Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is the effort to discover, understand, or to understand better, how the physical world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place In Physics, particularly in Quantum physics, a system observable is a property of the system state that can be determined by some sequence of physical Physical evidence is any evidence introduced in a trialin the form of a physical object intended to prove a fact in issue based on its demonstrable physical characteristics It is done through observation of existing phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate phenomena under controlled conditions. A phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν, pl φαινόμενα - phenomena) is any observable occurrence In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or Simulation is the imitation of some real thing state of affairs or process
The word science is derived from the Latin word scientia for knowledge, the nominal form of the verb scire, "to know". Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) is a Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding The Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root that yields scire is *skei-, meaning to "cut, separate, or discern". The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language (PIE are basic Morphemes carrying a Lexical meaning Other words from the same root include Sanskrit chyati, "he cuts off", Greek schizo, "I split" (hence English schism, schizophrenia), Latin scindo, "I split" (hence English rescind). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c  From the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, science or scientia meant any systematic recorded knowledge. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century  Science therefore had the same sort of very broad meaning that philosophy had at that time. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language In other languages, including French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian, the word corresponding to science also carries this meaning.
Well into the eighteenth century, science and natural philosophy were not quite synonymous, but only became so later with the direct use of what would become known formally as the scientific method, which was earlier developed during the Middle Ages and early modern period in Europe and the Middle East (see History of scientific method). Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the period roughly from 1500 to 1800 in Western Europe ( Early modern Europe) The history of Scientific method is inseparable from the History of science itself Prior to the 18th century, however, the preferred term for the study of nature was natural philosophy, while English speakers most typically referred to the study of the human mind as moral philosophy. For the current in the 19th century German idealism see Naturphilosophie Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life By contrast, the word "science" in English was still used in the 17th century to refer to the Aristotelian concept of knowledge which was secure enough to be used as a sure prescription for exactly how to do something. Aristotelianism is a tradition of Philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. In this differing sense of the two words, the philosopher John Locke in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding wrote that "natural philosophy [the study of nature] is not capable of being made a science". John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704 was an English Philosopher. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is one of John Locke 's two most famous works the other being his Second Treatise on Civil Government 
By the early 1800s, natural philosophy had begun to separate from philosophy, though it often retained a very broad meaning. In many cases, science continued to stand for reliable knowledge about any topic, in the same way it is still used in the broad sense (see the introduction to this article) in modern terms such as library science, political science, and computer science. Library science is an Interdisciplinary Science incorporating the Humanities, Law and Applied science to study topics related to Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Computer science (or computing science) is the study and the Science of the theoretical foundations of Information and Computation and their In the more narrow sense of science, as natural philosophy became linked to an expanding set of well-defined laws (beginning with Galileo's laws, Kepler's laws, and Newton's laws for motion), it became more popular to refer to natural philosophy as natural science. Over the course of the nineteenth century, moreover, there was an increased tendency to associate science with study of the natural world (that is, the non-human world). This move sometimes left the study of human thought and society (what would come to be called social science) in a linguistic limbo by the end of the century and into the next. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies 
Through the 19th century, many English speakers were increasingly differentiating science (meaning a combination of what we now term natural and biological sciences) from all other forms of knowledge in a variety of ways. The now-familiar expression “scientific method,” which refers to the prescriptive part of how to make discoveries in natural philosophy, was almost unused during the early part of the 19th century, but became widespread after the 1870s, though there was rarely totally agreement about just what it entailed. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena  The word "scientist," meant to refer to a systematically-working natural philosopher, (as opposed to an intuitive or empirically-minded one) was coined in 1833 by William Whewell.  Discussion of scientists as a special group of people who did science, even if their attributes were up for debate, grew in the last half of the 19th century. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices  Whatever people actually meant by these terms at first, they ultimately depicted science, in the narrow sense of the habitual use of the scientific method and the knowledge derived from it, as something deeply distinguished from all other realms of human endeavor.
By the twentieth century, the modern notion of science as a special brand of information about the world, practiced by a distinct group and pursued through a unique method, was essentially in place. It was used to give legitimacy to a variety of fields through such titles as "scientific" medicine, engineering, advertising, or motherhood.  Over the 1900s, links between science and technology also grew increasingly strong. Technology is a broad concept that deals with a Species ' usage and knowledge of Tools and Crafts and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt
By the end of the century, it is arguable that technology had even begun to eclipse science as a term of public attention and praise. Scholarly studies of science have begun to refer to "technoscience" rather than science of technology separately. Technoscience is a concept widely used in the Interdisciplinary community of Science and technology studies to designate the technological and social context Meanwhile, such fields as biotechnology and nanotechnology are capturing the headlines. Biotechnology is Technology based on Biology, especially when used in Agriculture, Food science, and Medicine. Nanotechnology, sometimes shortened to nanotech, refers to a field of Applied science whose theme is the control of matter on an Atomic and Molecular One author has suggested that, in the coming century, "science" may fall out of use, to be replaced by technoscience or even by some more exotic label such as "techknowledgy. "
The scientific method seeks to explain the events of nature in a reproducible way, and to use these reproductions to make useful predictions. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the Scientific method, and refers to the ability of a test or Experiment to be accurately reproduced or replicated A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular Event will occur in the Future in more certain terms than a forecast. It is done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural events under controlled conditions. It provides an objective process to find solutions to problems in a number of scientific and technological fields. 
Based on observations of a phenomenon, a scientist may generate a model. Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract, conceptual, Graphical and or mathematical models. This is an attempt to describe or depict the phenomenon in terms of a logical physical or mathematical representation. As empirical evidence is gathered, a scientist can suggest a hypothesis to explain the phenomenon. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible This description can be used to make predictions that are testable by experiment or observation using the scientific method. When a hypothesis proves unsatisfactory, it is either modified or discarded.
While performing experiments, Scientists may have a preference for one outcome over another, and it is important that this tendency does not bias their interpretation. A scientist, in the broadest sense refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire Knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices  A strict following of the scientific method attempts to minimize the influence of a scientist's bias on the outcome of an experiment. This can be achieved by correct experimental design, and a thorough peer review of the experimental results as well as conclusions of a study. Design of experiments, or experimental design, is the design of all information-gathering exercises where variation is present whether under the full control of the experimenter Peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work research or Ideas to the scrutiny of others who are  Once the experiment results are announced or published, an important cross-check can be the need to validate the results by an independent party. 
Once a hypothesis has survived testing, it may become adopted into the framework of a scientific theory. The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. This is a logically reasoned, self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis—commonly, a large number of hypotheses can be logically bound together by a single theory. These broader theories may be formulated using principles such as parsimony (e. Parsimony is a 'less is better' concept of frugality economy stinginess or caution in arriving at a hypothesis or course of action g. , "Occam's Razor"). Occam's razor (sometimes spelled Ockham's razor) is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English Logician and Franciscan Friar, They are then repeatedly tested by analyzing how the collected evidence (facts) compares to the theory. Generally a fact is defined as something that is true something that actually exists or something that can be verified according to an established standard of evaluation When a theory survives a sufficiently large number of empirical observations, it then becomes a scientific generalization that can be taken as fully verified. These assume the status of a physical law or law of nature. A physical law or scientific law is a Scientific generalization based on empirical Observations of physical behavior (i
Despite the existence of well-tested theories, science cannot claim absolute knowledge of nature or the behavior of the subject or of the field of study due to epistemological problems that are unavoidable and preclude the discovery or establishment of absolute truth. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge The meaning of the word truth extends from Honesty, Good faith, and Sincerity in general to agreement with Fact or Reality Unlike a mathematical proof, a scientific theory is empirical, and is always open to falsification, if new evidence is presented. A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment Even the most basic and fundamental theories may turn out to be imperfect if new observations are inconsistent with them. Critical to this process is making every relevant aspect of research publicly available, which allows ongoing review and repeating of experiments and observations by multiple researchers operating independently of one another. Only by fulfilling these expectations can it be determined how reliable the experimental results are for potential use by others.
Isaac Newton's Newtonian law of gravitation is a famous example of an established law that was later found not to be universal—it does not hold in experiments involving motion at speeds close to the speed of light or in close proximity of strong gravitational fields. Mechanics ( Greek) is the branch of Physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to Forces or displacements Outside these conditions, Newton's Laws remain an excellent model of motion and gravity. Since general relativity accounts for all the same phenomena that Newton's Laws do and more, general relativity is now regarded as a more comprehensive theory. 
Mathematics is essential to many sciences. The Michelson–Morley experiment, one of the most important and famous experiments in the History of physics, was performed in 1887 by Albert Michelson and Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and One important function of mathematics in science is the role it plays in the expression of scientific models. Observing and collecting measurements, as well as hypothesizing and predicting, often require extensive use of mathematics and mathematical models. Calculus may be the branch of mathematics most often used in science, but virtually every branch of mathematics has applications in science, including "pure" areas such as number theory and topology. Calculus ( Latin, calculus, a small stone used for counting is a branch of Mathematics that includes the study of limits, Derivatives Number theory is the branch of Pure mathematics concerned with the properties of Numbers in general and Integers in particular as well as the wider classes Topology ( Greek topos, "place" and logos, "study" is the branch of Mathematics that studies the properties of Mathematics is fundamental to the understanding of the natural sciences and the social sciences, many of which also rely heavily on statistics. Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data.
Statistical methods, comprised of mathematical techniques for summarizing and exploring data, allow scientists to assess the level of reliability and the range of variation in experimental results. Statistical thinking also plays a fundamental role in many areas of science.
Computational science applies computing power to simulate real-world situations, enabling a better understanding of scientific problems than formal mathematics alone can achieve. Computational science (or scientific computing) is the field of study concerned with constructing Mathematical models and numerical solution techniques and using computers According to the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, computation is now as important as theory and experiment in advancing scientific knowledge. The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics ( SIAM) was founded by a small group of mathematicians from academia and industry who met in Philadelphia in 
Whether mathematics itself is properly classified as science has been a matter of some debate. Some thinkers see mathematicians as scientists, regarding physical experiments as inessential or mathematical proofs as equivalent to experiments. Others do not see mathematics as a science, since it does not require experimental test of its theories and hypotheses. In practice, mathematical theorems and formulas are obtained by logical derivations which presume axiomatic systems, rather than a combination of empirical observation and method of reasoning that has come to be known as scientific method. In Mathematics, a theorem is a statement proven on the basis of previously accepted or established statements In Mathematics and in the Sciences a formula (plural formulae, formulæ or formulas) is a concise way of expressing information Mathematical logic is a subfield of Logic and Mathematics with close connections to Computer science and Philosophical logic. In traditional Logic, an axiom or postulate is a proposition that is not proved or demonstrated but considered to be either self-evident, or subject A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena In general, mathematics is classified as formal science, while natural and social sciences are classified as empirical sciences. A formal science is a theoretical study that is concerned with theoretical Formal systems, for instance Logic, Mathematics, Systems theory and A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence
The philosophy of science seeks to understand the nature and justification of scientific knowledge. Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions foundations and implications of Science. It has proven difficult to provide a definitive account of the scientific method that can decisively serve to distinguish science from non-science. Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Thus there are legitimate arguments about exactly where the borders are, leading to the problem of demarcation. The demarcation problem in the Philosophy of science is about how and where to draw the lines around Science. There is nonetheless a set of core precepts that have broad consensus among published philosophers of science and within the scientific community at large. The scientific community consists of the total body of Scientists its relationships and interactions
Science is reasoned-based analysis of sensation upon our awareness. In Psychology, sensation is the first stage in the biochemical and neurologic events that begins with the impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a As such, the scientific method cannot deduce anything about the realm of reality that is beyond what is observable by existing or theoretical means. Reality, in everyday usage means "the state of things as they actually exist"  When a manifestation of our reality previously considered supernatural is understood in the terms of causes and consequences, it acquires a scientific explanation. The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events 
Some of the findings of science can be very counter-intuitive. Atomic theory, for example, implies that a granite boulder which appears a heavy, hard, solid, grey object is actually a combination of subatomic particles with none of these properties, moving very rapidly in space where the mass is concentrated in a very small fraction of the total volume. This article focuses on the historical models of the atom For a history of the study of how atoms combine to form molecules see History of the molecule. Particle physics is a branch of Physics that studies the elementary constituents of Matter and Radiation, and the interactions between them Many of humanity's preconceived notions about the workings of the universe have been challenged by new scientific discoveries. Naïve physics or folk physics is the untrained human Perception of basic physical Phenomena. The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy Quantum mechanics, particularly, examines phenomena that seem to defy our most basic postulates about causality and fundamental understanding of the world around us. Quantum mechanics is the study of mechanical systems whose dimensions are close to the Atomic scale such as Molecules Atoms Electrons Science is the branch of knowledge dealing with people and the understanding we have of our environment and how it works.
There are different schools of thought in the philosophy of scientific method. Methodological naturalism maintains that scientific investigation must adhere to empirical study and independent verification as a process for properly developing and evaluating natural explanations for observable phenomena. Philosophical naturalism has been described in various ways In its broadest and strongest sense naturalism is the metaphysical position that "nature is all there is A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data Methodological naturalism, therefore, rejects supernatural explanations, arguments from authority and biased observational studies. The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in Logic called a fallacy In Statistics, an observational study draws inferences about the effect of a treatment on subjects where the assignment of subjects into a treated group versus a Control Critical rationalism instead holds that unbiased observation is not possible and a demarcation between natural and supernatural explanations is arbitrary; it instead proposes falsifiability as the landmark of empirical theories and falsification as the universal empirical method. Critical rationalism is an Epistemological Philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Falsifiability (or "refutability" is the logical possibility that an assertion can be shown false by an observation or a physical experiment Critical rationalism argues for the ability of science to increase the scope of testable knowledge, but at the same time against its authority, by emphasizing its inherent fallibility. In Politics, authority ( Latin Auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to Potestas and Imperium It proposes that science should be content with the rational elimination of errors in its theories, not in seeking for their verification (such as claiming certain or probable proof or disproof; both the proposal and falsification of a theory are only of methodological, conjectural, and tentative character in critical rationalism). A related article is titled Uncertainty. For statistical certainty see Probability. Instrumentalism rejects the concept of truth and emphasizes merely the utility of theories as instruments for explaining and predicting phenomena. In the Philosophy of science, instrumentalism is the view that concepts and theories are merely useful instruments whose worth is measured not by whether the concepts and
Any established body of knowledge which masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy which it would not otherwise be able to achieve on its own terms is not science; it is often known as fringe- or alternative science. Pseudoscience is defined as a body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be Scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the Nonscience is a book which claims to have the longest and most complex title in publishing history Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding Fringe science is scientific Inquiry in an established Field of study which departs significantly from Mainstream or Orthodox The most important of its defects is usually the lack of the carefully controlled and thoughtfully interpreted experiments which provide the foundation of the natural sciences and which contribute to their advancement. Another term, junk science, is often used to describe scientific theories or data which, while perhaps legitimate in themselves, are believed to be mistakenly used to support an opposing position. Junk science is a term used in US political and legal disputes that brands an advocate's claims about scientific Data, Research, There is usually an element of political or ideological bias in the used of the term. Thus the arguments in favor of limiting the use of fossil fuels in order to reduce global warming are often characterized as junk science by those who do not wish to see such restrictions imposed, and who claim that other factors may well be the cause of global warming. A wide variety of commercial advertising (ranging from hype to outright fraud) would also fall into this category. Finally, there is just plain bad science, which is commonly used to describe well-intentioned but incorrect, obsolete, incomplete, or over-simplified expositions of scientific ideas.
The status of many bodies of knowledge as true sciences, has been a matter of debate. Discussion and debate abound in this topic with some fields like the social and behavioural sciences accused by critics of being unscientific. The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies Behavioural science (or Behavioral science) is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among Organisms in the natural Many groups of people from academicians like Nobel Prize physicist Percy W. Bridgman, or Dick Richardson, Ph. Percy Williams Bridgman ( April 21, 1882 &ndash August 20, 1961) was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics D. —Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of Texas at Austin, to politicians like U. S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and other co-sponsors, oppose giving their support or agreeing with the use of the label "science" in some fields of study and knowledge they consider non-scientific, ambiguous, or scientifically irrelevant compared with other fields. Kathryn Ann Bailey Hutchison usually known as Kay Bailey Hutchison (born July 22 1943) is the senior United States Senator from Karl Popper denied the existence of evidence and of scientific method. Sir Karl Raimund Popper ( July 28 1902  &ndash September 17 1994) was an Austrian and British Philosopher and a professor  Popper holds that there is only one universal method, the negative method of trial and error. Trial and error, or trial by error, is a general method of Problem solving for obtaining Knowledge, both Propositional knowledge and Know-how It covers not only all products of the human mind, including science, mathematics, philosophy, art and so on, but also the evolution of life.  He also contributed to the Positivism dispute, a philosophical dispute between Critical rationalism (Popper, Albert) and the Frankfurt School (Adorno, Habermas) about the methodology of the social sciences. Positivismusstreit is the German word for debate about Positivism and labels a well known philosophical dispute between Critical rationalism ( Karl Critical rationalism is an Epistemological Philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist Critical theory, Social research, and Philosophy. 
Historian Jacques Barzun termed science "a faith as fanatical as any in history" and warned against the use of scientific thought to suppress considerations of meaning as integral to human existence. Jacques Martin Barzun (born Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in Fanaticism is an Emotion of being filled with excessive uncritical Zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause or in History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Humanity or mankind is the Human species Human nature (eg Compassion, Altruism) and the Human condition (the totality  Many recent thinkers, such as Carolyn Merchant, Theodor Adorno and E. F. Schumacher considered that the 17th century scientific revolution shifted science from a focus on understanding nature, or wisdom, to a focus on manipulating nature, i. Carolyn Merchant (born 1936 in Rochester, New York) is an American ecofeminist philosopher and historian of science most famous Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno ( September 11, 1903 &ndash August 6, 1969) was a German -born international sociologist Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher ( 16 August 1911 &ndash 4 September 1977) was an internationally influential Economic The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Wisdom is a concept of personal gaining of Knowledge, Understanding, Experience, discretion and intuitive understanding, along with a capacity e. power, and that science's emphasis on manipulating nature leads it inevitably to manipulate people, as well. Power is a measure of a person's ability to control the environment around them including the behavior of other people  Science's focus on quantitative measures has led to critiques that it is unable to recognize important qualitative aspects of the world. 
The implications of the ideological denial of ethics for the practice of science itself in terms of fraud, plagiarism, and data falsification, has been criticized by several academics. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life In "Science and Ethics", the philosopher Bernard Rollin examines the ideology that denies the relevance of ethics to science, and argues in favor of making education in ethics part and parcel of scientific training. Bernard E Rollin is a philosopher widely recognized for his approach to Animal rights, as well as his influence in politics 
The mass media face a number of pressures that can prevent them from accurately depicting competing scientific claims in terms of their credibility within the scientific community as a whole. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Determining how much weight to give different sides in a scientific debate requires considerable expertise on the issue at hand.  Few journalists have real scientific knowledge, and even beat reporters who know a great deal about certain scientific issues may know little about other ones they are suddenly asked to cover. 
Psychologist Carl Jung believed that though science attempted to understand all of nature, the experimental method used would pose artificial, conditional questions that evoke only partial answers.  Robert Anton Wilson criticized science for using instruments to ask questions that produce answers only meaningful in terms of the instrument, and that there was no such thing as a completely objective vantage point from which to view the results of science. Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (born Robert Edward Wilson, January 18, 1932 &ndash January 11, 2007) was an American 
The scientific community consists of the total body of scientists, its relationships and interactions. The scientific community consists of the total body of Scientists its relationships and interactions It is normally divided into "sub-communities" each working on a particular field within science.
Fields of science are commonly classified along two major lines: natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including biological life), and social sciences, which study human behavior and societies. Fields of science are widely-recognized categories of specialized expertise within Science, and typically embody their own Terminology and Nomenclature. In Science, the term natural science refers to a naturalistic approach to the study of the Universe, which is understood as obeying rules or law of Nature, in the broadest sense is equivalent to the natural world, physical universe, material world or material universe. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles The social sciences comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals including Anthropology, Communication studies For the Björk song see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of Behaviors exhibited by Human beings and influenced by A society is a Population of Humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive Culture and Institutions These groupings are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and capable of being experimented for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions. A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence Observation is either an activity of a living being (such as a Human) which senses and assimilates the Knowledge of a Phenomenon, or the recording of data A phenomenon (from Greek φαινόμενoν, pl φαινόμενα - phenomena) is any observable occurrence In scientific inquiry an experiment ( Latin: Ex- periri, "to try out" is a method of investigating particular types of research questions or The term validity (also called logical truth, analytic truth, or necessary truth) as it occurs in Logic refers generally to a property of  There are also related disciplines that are grouped into interdisciplinary and applied sciences, such as engineering and health science. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and Health science is the applied science dealing with Health, and it includes many sub disciplines Within these categories are specialized scientific fields that can include elements of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology and body of expertise. 
Mathematics, which is sometimes classified within a third group of science called formal science, has both similarities and differences with the natural and social sciences. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and A formal science is a theoretical study that is concerned with theoretical Formal systems, for instance Logic, Mathematics, Systems theory and  It is similar to empirical sciences in that it involves an objective, careful and systematic study of an area of knowledge; it is different because of its method of verifying its knowledge, using a priori rather than empirical methods. A central concept in Science and the Scientific method is that all Evidence must be empirical, or empirically based that is dependent on evidence "A priori" redirects here For other uses see A priori.  Formal science, which also includes statistics and logic, is vital to the empirical sciences. A formal science is a theoretical study that is concerned with theoretical Formal systems, for instance Logic, Mathematics, Systems theory and Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Logic is the study of the principles of valid demonstration and Inference. Major advances in formal science have often led to major advances in the physical and biological sciences. The formal sciences are essential in the formation of hypotheses, theories, and laws, both in discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences). A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible The word theory has many distinct meanings in different fields of Knowledge, depending on their methodologies and the context of discussion. A physical law or scientific law is a Scientific generalization based on empirical Observations of physical behavior (i
Learned societies for the communication and promotion of scientific thought and experimentation have existed since the Renaissance period. A learned society is an Organization that exists to promote an Academic discipline or group of disciplines The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere  The oldest surviving institution is the Accademia dei Lincei in Italy. The Accademia dei Lincei, (literally the " Academy of the Lynxes" but also known as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy located Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest  National Academy of Sciences are distinguished institutions that exist in a number of countries, beginning with the British Royal Society in 1660 and the French Académie des Sciences in 1666. An Academy of Sciences is a National academy or another Learned society dedicated to Sciences In non-English speaking countries the range of academic The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as The Royal Society, is a Learned society for science that was founded in 1660 The French Academy of Sciences ( French: Académie des sciences) is a Learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the 
International scientific organizations, such as the International Council for Science, have since been formed to promote cooperation between the scientific communities of different nations. The International Council for Science (ICSU formerly called the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization More recently, influential government agencies have been created to support scientific research, including the National Science Foundation in the U.S.
Other prominent organizations include the academies of science of many nations, CSIRO in Australia, Centre national de la recherche scientifique in France, Max Planck Society and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in Germany, and in Spain, CSIC. The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An Academy of Sciences is a National academy or another Learned society dedicated to Sciences In non-English speaking countries the range of academic The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ( CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (abbreviated DFG, German Research Foundation in English) is an important German research funding organization The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas ( CSIC) Spanish or Spanish National Research Council is the largest public research organisation
An enormous range of scientific literature is published. Scientific literature comprises scientific Publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and Social sciences Scientific literature comprises scientific Publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and Social sciences  Scientific journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other research institutions, serving as an archival record of science. For a broader class of publications which include scientific journals see Academic journal. The first scientific journals, Journal des Sçavans followed by the Philosophical Transactions, began publication in 1665. The Journal des sçavans (later renamed Journal des savants) founded by Denis de Sallo, was the earliest Scientific journal The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil Trans Since that time the total number of active periodicals has steadily increased. As of 1981, one estimate for the number of scientific and technical journals in publication was 11,500. 
Most scientific journals cover a single scientific field and publish the research within that field; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Academic publishing describes the subfield of Publishing which distributes academic Research and Scholarship. Science has become so pervasive in modern societies that it is generally considered necessary to communicate the achievements, news, and ambitions of scientists to a wider populace.
Science magazines such as New Scientist and Scientific American cater to the needs of a much wider readership and provide a non-technical summary of popular areas of research, including notable discoveries and advances in certain fields of research. Science Magazine was a half-hour television show produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation from 1975 to 1979 New Scientist is a weekly International science magazine and website covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English -speaking Scientific American is a Popular science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly since August 28, 1845, making it Science books engage the interest of many more people. A science book is a work of Nonfiction, usually written by a Scientist, Researcher, or Professor like Stephen Hawking ( A Tangentially, the science fiction genre, primarily fantastic in nature, engages the public imagination and transmits the ideas, if not the methods, of science.
Recent efforts to intensify or develop links between science and non-scientific disciplines such as Literature or, more specifically, Poetry, include the Creative Writing <-> Science resource developed through the Royal Literary Fund. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter The Royal Literary Fund is a benevolent fund set up to help published British writers in financial difficulties