Fargo, Trainspotting, The English Patient Men in Black is a 1997 science fiction comedy Action film directed by Barry Sonnenfeld, starring Tommy Lee Jones The year 1997 in film involved some significant events Events Summer - Production begins on Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace
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Defining precisely which films belong to the science fiction genre is often difficult, as there is no universally accepted definition of the genre, or in fact its underlying genre in literature. This page lists a broad variety of Science fiction Novels (and novel series--some old some new some famous some obscure some well-written some ill-written--and Note that this Partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction even if they predate or did not work in that genre Science fiction first appeared on Television during the Golden age of science fiction, first in Britain (UK and then in the United States This is a list of Science fiction conventions, as distinct from anime conventions furry conventions Gaming conventions and Horror conventions According to one definition:
Science fiction film is a film genre which emphasizes actual, extrapolative, or speculative science and the empirical method, interacting in a social context with the lesser emphasized, but still present, transcendentalism of magic and religion, in an attempt to reconcile man with the unknown (Sobchack 63). Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Empirical method is generally taken to mean the collection of data on which to base a Theory or derive a conclusion in Science. Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in Literature, Religion, Culture, and Philosophy that emerged in New England in the Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a Conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events objects people and A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos
This definition assumes that a continuum exists between (real-world) empiricism and (supernatural) transcendentalism, with science fiction film on the side of empiricism, and horror film and fantasy film on the side of transcendentalism. The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events Horror films are Movies that strive to elicit Fear, Horror and terror responses from viewers Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes usually involving magic, Supernatural events make-believe creatures or exotic Fantasy worlds However, there are numerous well-known examples of science fiction horror films, epitomized by such pictures as Frankenstein and Alien. Frankenstein is a Horror film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and very loosely based on the novel of the same name Alien is a 1979 science fiction / Horror film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver. And the Star Wars films blend elements typical of science fiction film (such as spaceships, androids and ray guns) with the mystical "Force", a magical power that would seem to fit the fantasy genre better than science fiction. Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. An android is a Robot designed to resemble a human usually both in appearance and behavior This article is about fictional weapons For other meanings see Raygun (disambiguation. The Force is one of the main concepts in the fictional Star Wars universe, created by George Lucas. Film critics therefore sometimes use terms like "Sci Fi/Horror" or "Science Fantasy" to indicate such films' hybrid status. Science fantasy is a mixed Genre of story which contains some Science fiction and some Fantasy elements
The visual style of science fiction film can be characterized by a clash between alien and familiar images. This clash is implemented when alien images become familiar, as in A Clockwork Orange, when the repetitions of the Korova Milkbar make the alien decor seem more familiar. A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony As well, familiar images become alien; for example, in Dr. Strangelove, the distortion of the humans make the familiar images seem more alien. Finally, alien and familiar images are juxtaposed, as in The Deadly Mantis, when a giant praying mantis is shown climbing the Washington Monument. The Deadly Mantis is a 1957 Science fiction film produced by William Alland for Universal-International Pictures. The Insect order Mantodea or mantises consists of approximately 2000 species worldwide in Temperate and Tropical habitats of The Washington Monument is a large tall sand-colored Obelisk near the west end of the National Mall in Washington D
Cultural theorist Scott Bukatman has proposed that science fiction film allows contemporary culture to witness an expression of the sublime, be it through exaggerated scale, apocalypse (Independence Day) or transcendence (2001: A Space Odyssey). Scott Bukatman is a Cultural theorist and Associate Professor of Film and Media Studies at Stanford University. In Aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis ( up from under the lintel high lofty elevated exalted is the quality of greatness or vast Independence Day (also known by its promotional abbreviation ID4) is a 1996 Science fiction film about a hostile Alien invasion 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C
Science fiction films appeared early in the silent film era, typically as short films shot in black and white, sometimes with colour tinting. The history of science fiction films parallels that of the Motion picture industry as a whole although it took several decades before the genre was taken seriously They usually had a technological theme and were often intended to be humorous. In 1902, Georges Méliès released Le Voyage dans la Lune, a film that used early trick photography effects to depict a spacecraft’s journey to the moon. The year 1902 in film involved some significant events Events March 10 - Circuit Court's decision disallows Thomas Edison from having a monopoly Georges Méliès ( December 8, 1861 &ndash January 21, 1938) full name Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, was a French A Trip to the Moon (French fr Le Voyage dans la lune) is a 1902 French Black and white silent Science fiction Several films merged the science-fiction and horror genres, such as Frankenstein (1910), a film adaptation of Mary Shelley's novel, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1912). Horror films are Movies that strive to elicit Fear, Horror and terror responses from viewers Frankenstein is a 1910 film made by Edison Studios that was written and directed by J The year 1910 in film involved some significant events Events The newsreel footage of the funeral of King Edward VII of the United Kingdom is shot Mary Shelley ( Née Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin; 30 August Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a 1912 horror film based on both the novel of Robert Louis Stevenson Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde The year 1912 in film involved some significant events Events Mack Sennett, who had previously worked as an actor and comedy director with D A longer science fiction film, 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1916), was based on Jules Verne’s novel. 20000 Leagues Under the Sea is a Silent film made in 1916, based on the novel by Jules Verne of the same title. The year 1916 in film involved some significant events Events October 17 - A Daughter of the Gods released - first US production with Jules Gabriel Verne ( February 8 1828 &ndash March 24 1905) was a French Author who pioneered the science-fiction In the 1920s, European filmmakers tended to use science fiction films for prediction and social commentary, as can be seen in German films such as Metropolis (1926) and Frau im Mond (1929). The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the " Jazz Age " or the " Roaring Twenties " when speaking about the United States and Canada Metropolis is a silent Science fiction film directed by Fritz Lang and written by Lang and Thea von Harbou. Events August - Warner Brothers debuts the first Vitaphone film Don Juan. Events The days of the Silent film were numbered A mad scramble to provide synchronized sound was on
In the 1930s, there were several big budget science fiction films, notably Just Imagine (the first feature length science fiction film by a US studio), the US-made films King Kong (1933) and Lost Horizon (1936) and the British-made Things to Come (1936). Just Imagine is a humorous science-fiction movie musical presented by Fox Film Corporation in 1930, directed by David Butler, to console King Kong is a landmark Black-and-white Adventure film about a gigantic Gorilla named " Kong " and how he is captured from Events British Film Institute founded March 2 - King Kong premieres in New York City. Lost Horizon is a 1937 film directed by Frank Capra starring Ronald Colman, Jane Wyatt and Sam Jaffe. The year 1936 in film involved some significant events Events Nov 6 - first Porky Pig animated cartoon Things to Come ( 1936) is a British Science fiction film, produced by Alexander Korda and directed by William Cameron Menzies Starting in 1934, a number of science fiction comic strips were adapted as serials, notably Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers, both starring Buster Crabbe. A comic strip is a sequence of drawings that tells a story Currently in the Western world, most comic strips are written and drawn by a Comics artist Serials, more specifically known as Movie serials or Film serials, were Short subjects originally shown in theaters in conjunction with a Feature Flash Gordon is the hero of a Science fiction adventure Comic strip originally drawn by Alex Raymond, which was first published on January 7, Buck Rogers is a fictional character who first appeared in 1928 as Anthony Rogers the hero of two Novellas by Philip Francis Nowlan published in the magazine Buster Crabbe ( February 7, 1908 &ndash April 23, 1983) These serials, and the comic strips they were based on, helped fix in the mind of the US public the idea that science fiction was juvenile and absurd, and led to the common description of science fiction as "that crazy Buck Rogers stuff". After 1936, no more big budget science fiction films were produced until 1950's Destination Moon, the first color sf film. Destination Moon is a 1950 American Science fiction Feature film produced by George Pál, who later produced
During the 1950s, public interest in space travel and new technologies revived. While many 1950s science-fiction films were still low-budget B movies, there were several successful films with larger budgets and impressive special effects, notably Destination Moon, The Day the Earth Stood Still, This Island Earth, and Forbidden Planet. A B movie is a motion picture made on a low or modest budget Originally the term was used for films intended for distribution as the less-publicized second half of a Double Destination Moon is a 1950 American Science fiction Feature film produced by George Pál, who later produced The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 Black-and-white Science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien visitor who comes This Island Earth is a 1955 Science fiction Film directed by Joseph M Forbidden Planet is a 1956 Science fiction film directed by Fred M Some of the many B movies are also still of interest today, especially Howard Hawks's The Thing from Another World, Invasion of the Body Snatchers and It Came From Outer Space. Howard Winchester Hawks ( May 30, 1896 &ndash December 26, 1977) was an American Film director, producer and The Thing from Another World, often referred to as The Thing before 1982 is a 1951 Science fiction film which tells the story of Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a 1956 Science fiction film based on the novel The Body Snatchers by Jack Finney (originally It Came from Outer Space is a 1953 Science Fiction 3-D film directed by Jack Arnold, and starring Richard Carlson,
Ray Harryhausen began to use stop-motion animation to create special effects for films such as Earth vs. the Flying Saucers (1956). For the films of the same name see Them (2006 film or Them (film The Beast from 20000 Fathoms is a 1953 Science fiction film directed by Eugène Lourié and stars Paul Christian, Paula Raymond The Blob is an independently made American horror/ Science-fiction film from 1958 depicting a giant Amoeba -like alien that terrorizes Ray Harryhausen (born Raymond Frederick Harryhausen on June 29, 1920 in Los Angeles California) is an Academy Award -winning Stop motion (or frame-by-frame) animation is an Animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own Earth vs the Flying Saucers is an American Black and white Science fiction film directed by Fred F The year 1956 in film involved some significant events Events August 4 - The last film serial Blazing the Overland
There were relatively few science fiction films in the 1960s, but some of the films transformed science fiction cinema. Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) brought new realism to the genre, with its groundbreaking visual effects and realistic portrayal of space travel and influenced the genre with its epic story and transcendent philosophical scope. 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C The year 1968 in film involved some significant events Events October 30 - The film The Lion in Winter Other 1960s films included Planet of the Apes (1968) and Fahrenheit 451 (1966), which provided social commentary, and the campy Barbarella (1968), which explored the sillier side of earlier science fiction. Planet of the Apes is a 1968 Science fiction / thriller film directed by Franklin J Fahrenheit 451 is a 1966 Film of a Dystopian future based on the novel of the same name by Ray Bradbury. The year 1966 in film involved some significant events Events Walt Disney, well known for his creation of Mickey Mouse died on Barbarella is a 1968 erotic sci-fi film directed by Roger Vadim and based on the French Barbarella comics Jean-Luc Godard's French "new wave" film Alphaville (1965) posited a futuristic Paris commanded by an artificial intelligence which has outlawed all emotion. Jean-Luc Godard (French ʒɑ̃lyk gɔˈdaʀ (born on December 3 1930 is a French and Swiss Filmmaker and one of the founding members of the Nouvelle Vague Alphaville is a 1965 Black-and-white French Science fiction film directed by Jean-Luc Godard.
The era of manned trips to the moon in the 1970s saw a resurgence of interest in the science fiction film. Andrei Tarkovsky’s slow-paced Solaris (1972) had visuals and a philosophic scope reminiscent of 2001: A Space Odyssey. Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (Андре́й Арсе́ньевич Тарко́вский (April 4 1932 - December 29 1986 was a Soviet Film director, writer and opera director Solaris (Солярис) is a Russian film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. The year 1972 in film involved some significant events Events Top grossing films (U 2001 A Space Odyssey is a science-fiction story produced in 1968 as both a film (directed by Stanley Kubrick) and a novel (written by Arthur C Science fiction films from the early 1970s explored the theme of paranoia, in which humanity is depicted as under threat from ecological or technological adversaries of its own creation, such as Silent Running (ecology), Westworld (man vs. Silent Running is a 1972 ecologically-themed Science fiction film directed by Douglas Trumbull which depicts a future in which all Plant life Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of WestWorld of Scottsdale popularly shortened to WestWorld is a sports and convention complex located in Scottsdale Arizona. robot), THX 1138 (man vs. THX 1138 is a 1971 Science fiction film directed by George Lucas, from a screenplay by Lucas and Walter Murch. the state), and Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange (threat of brainwashing). A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony Conspiracy thriller films of the 1970s included Soylent Green and Futureworld. Soylent Green " in popular culture the section "Cultural impact" was created as a "catch-all" of the cultural references to Futureworld is a 1976 sequel to the 1973 Science fiction film Westworld. The science fiction comedies of the 1970s included Woody Allen's Sleeper and John Carpenter's Dark Star. Sleeper ( 1973) is a futuristic Science fiction Comedy Film, written by directed by and starring Woody Allen. Dark Star is a 1974 Sci-fi Tongue-in-cheek comedy Motion picture directed by John Carpenter and co-written with Dan O'Bannon
Star Wars and Close Encounters of the Third Kind, both released in 1977 , were box-office hits that brought about a huge increase in science fiction films. Star Wars Episode IV A New Hope (originally released as Star Wars) is a 1977 Space opera Close Encounters of the Third Kind is a 1977 Science fiction film directed and written by Steven Spielberg. The year 1977 in film involved some significant events Events In the Academy Awards, Peter Finch, Faye Dunaway As well, Star Wars helped to blur the distinction between the science fiction, fantasy, and superhero genres. In 1979, Star Trek: The Motion Picture brought the television series to the big screen for the first time, While Disney released The Black Hole. The year 1979 in film involved some significant events Events March 5 - Production begins on Star Wars Episode Star Trek The Motion Picture is a 1979 Science fiction film from Paramount Pictures. For the 2006 film see Black Hole (2006 film The Black Hole is a 1979 Science fiction movie directed by Ridley Scott's films, such as Alien and Blade Runner, presented the future as dark, dirty and chaotic, and depicted aliens and androids as hostile and dangerous. Alien is a 1979 science fiction / Horror film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver. Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. In contrast, Steven Spielberg's E.T. The Extra Terrestrial, one of the most successful films of the 1980s, presented aliens as benign and friendly. This article is about the 1982 film For the term "ET" which redirects here see ET.
The big budget adaptations of Frank Herbert's Dune, Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon and Arthur C. This article is about the 1984 film See Frank Herbert's Dune for the 2000 television adaptation Flash Gordon is a 1980 Science fiction film, based on the Eponymous Comic strip character Flash Gordon (Gordon Ferrao Clarke's sequel to 2001, 2010, were box office duds that dissuaded producers from investing in science fiction literary properties. 2010 is a Science fiction film released in 1984 directed by Peter Hyams. Disney's Tron turned out to be a moderate success. Tron is a 1982 Disney Science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world The strongest contributors to the genre during the second half of the 1980s were James Cameron and Paul Verhoeven with The Terminator and RoboCop entries. The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction / Action film directed and co-written by James Cameron. RoboCop is a 1987 Cyberpunk film directed by Paul Verhoeven. The film features Peter Weller, Dan O'Herlihy, Kurtwood The Japanese anime film Akira (1988) also had a big influence outside Japan when released. is a 1988 Japanese animated Film co-written and directed by Katsuhiro Otomo based on his manga of the same name Events Michael Jackson 's first film was Moonwalker Top grossing films (U
In the 1990s, the emergence of the world wide web and the cyberpunk genre spawned several movies on the theme of the computer-human interface, such as Total Recall (1990), The Lawnmower Man (1992), eXistenZ (1999) and The Matrix (1999) . The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked Hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. Cyberpunk is a Science fiction genre noted for its focus on " High tech and low life. Total Recall is a 1990 Academy Award -winning American Science fiction film. The year 1990 in film involved some significant events Events CGI technique is expanded with motion capture for The Lawnmower Man is a 1992 film which uses elements from the writings of Stephen King, most notably the short story of the same name. The year 1992 in film involved many significant films (For more about films in foreign languages check sources in those languages eXistenZ is a 1999 Psychological thriller / Science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction - martial arts - Action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and The year 1999 in film involved some significant events and was arguably the most successful year for films released in the 1990s Other themes included disaster movies (e. g. , Armageddon and Deep Impact both from 1998), alien invasion (Independence Day from 1996) and genetic experimentation (e. Armageddon is a 1998 disaster / sci-fi - action film about a group of blue-collar deep-core drillers who are Deep Impact is a 1998 sci-fi - drama Disaster film released by Paramount Pictures and DreamWorks SKG in the The year 1998 in film involved some significant events Events February 14 - Sharon Stone marries Phil Bronstein Independence Day (also known by its promotional abbreviation ID4) is a 1996 Science fiction film about a hostile Alien invasion The year 1996 in film involved some significant events Major releases this year included Fargo, Trainspotting, The English Patient g. , Jurassic Park from 1993 and Gattaca from 1997). Jurassic Park is a 1993 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael The year 1993 in film involved many significant films (For more about films in foreign languages check sources in those languages Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction Drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma The year 1997 in film involved some significant events Events Summer - Production begins on Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace
As the decade progressed, computers played an increasingly important role in both the addition of special effects, (thanks to Jurassic Park), and the production of films. The illusions used in the Film, Television, Theater, or Entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story are traditionally called Jurassic Park is a 1993 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael As the software developed in sophistication it was used to produce more complicated effects . Developments in software also enabled filmmakers to enhance the visual quality of animation, which was used in the science fiction films Ghost in the Shell (1995) from Japan and The Iron Giant (1999) and Titan A.E. (2000) from the US. is a 1995 Anime Film directed by Mamoru Oshii; an adaptation of the Manga Ghost in the Shell by Masamune The Iron Giant is a 1999 Animated Science fiction film produced by Warner Bros Titan AE is a 2000 Post-apocalyptic animated science fiction Adventure film from Fox Animation Studios The year 2000 in film involved some significant events Events Top grossing films Please note that following the tradition of the
During the 2000s, fantasy and superhero films abounded, as did earthbound SF such as the the Matrix trilogy. Fantasy is a Genre that uses magic and other Supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, and/or setting A Superhero film is an action, fantasy or science fiction Genre film that is focused on the actions of one or more Superheroes who In 2005, the Star Wars sextet was completed with the darkly-themed Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. The year 2005 in film involved some significant events Releases of sequels took place with movies like The Devil's Rejects, Cheaper Star Wars Episode III Revenge of the Sith is a 2005 Space opera Film written and directed by George Lucas. Science-fiction returned as a tool for political commentary in films such as A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, Minority Report, and Children of Men. Minority Report is a 2002 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian Science fiction Film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón.
Science fiction films are often speculative in nature, and often include key supporting elements of science and technology. However, as often as not the "science" in a Hollywood science fiction movie can be considered pseudo-science, relying primarily on atmosphere and quasi-scientific artistic fancy than facts and conventional scientific theory. The definition can also vary depending on the viewpoint of the observer. What may seem a science fiction film to one viewer can be considered fantasy to another.
Many science fiction films include elements of mysticism, occult, magic, or the supernatural, considered by some to be more properly elements of fantasy or the occult (or religious) film. The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events This transforms the movie genre into a science fantasy with a religious or quasi-religious philosophy serving as the driving motivation. The movie Forbidden Planet employs many common science fiction elements, but the nemesis is a powerful creature with a resemblance to an occult demonic spirit (Some interpretations see it, however, as a manifestation of the Freudian Id, made material by alien superscience). Forbidden Planet is a 1956 Science fiction film directed by Fred M The Star Wars series employed a magic-like philosophy and ability known as the "Force" (see entry on 'Midi-chlorians'). Chronicles of Riddick (2004) included quasi-magical elements resembling necromancy and elementalism. The Chronicles of Riddick is a 2004 American science fiction / fantasy / thriller Film. The year 2004 in film involved some significant events Major releases of sequels took place Necromancy ( Greek νεκρομαντία nekromantía) is a form of Divination in which the practitioner seeks to summon "operative spirits" An elemental is a mythological being first appearing in the alchemical works of Paracelsus.
Some films blur the line between the genres, such as movies where the protagonist gains the extraordinary powers of the superhero. A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do These films usually employ a quasi-plausible reason for the hero gaining these powers. Yet in many respects the film more closely resembles fantasy than science fiction.
Not all science fiction themes are equally suitable for movies. The following is a list of science fiction themes. Common themes and tropes See also Science fiction genre Cosmology In addition to science fiction horror, space opera is most common. Space opera is a subgenre of Speculative fiction or Science fiction that emphasizes romantic, often Melodramatic adventure set mainly or entirely Often enough, these films could just as well pass as westerns or WWII movies if the science fiction props were removed. The Western is a fiction Genre seen in Film, Television, Radio, Literature, Painting and other Visual arts. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Common motifs also include voyages and expeditions to other planets, and dystopias, while utopias are rare. A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the
Milestones of science fiction film special effects include Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, Jurassic Park, Alien, Blade Runner, the first three Star Wars films, Terminator 2: Judgment Day and, more recently, The Matrix. 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C Jurassic Park is a 1993 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael Alien is a 1979 science fiction / Horror film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver. Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded Terminator 2 Judgment Day, commonly abbreviated as T2, is a 1991 action / Science fiction film directed co-written The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction - martial arts - Action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and
Film theorist Vivian Sobchack argues that science fiction films differ from fantasy films in that while science fiction film seeks to achieve our belief in the images we are viewing, fantasy film instead attempts to suspend our disbelief. Vivian Sobchack is an American cinema and media theorist and cultural critic The science fiction film displays the unfamiliar and alien in the context of the familiar. Despite the alien nature of the scenes and science fictional elements of the setting, the imagery of the film is related back to mankind and how we relate to our surroundings. While the sf film strives to push the boundaries of the human experience, they remain bound to the conditions and understanding of the audience and thereby contain prosaic aspects, rather than being completely alien or abstract.
Genre films such as westerns or war movies are bound to a particular area or time period. This is not true of the science fiction film. However there are several common visual elements that are evocative of the genre. These include the spacecraft or space station, alien worlds or creatures, robots, and futuristic gadgets. More subtle visual clues can appear with changes the human form through modifications in appearance, size, or behavior, or by means a known environment turned eerily alien, such as an empty city.
While science is a major element of this genre, many movie studios take significant liberties with what is considered conventional scientific knowledge. Richard Henry Sellers, CBE, commonly known as Peter Sellers ( 8 September 1925 &ndash 24 July 1980) was a British Such liberties can be most readily observed in films that show spacecraft maneuvering in outer space. A spacecraft is a Vehicle or machine designed for Spaceflight. Outer space, often simply called space, comprises the relatively empty regions of the Universe outside the escape velocities of Celestial bodies. The vacuum should preclude the transmission of sound or maneuvers employing wings, yet the sound track is filled with inappropriate flying noises and changes in flight path resembling an aircraft banking. This vacuum means "absence of matter" or "an empty area or space" for the cleaning appliance see Vacuum cleaner. Sound' is Vibration transmitted through a Solid, Liquid, or Gas; particularly sound means those vibrations composed of Frequencies The film makers assume that the audience will be unfamiliar with the specifics of space travel, and focus is instead placed on providing acoustical atmosphere and the more familiar maneuvers of the aircraft. Spaceflight is the use of Space technology to fly a Spacecraft into and through Outer space.
Similar instances of ignoring science in favor of art can be seen when movies present environmental effects. Entire planets are destroyed in titanic explosions requiring mere seconds, whereas an actual event of this nature would likely take many hours. A planet, as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU is a celestial body Orbiting a Star or stellar remnant that is A star rises over the horizon of a comet or a Mercury-like world and the temperature suddenly soars many hundreds of degrees, causing the entire surface to turn into a furnace. A star is a massive luminous ball of plasma. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the Energy on Earth A comet is a small Solar System body that orbits the Sun and when close enough to the Sun exhibits a visible coma (atmosphere or a tail — In reality the energy is initially reaching the ground at a very oblique angle, and the temperature is likely to rise more gradually.
The role of the scientist has varied considerably in the science fiction film genre, depending on the public perception of science and advanced technology. Starting with Dr. Frankenstein, the mad scientist became a stock character who posed a dire threat to society and perhaps even civilization. Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, generally known as Frankenstein, is a Novel written by the British author Mary Shelley A stock character is one which relies heavily on cultural types or names for his or her personality manner of speech and other characteristics Certain portrayals of the "mad scientist", such as Peter Sellers's performance in Dr. Richard Henry Sellers, CBE, commonly known as Peter Sellers ( 8 September 1925 &ndash 24 July 1980) was a British Strangelove, have become iconic to the genre. In the monster movies of the 1950s, the scientist often played a heroic role as the only person who could provide a technological fix for some impending doom. Reflecting the distrust of government that began in the 1960s in the U. S. , the brilliant but rebellious scientist became a common theme, often serving a Cassandra-like role during an impending disaster. In Greek mythology, Cassandra ( Greek: Κασσάνδρα "she who entangles men" (also known as Alexandra) was the daughter of King
The concept of life, particularly intelligent life, having an extraterrestrial origin is a popular staple of science fiction films. See also List of extraterrestrials in fiction In Popular cultures Life forms -especially intelligent life forms that are of extraterrestrial Early films often used alien life forms as a threat or peril to the human race, where the invaders were frequently fictional representations of actual military or political threats on Earth. Later some aliens were represented as benign and even beneficial in nature in such films as E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial and Close Encounters of the Third Kind. This article is about the 1982 film For the term "ET" which redirects here see ET. Close Encounters of the Third Kind is a 1977 Science fiction film directed and written by Steven Spielberg. Aliens in contemporary films are still often depicted as hostile, however, such as those in the Alien series of films. The Alien film series is a science fiction horror film franchise, focusing on Lieutenant Ellen Ripley (played by Sigourney
In order to provide subject matter to which audiences can relate, the large majority of intelligent alien races presented in films have an anthropomorphic nature, possessing human emotions and motivations. Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely Human characteristics to non-human creatures and beings natural and supernatural phenomena material states and objects Often they will embody a particular human stereotype, such as the barbaric warriors, scientific intellectuals, or priests and clerics. They will frequently appear to be nearly human in physical appearance, and communicate in a common Earth tongue, with little trace of an accent. Very few films have tried to represent intelligent aliens as something utterly different from human kind (e. g. Solaris, Contact). Solaris (Солярис) is a Russian film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky. Contact is a 1997 Science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan.
A frequent theme among science fiction films is that of impending or actual disaster on an epic scale. A disaster film is a movie genre that has an impending or ongoing Disaster (such as a damaged Airliner, Fire These often address a particular concern of the writer by serving as a vehicle of warning against a type of activity, including technological research. In the case of alien invasion films, the creatures can provide as a stand-in for a feared foreign power.
Disaster films typically fall into the following general categories:
Time travel movies can also exploit the potential for disaster as a motivation for the plot, or they can be the root cause of a disaster by wiping out recorded history and creating a new future. For example, The Terminator series of films employs time travel in this fashion (see also "Time travel" below).
While monster films do not usually depict danger on a global or epic scale, science fiction film also has a long tradition of movies featuring monster attacks. Monster Movie (also can be referred to as Creature Feature or Monster Film) is a name commonly given to Movies, which centre These differ from similar films in the horror or fantasy genres because science fiction films typically rely on a scientific (or at least pseudo-scientific) rationale for the monster's existence, rather than a supernatural or magical reason. Often, the science fiction film monster is created, awakened, or "evolves" because of the machinations of a mad scientist, a nuclear accident, or a scientific experiment gone awry. Typical examples include The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms (1953), the Godzilla series of films, and Jurassic Park (1993). The Beast from 20000 Fathoms is a 1953 Science fiction film directed by Eugène Lourié and stars Paul Christian, Paula Raymond is a series of giant monster films starring Godzilla, a Japanese creation usually portrayed by a man in a rubber suit Jurassic Park is a 1993 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg and based on the novel of the same name by Michael
Many such films could be classified as either science fiction or horror (or in fact, both). Examples include such iconic films as Alien, Creature from the Black Lagoon and Frankenstein, as well as diverse offerings like Deep Blue Sea, Cloverfield, Night of the Living Dead and The Thing. This article is on the film For the titular character see Gill-man Creature from the Black Lagoon is a Monster film Frankenstein is a Horror film from Universal Pictures directed by James Whale and very loosely based on the novel of the same name Deep Blue Sea is a 1999 Science fiction action Horror film that stars Thomas Jane, Samuel L Cloverfield is a 2008 monster / Horror film directed by Matt Reeves, produced by J Night of the Living Dead (1968 directed by George Romero, is an independent Black-and-white Horror film. The Thing is a 1982 science fiction and Horror film directed by John Carpenter, written by Bill Lancaster and starring
The core mental aspects of what makes us human has been a staple of science fiction films, particularly since the 1980s. MIND ( Moving In New Directions) (est 1975 is an alternative education high school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Blade Runner examined what made an organic-creation a human, while the RoboCop series saw an android mechanism fitted with the brain and reprogrammed mind of a human to create a cyborg. Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. RoboCop is a 1987 Cyberpunk film directed by Paul Verhoeven. The film features Peter Weller, Dan O'Herlihy, Kurtwood An android is a Robot designed to resemble a human usually both in appearance and behavior A cyborg is a Cybernetic Organism ( ie, an organism that has both artificial and natural systems The idea of brain transfer was not entirely new to science fiction film, as the concept of the "mad scientist" transferring the human mind to another body is as old as Frankenstein. Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus, generally known as Frankenstein, is a Novel written by the British author Mary Shelley
Films such as Total Recall have popularized a thread of films that explore the concept of reprogramming the human mind. Total Recall is a 1990 Academy Award -winning American Science fiction film. The theme of brainwashing in several films of the sixties and seventies including A Clockwork Orange and The Manchurian Candidate coincided with secret real-life government experimentation during Project MKULTRA. Brainwashing (also known as Thought reform or as Re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and Beliefs A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony For the novel by Richard Condon, see The Manchurian Candidate. Similarly, movies such as Equilibrium deal with drug-induced mind control along with dystopian control of human culture. Equilibrium is a 2002 action and Science fiction film written and directed by Kurt Wimmer. The cyberpunk film Johnny Mnemonic used the reprogramming concept for a commercial purpose as the human became a data transfer vessel. Cyberpunk is a Science fiction genre noted for its focus on " High tech and low life. Johnny Mnemonic is a 1995 Cyberpunk Film, loosely based on the short story of the same name by William Gibson, in which Voluntary erasure of memory is further explored as themes of the films Paycheck and Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Paycheck is a 2003 Film adaptation of the Short story of the same name by Science fiction writer Philip K Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind is a 2004 American drama and Romantic comedy by French director Michel In Dark City, human memory and the fabric of reality itself is reprogrammed wholesale. Dark City is a 1998 science fiction Film noir written by Alex Proyas, Lem Dobbs and David S The anime series Serial Experiments Lain also explores the idea of reprogrammable reality and memory. Serial Experiments Lain is an Anime series directed by Ryutaro Nakamura, original character design by Yoshitoshi ABe, screenplay written
The idea that a human could be entirely represented as a program in a computer was a core element of the film Tron. Tron is a 1982 Disney Science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world This would be further explored in the film version of The Lawnmower Man, and the idea reversed in Virtuosity, Demon Seed and others as computer programs sought to become real persons. The Lawnmower Man is a 1992 film which uses elements from the writings of Stephen King, most notably the short story of the same name. For a person who is virtuous see Virtue. Virtuosity is a 1995 American Science fiction film directed Demon Seed is a 1977 American Science fiction - thriller Film starring Julie Christie and directed by Donald In the Matrix series, the virtual reality world became a real world prison for humanity, managed by intelligent machines. The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction - martial arts - Action film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski and Virtual reality ( VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a Computer-simulated environment be it a real or imagined one In eXistenZ, the nature of reality and virtual reality become intermixed with no clear distinguishing boundary. eXistenZ is a 1999 Psychological thriller / Science fiction film by Canadian director David Cronenberg. Likewise The Cell intermixed dreams and virtual reality, creating a fantasy realm with no boundaries. The Cell is a 2000 Psychological thriller film written by Mark Protosevich directed by Tarsem Singh and starring Jennifer Lopez.
Robots have been a part of science fiction since the Czech playwright Karel Čapek coined the word in 1921. A robot is a mechanical or Virtual Artificial agent In practice it is usually an electro-mechanical system which by its appearance or movements Karel Čapek ( pronounced) ( January 9, 1890 – December 25, 1938 was one of the most influential Czech writers of the 20th century In early films, robots were usually played by a human actor in a boxy metal suit, as in The Phantom Empire, although the female robot in Metropolis is an exception. The Phantom Empire, starring Gene Autry the Singing Cowboy was a 12-chapter 1935 Mascot serial that combined the western Metropolis is a silent Science fiction film directed by Fritz Lang and written by Lang and Thea von Harbou. The first depiction of a sophisticated robot in a US film was in The Day the Earth Stood Still. The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 Black-and-white Science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien visitor who comes Over the last several decades, robots in films, have been depicted as having increasingly advanced capabilities, including artificial intelligence. In films, robots are often depicted as humanoid-looking machines that walk stiffly and speak with a flat affect.
Robots in films are often sentient and sometimes sentimental, and they have filled a range of roles in science fiction films. Robots have been supporting characters (e. g. , Ash in the 1979 film Alien and Data from Star Trek), sidekicks (e. Lieutenant Commander Data, played by actor Brent Spiner, is a character in the Star Trek Fictional universe. g. , C-3PO and R2-D2 from Star Wars), and extras, visible in the background to create a futuristic setting. C-3PO ( Nicknamed Threepio) is a Fictional character from the Star Wars universe, who appears in both the original R2-D2 (called R2, or " Artoo " for short is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe, an Astromech droid Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded As well, robots have been formidable movie villains or monsters (e. g. , the robot Box in the 1976 film Logan's Run, Maximillian in the 1979 film The Black Hole, and the T-800 robot assassin in the 1984 film The Terminator). Logan's Run is a 1976 Science fiction film based on the novel of the same name by William F For the 2006 film see Black Hole (2006 film The Black Hole is a 1979 Science fiction movie directed by The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction / Action film directed and co-written by James Cameron. In some cases, robots have even been the leading characters in science fiction films; in the 1982 film Blade Runner, many of the characters are bioengineered android "replicants". Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. Bioengineering (also known as Biological Engineering is the application of Engineering principles to address challenges in the fields of Biology and Medicine An android is a Robot designed to resemble a human usually both in appearance and behavior A replicant is a bioengineered or biorobotic being created in the film Blade Runner (1982
One popular theme in science fiction film is whether robots will someday replace humans, a question raised in the film adaptation of Isaac Asimov's I, Robot, or whether intelligent robots could develop a conscience and a motivation to take over or destroy the human race (as depicted in The Terminator). Isaac Asimov (c January 2 1920 &ndash April 6 1992 ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmʌv originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as, was a Russian I Robot is a collection of nine Science fiction Short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published by Gnome Press in 1950 in an The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction / Action film directed and co-written by James Cameron.
The concept of time travel—travelling backwards and forwards through time—has always been a popular staple of science fiction film and science fiction television series. Time travel is a common theme in Science fiction and is depicted in a variety of media This article details time travel itself For other uses see Time Traveler. Time travel usually involves the use of some type of advanced technology, such as H. G. Wells' classic The Time Machine, or the commercially successful 1980s-era Back to the Future trilogy. The Time Machine is a novella by H G Wells, first published in 1895 and later directly adapted into at least two Feature films of the same name as Back to the Future is a 1985 science fiction Comedy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and produced by Steven Spielberg. Other movies, such as the Planet of the Apes series, explained their depictions of time travel by drawing on physics concepts such as the Special relativity phenomenon of time dilation (which could occur if a spaceship was travelling near the speed of light). Planet of the Apes is a novel by Pierre Boulle, originally published in 1963 in French as La Planète des singes. Special relativity (SR (also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the Physical theory of Measurement in Inertial Some films show time travel not being attained from advanced technology, but rather from an inner source or personal power, such as the 2000s-era films Donnie Darko and The Butterfly Effect. Donnie Darko is a 2001 cult classic Psychological thriller Film written and directed by Richard Kelly, and starring The Butterfly Effect is a 2004 American Fantasy / Drama movie starring Ashton Kutcher, Amy Smart
More conventional time travel movies use technology to bring the past to life in the present, or in a present that lies in our future. The movie Iceman (1984) told the story of the reanimation of a frozen Neanderthal (similar to the 1973 Christopher Lee film Horror Express), a concept later spoofed in the comedy Encino Man (1992). Iceman was a 1984 Science fiction film from Universal Studios. The Neanderthal (neɪˈændərtɑːl also with /niː-/ and /-θɔːl/ or Neandertal, is an extinct member of the Homo genus that is known from Christopher Frank Carandini Lee CBE, CStJ (born 27 May 1922 is a two-time Screen Actors Guild Award-nominated Saturn Award-winning English Actor Horror Express, also known as Pánico en el Transiberiano, is a 1973 horror film starring Christopher Lee, Peter Cushing and Telly Encino Man, released in Europe as California Man, is a 1992 Comedy film directed by Les Mayfield and starring The movie Freejack (1992) shows time travel used to pull victims of horrible deaths forward in time a split-second before their demise, and then use their bodies for spare parts; a similar theme is used in Millennium (1989). Freejack is a 1992 Science fiction film directed by Geoff Murphy.
A common theme in time travel movies is the paradoxical nature of travelling through time. In the French New Wave film La Jetée (1962), director Chris Marker depicts the self-fulfilling aspect of a person being able to see their future by showing a child who witnesses the death of his future self. "Nouvelle Vague" redirects here For the music group of the same name see Nouvelle Vague (band. La jetée ( English: The Jetty and The Pier) ( 1962) is a 28-minute black and white Science fiction Chris Marker (born 29 July 1921 is a French Writer, Photographer, Film director, Multimedia artist and documentary maker La Jetée was the inspiration for Twelve Monkeys, (1995) director Terry Gilliam's film about time travel, memory, and madness. Twelve Monkeys is an Academy Award -nominated 1995 Science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by David Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American -born British Writer, Filmmaker, Animator and member In Slaughterhouse-Five (1969), the main character becomes unstuck in time, and jumps backwards and forwards across his life. Slaughterhouse-Five is an award-winning 1972 Film adaptation of Kurt Vonnegut 's novel of the same name.
The Back to the Future series goes one step further and explores the result of altering the past, while in Star Trek: First Contact (1996) the crew must rescue the Earth from having its past altered by time-travelling cyborgs. Star Trek First Contact is a 1996 Science fiction film and the eighth feature film based in the ''Star Trek'' fictional universe A cyborg is a Cybernetic Organism ( ie, an organism that has both artificial and natural systems The Terminator series uses self-aware robots which travel to the past in order to alter the future outcome of a future human-robot war by killing the future leaders of the human resistance. The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction / Action film directed and co-written by James Cameron.
The science fiction film genre has long served as a useful vehicle for "safely" discussing controversial current issues and often providing thoughtful social commentary on potential unforeseen future issues. A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony Presentation of issues that are difficult or disturbing for an audience, can be made more acceptable when they are explored in a future setting or on a different, earth-like world. The altered context can allow for deeper examination and reflection of the ideas presented, with the perspective of a viewer watching remote events. Most controversial issues in science fiction films tend to fall into two general story lines, Utopian or dystopian. Utopia is a name for an ideal community taken from the title of a book written in 1516 by Sir Thomas More describing a fictional Island in the A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society Either a society will become better or worse in the future. Because of controversy, most science fiction films will fall into the dystopian film category (i. This is a list of Films commonly regarded as Dystopian Many of the listed works are not controversial in the sense that their dystopian character is generally acknowledged e. Blade Runner, Brazil, 1984, and movies where life is worse) rather than the Utopian category (Star Trek, Star Wars, and other films, despite a villain, where life is better). Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. Brazil is a 1985 Dystopian Black comedy film directed by Terry Gilliam. Nineteen Eighty-Four (sometimes 1984) is a British Film based upon George Orwell 's novel of the same name Star Wars is an epic Space opera franchise initially conceived by George Lucas during the 1970s and significantly expanded
The type of commentary and controversy presented in a science fiction film often illustrated the particular concerns of the period in which they were produced. Early science fiction films expressed fears about automation replacing workers and the dehumanization of society through science and technology (i. e. Metropolis). Metropolis is a silent Science fiction film directed by Fritz Lang and written by Lang and Thea von Harbou. Later films explored the fears of environmental catastrophe or technology-created disasters, and how they would impact society and individuals (i. e Soylent Green). Soylent Green " in popular culture the section "Cultural impact" was created as a "catch-all" of the cultural references to
The monster movies of the 1950s—like Godzilla (1954)—served as stand-ins for fears of nuclear war, communism and views on the cold war. is a successful landmark 1954 Japanese Science fiction film directed and co-written by Ishiro Honda with special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the In the 1970s, science fiction films also became an effective way of satirizing contemporary social mores with Silent Running and Dark Star presenting hippies in space as a riposte to the militaristic types that had dominated earlier films. Silent Running is a 1972 ecologically-themed Science fiction film directed by Douglas Trumbull which depicts a future in which all Plant life Dark Star is a 1974 Sci-fi Tongue-in-cheek comedy Motion picture directed by John Carpenter and co-written with Dan O'Bannon Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange presented a horrific vision of youth culture, portraying a youth gang engaged in rape and murder, along with disturbing scenes of forced psychological conditioning serving to comment on societal responses to crime. A Clockwork Orange is a 1971 Satirical Science fiction Film adaptation of a 1962 novel of the same name, by Anthony Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of Associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment
Logan's Run depicted a futuristic swingers utopia that practiced euthanasia as a form of population control and The Stepford Wives anticipated a reaction to the women's liberation movement. Logan's Run is a 1976 Science fiction film based on the novel of the same name by William F Swinging, sometimes referred to as the swinging lifestyle, is "non-monogamous sexual activity treated much like any other social activity that can be experienced as a The Stepford Wives is a 1975 science fiction / Horror film based on the 1972 Ira Levin novel of the same name Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Enemy Mine demonstrated that the foes we have come to hate are often just like us, even if they appear alien. Enemy Mine is a 1985 Science fiction film based on the story of the same title by Barry B And Planet of the Apes commented on the politics and culture of contemporary society. Planet of the Apes is a 1968 Science fiction / thriller film directed by Franklin J
Contemporary science fiction films continue to explore social and political issues. One recent example would be 2002's Minority Report, debuting in the months after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and focused on the issues of police powers, privacy and civil liberties in the near-future United States. Minority Report is a 2002 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K The cold dystopian film FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions (2004) presents Europe ruled by an oppressive matriarchal society, who forbid any kind of physical contact between the sexes on the grounds of hygiene. FAQ Frequently Asked Questions is a feature-length Dystopia movie written and directed by Carlos Atanes and released in 2004
More recently, the headlines surrounding events such as the Iraq War, international terrorism, the avian influenza scare, and U. The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. Avian influenza, sometimes Avian flu, and commonly Bird flu refers S. anti-immigration laws have found their way into the consciousness of contemporary filmmakers. Opposition to immigration is present in most nation-states with immigration and has become a significant political issue in many countries The 2006 film V for Vendetta drew inspiration from controversial issues such as The Patriot Act and the War on Terror, while the futuristic science fiction thriller Children of Men (also 2006) commented on diverse social issues such as xenophobia, propaganda, and cognitive dissonance. V for Vendetta is a 2006 action - thriller Film directed by James McTeigue and produced by Joel Silver The USA PATRIOT Act, commonly known as the Patriot Act, is a controversial Act of Congress that U The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian Science fiction Film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. Xenophobia is an intense and/or irrational dislike and sometimes fear of people from other countries Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people In Psychology, cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feeling or stress caused by holding two contradictory ideas simultaneously
Lancaster University professor Jamaluddin Bin Aziz argues that as science fiction has evolved and expanded, it has fused with other film genres such as gothic thrillers and film noir. Lancaster University (officially " The University of Lancaster " is a British University in Lancaster, Lancashire, Gothic fiction (sometimes referred to as Gothic horror) is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. The thriller is a broad Genre of Literature, Film, Gaming and Television. Film noir is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize moral ambiguity and sexual motivation When science fiction integrates film noir elements, Bin Aziz calls the resulting hybrid form "future noir," a form which ". . . encapsulates a postmodern encounter with generic persistence, creating a mixture of irony, pessimism, prediction, extrapolation, bleakness and nostalgia. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism " Future noir films such as Blade Runner, Twelve Monkeys, Dark City, and Children of Men use a protagonist who is ". Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. Twelve Monkeys is an Academy Award -nominated 1995 Science fiction film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by David Dark City is a 1998 science fiction Film noir written by Alex Proyas, Lem Dobbs and David S Children of Men is a 2006 dystopian Science fiction Film co-written and directed by Alfonso Cuarón. The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. . . increasingly dubious, alienated and fragmented", at once "dark and playful like the characters in Gibson’s Neuromancer", yet still with the ". Neuromancer is a 1984 novel by William Gibson, notable for being the most famous early Cyberpunk novel and winner of the science-fiction "triple . . shadow of Philip Marlowe. Philip Marlowe is a fictional character created by Raymond Chandler in a series of novels including The Big Sleep and The Long Goodbye . . "
Future noir films that are set in a post-apocalyptic world ". . . restructure and re-represent society in a parody of the atmospheric world usually found in noir’s construction of a city — dark, bleak and beguiled. " Future noir films often intermingle elements of the gothic thriller genre, such as Minority Report, which makes references to occult practices, and Alien, with its tag line ‘In space, no one can hear you scream’, and a space vessel, Nostromo, “that hark[s] back to images of the haunted house in the gothic horror tradition. Minority Report is a 2002 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine hidden secret referring to "knowledge of the hidden" Alien is a 1979 science fiction / Horror film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Sigourney Weaver. ” Bin Aziz states that films such as James Cameron’s The Terminator are a sub-genre of ‘techno noir’ that create ". James Francis Cameron (born August 16, 1954) is an Academy Award -winning Canadian - American director The Terminator is a 1984 science fiction / Action film directed and co-written by James Cameron. . . an atmospheric feast of noir darkness and a double-edged world that is not what it seems. " 
In science fiction novels and short stories the narrative world typically differs from our own present or historical reality in least one significant way. This difference may be technological, physical, historical, sociological, philosophical, metaphysical, etc, but usually not magical (see Fantasy). Exploring the consequences of such differences (asking "What if. . . ?") is the traditional purpose of science fiction. Science fiction literature often relies upon story development, reader knowledge, and the discussion of abstract concepts that may not be easy to transpose to film.
When compared to science fiction literature, science fiction films often rely less on the human imagination and more upon action scenes and special effect-created alien creatures and exotic backgrounds. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter The illusions used in the Film, Television, Theater, or Entertainment industries to simulate the imagined events in a story are traditionally called Since the 1970s, film audiences have come to expect a high standard for special effects in science fiction films. In some cases, science fiction-themed films superimpose an exotic, futuristic setting onto what would not otherwise be a science-fiction tale. Nevertheless, some critically-acclaimed science fiction movies have followed in the path of science fiction literature, using story development to explore abstract concepts.
Jules Verne was the first major science fiction author to be adapted for the screen with Melies Le Voyage dans la Lune (1902) and 20,000 lieues sous les mers (1907), which used Verne's scenarios as a framework for fantastic visuals. Jules Gabriel Verne ( February 8 1828 &ndash March 24 1905) was a French Author who pioneered the science-fiction A Trip to the Moon (French fr Le Voyage dans la lune) is a 1902 French Black and white silent Science fiction 20000 lieues sous les mers ( 20000 Leagues Under the Sea) is a Silent film made in 1907 by French director Georges Méliès, based on the By the time Verne's work fell out of copyright in 1950 the adaptations were treated as period pieces. His works have been adapted a number of times since then, including 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea in 1954, From the Earth to the Moon in 1958, and Journey to the Center of the Earth in 1959. 20000 Leagues Under the Sea is a 1954 film starring Kirk Douglas as Ned Land James Mason as Captain Nemo, Paul Lukas From the Earth to the Moon (De la Terre à la Lune 1865) is a humorous Science fantasy Novel by Jules Verne and is Journey to the Center of the Earth is a 1959 Adventure film adapted by Charles Brackett from the novel by Jules Verne
H. G. Wells has had better success with The Invisible Man, Things to Come and The Island of Doctor Moreau all being adapted during his lifetime with good results while The War of the Worlds was updated in 1953 and again in 2005, adapted to film at least four times altogether. Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political The Invisible Man is a 1933 Horror film based on H G Wells ' Science fiction novel The Invisible Man, published Things to Come ( 1936) is a British Science fiction film, produced by Alexander Korda and directed by William Cameron Menzies The Island of Doctor Moreau is an 1896 Science fiction Novel written by H The War of the Worlds (1898 by H G Wells, is an early Science fiction Novel which describes an invasion of England by The Time Machine has had two film versions (1961 and 2002) while Sleeper in part is a pastiche of Wells' 1910 novel The Sleeper Awakes. The Time Machine is a novella by H G Wells, first published in 1895 and later directly adapted into at least two Feature films of the same name as Sleeper ( 1973) is a futuristic Science fiction Comedy Film, written by directed by and starring Woody Allen. The Sleeper Awakes (1910 is a Dystopian Novel by H G Wells about a man who sleeps for two hundred and three years waking up in a completely
With the drop-off in interest in science fiction films during the 1940s, few of the 'golden age' science fiction authors made it to the screen. A novella by John W. Campbell provided the basis for The Thing from Another World (1951). John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer The Thing from Another World, often referred to as The Thing before 1982 is a 1951 Science fiction film which tells the story of Robert A. Heinlein contributed to the screenplay for Destination Moon in 1950, but none of his major works were adapted for the screen until the 1990s: The Puppet Masters in 1994 and Starship Troopers in 1997. Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Destination Moon is a 1950 American Science fiction Feature film produced by George Pál, who later produced The Puppet Masters is a 1994 Science fiction film adapted by Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio, and David S Starship Troopers is a 1997 sci-fi - Action film directed by Paul Verhoeven, written by Edward Neumeier, and starring Isaac Asimov's fiction influenced the Star Wars and Star Trek films, but it was not until 1988 that a film version of one of his short stories (Nightfall) was produced. Isaac Asimov (c January 2 1920 &ndash April 6 1992 ˈaɪzək ˈæzɪmʌv originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as, was a Russian " Nightfall " is an influential Science fiction Short story by author Isaac Asimov, about the coming of darkness to the people of a planet ordinarily The first major motion picture adaptation of a full-length Asimov work was Bicentennial Man (1999) (based on the short stories "Bicentennial Man" and "The Positronic Man" co-written with Robert Silverberg ), although 2004's I, Robot, a film loosely based on Asimov's book of short stories by the same name, drew more attention. Bicentennial Man or Andrew—NDR114 in Japan, is a 1999 film starring Robin Williams based on the well-known I Robot is a Science fiction film set in a world where humans and Humanoid robots interact ( Chicago in the year 2035) I Robot is a collection of nine Science fiction Short stories by Isaac Asimov, first published by Gnome Press in 1950 in an
The adaptation of science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke's novel as 2001: A Space Odyssey won the Academy Award for Visual Effects and offered thematic complexity not typically associated with the science fiction genre at the time. Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008 was a British Science fiction Author, Inventor, and 2001 A Space Odyssey is a 1968 Science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick, written by Kubrick and Arthur C The Academy Award for Visual Effects is an Oscar given to one film each year that shows highest achievement in Visual effects Its sequel, 2010, was commercially successful but less highly regarded by critics. 2010 is a Science fiction film released in 1984 directed by Peter Hyams. Reflecting the times, two earlier science fiction works by Ray Bradbury were adapted for cinema in the 1960s with Fahrenheit 451 and The Illustrated Man. Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22 1920 is an American mainstream, Fantasy, horror, Science fiction and mystery Fahrenheit 451 is a 1966 Film of a Dystopian future based on the novel of the same name by Ray Bradbury. The Illustrated Man is a 1951 book of eighteen Science fiction short stories by Ray Bradbury that explores the nature of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughter-house Five was filmed in 1971 and Breakfast of Champions in 1998. Kurt Vonnegut Jr (November 11 1922 – April 11 2007 (ˈvɒnəgət was a prolific and genre-bending American Novelist known for works blending Satire, Black Slaughterhouse-Five is an award-winning 1972 Film adaptation of Kurt Vonnegut 's novel of the same name. Breakfast of Champions or Goodbye Blue Monday is a 1973 novel by the American author Kurt Vonnegut.
Philip K. Dick's fiction has been used in a number of science fiction films, in part because it evokes the paranoia that has been a central feature of the genre. Philip Kindred Dick (December 16 – March 2) was an American Science fiction Novelist and Short story Writer. Films based on Dick's works include Blade Runner (1982), Total Recall (1990), Minority Report (2002), Paycheck (2003), and A Scanner Darkly (2006). Blade Runner is a 1982 American Science fiction Film, directed by Ridley Scott. Total Recall is a 1990 Academy Award -winning American Science fiction film. Minority Report is a 2002 Science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, loosely based on the Philip K Paycheck is a 2003 Film adaptation of the Short story of the same name by Science fiction writer Philip K A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 film directed by Richard Linklater based on the novel of the same name by Philip K Often, these film adaptations are loose adaptations of the original story, with the exception of A Scanner Darkly, which is close to Dick's book.