A School (from Greek σχολεῖον - scholeion) is an institution designed to allow and encourage students (or "pupils") to learn, under the supervision of teachers. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Institutions are structures and mechanisms of Social order and Cooperation governing the Behavior of a Set of Individuals The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation Verb "studēre" In Education, a teacher is one who helps Students or pupils often in a School, as well as in a Family, religious or Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency Compulsory education is Education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below), but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes
In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also have access to and attend schools both before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3-5). ( German, literally means "children's garden" is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after (or in lieu of) secondary school. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects ATTENTION *** This article is not "Vocational education in the United States" College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is a specialized and often live-in Higher education institution for the purpose of instructing students A school may also be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods. An alternative school (sometimes called a minischool) is an educational establishment with a curriculum and methods that are nontraditional or sometimes ultratraditional
There are also non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be for children with special needs when the government does not supply for them; religious, such as Christian Schools, Khalsa Schools, Torah Schools and others; or schools that have a higher standard of education or seek to foster other personal achievements. A Christian School is a School run on Christian principles or by a Christian organization
In homeschooling and online schools, teaching and learning take place outside of a traditional school building. Homeschooling (also called home education) home learning or homeschool  – is the education of children at home typically by parents or professional Electronic learning (or e-Learning or eLearning) is a type of education where the medium of instruction is computer technology
The use of the term school varies by country, as do the names of the various levels of education within the country. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə.
In the United Kingdom, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions, and these can, for the most part, be divided into pre-schools or nursery schools, primary schools (sometimes further divided into infant school and junior school), and secondary schools. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects A nursery school is a school for children between the ages of three and five staffed by qualified teachers and other professionals who encourage and supervise educational play rather than See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory An Infant school is a type of School which caters for young children usually between the ages of 4 and 7 years A junior school is a type of School which caters for children often between the ages of 4 and 11 Secondary school is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling known as Secondary education, takes There are various types of secondary schools which include grammar schools, comprehensives, secondary moderns and city academies. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries A comprehensive school is a Secondary school and State school for children from the age of 11 to at least 16 that does not select children on the basis of academic A Secondary Modern School is a type of Secondary school that existed in most of the United Kingdom from 1944 until the early 1970s under the Tripartite System In Scotland school performance is monitored by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE in Scotland is an executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for the Inspection Ofsted reports on performance in England and Wales.
In the United Kingdom, most schools are publicly funded and known as state schools or maintained schools in which tuition is provided free. State school is an expression used in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom to distinguish schools provided by the government from privately There are also private schools or independent schools that charge fees. An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying upon private sources for all of its funding predominantly in the form of school fees Some of the most selective and expensive private schools are known as public schools, a usage that can be confusing to speakers of North American English. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in North America, namely in the United States In North American usage, a public school is one that is publicly funded or run. The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and
In much of the Commonwealth of Nations, including Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kenya, and Tanzania, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects
In much of continental Europe, the term school usually applies to primary education, with primary schools that last between six and nine years, depending on the country. Primary education is the first stage of Compulsory education. It also applies to secondary education, with secondary schools often divided between Gymnasiums and vocational schools, which again depending on country and type of school take between three and six years. Australia See also Education A gymnasium (pronounced with ɡ- in several languages is a type of school providing Secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar ATTENTION *** This article is not "Vocational education in the United States" The term school is rarely used for tertiary education, except for some upper or high schools (German: Hochschule) which are used to describe colleges and universities. Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage third level and' post-secondary education', is the educational level following the completion of a school providing College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution.
In North America, the term school can refer to any educational institution at any level, and covers all of the following: preschool (for toddlers), kindergarten, elementary school, middle school (also called intermediate school or junior high school, depending on specific age groups and geographic region), senior high school, college, university, and graduate school. Toddler is a common term for a young Child who is learning to walk or "toddle", generally considered to be the second stage of development after infancy ( German, literally means "children's garden" is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling See also Primary education An elementary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory education known as elementary Middle school or Junior High School serves as a "bridge" between the Elementary School and the High School High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects A graduate school or ("grad school" is a school that awards advanced degrees such as doctoral degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned
In the US, school performance through high school is monitored by each state's Department of Education. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A state education agency (SEA or state department of education, is a formal governmental label for the state-level government agencies within each U Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools. Charter schools are elementary or secondary schools in the United States that receive public money but The terms grammar school and grade school are sometimes used to refer to a primary school. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries
In many countries, Business Schools are colleges providing instruction in business, business administration, and management. A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration
Boarding schools are schools where where students live full-time amongst their peers in dormitories. A boarding school is a School where some or all pupils not only study but also live during term time with their fellow students and possibly teachers A permanent full-time job usually has benefits (such as health insurance however temporary full-time jobs usually do not have benefits Dormitory typically refers in the United States to residence halls which are sleeping quarters or entire buildings primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for Some boarding schools are separated by gender.
Many schools are owned or funded by states. A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographic Area and representing a Population. Private schools are those which are operated independently from the government. For the film of this title see Private School (film. Private schools, or Independent schools are Schools not administered Private schools usually rely on fees from families whose children attend the school for funding; however, sometimes such schools also receive government support (for example, through School vouchers). A school voucher, also called an education voucher, is a certificate issued by the government by which parents can pay for the Education of their children at a Many private schools are affiliated with a particular religion; these are known as parochial schools. Parochial school is one term used (particularly in the United States) to describe a school that engages in Religious education in addition to conventional Education
Schools are organized spaces purposed for teaching and learning. The classrooms, where teachers teach and students learn, are of central importance, but typical schools have many other areas which may include:
The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. A computer lab also known as a Computer Suite is typically a room which contains many networked Computers for public use In its widest sense the history of Education is the history of Teaching and of Learning, and the history of what might be described as the Curricula Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece (see Academy). The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca An academy ( Greek Ἀκαδημία is an institution of higher learning research or honorary membership The Byzantine Empire had an established schooling system beginning at the primary level. According to Traditions and Encounters, the founding of the primary education system began in 425 A. D. and "… military personnel usually had at least a primary education …". A soldier is a general English term that refers to a member of a land component of National Armed forces. The Byzantine education system continued until the empire's collapse in 1453 AD.
Islam was another culture to develop a schooling system in the modern sense of the word, largely brought about by conquests of Greek, Roman and Persian cultures, revealing a wealth of knowledge. Emphasis was put on knowledge and therefore a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge was developed in purpose built structures. At first, mosques combined both religious performance and learning activities, but by the tenth century, the Seljuks introduced the Madrassa, a proper school built independently from the mosque. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. They were also the first to make the Madrassa system a public domain under the control of the caliph. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah The Nizamiyya madrasa is considered by consensus of scholars to be the earliest surviving school, built towards 1066 CE by Emir Nizam Al-Mulk. For info about rulers of Hyderabad state, see the page Nizam state of Hyderabad.
Under the Ottomans, the towns of Bursa and Edirne became the main centers of learning. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Bursa (historically also known as Prussa, Greek: Προύσα and later as Brusa) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the seat Edirne (anc Hadrianopolis; Greek Adrianople; Slavic/Bulgarian Одрин, see also its other names) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost The Ottoman system of Kulliye, a building complex containing a mosque, a hospital, madrassa, and public kitchen and dining areas, revolutionized the education system, making learning accessible to a wider public through its free meals, health care and sometimes free accommodation. Kulliye refers to the regions Songhor سنقر and Koliai ( کلياي) Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing
The nineteenth century historian, Scott holds that a remarkable correspondence exists between the procedure established by those institutions and the methods of the present day. They had their collegiate courses, their prizes for proficiency in scholarship, their oratorical and poetical contests, their commencements and their degrees. In the department of medicine, a severe and prolonged examination, conducted by the most eminent physicians of the capital, was exacted of all candidates desirous of practicing their profession, and such as were unable to stand the test were formally pronounced incompetent.
In Europe during the Middle Ages and much of the Early Modern period, the main purpose of schools (as opposed to universities) was to teach the Latin language. The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the period roughly from 1500 to 1800 in Western Europe ( Early modern Europe) Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. This led to the term grammar school which in the United States is used informally to refer to a primary school but in the United Kingdom means a school that selects entrants on their ability or aptitude. A grammar school is one of several different types of School in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries Following this, the school curriculum has gradually broadened to include literacy in the vernacular language as well as technical, artistic, scientific and practical subjects.
Many of the earlier public schools in the United States were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom. Beginning in the 1920s, one-room schools were consolidated into multiple classroom facilities with transportation increasingly provided by kid hacks and school buses. A kid hack was a Horse -drawn vehicle used for transporting children to school in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States. A school bus is a Bus used to transport Children and Adolescents to and from School and school events
The safety of staff and students is increasingly becoming an issue for school communities, an issue most schools are addressing through improved security. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. After mass shootings such as the Columbine High School massacre and the Virginia Tech incident, many school administrators in the United States have created plans to protect students and staff in the event of a school shooting. The Columbine High School massacre occurred on Tuesday April 20 1999 at Columbine High School in Columbine in unincorporated Jefferson County, The Virginia Tech massacre was a School shooting consisting of two separate attacks approximately two hours apart on April 16 2007 that took place on the campus of School shooting is a term used to refer to Gun violence primarily in educational institutions especially the Mass murder or Spree killing of people connected Some have also taken measures such as installing metal detectors). Metal detectors use Electromagnetic induction to detect Metal. Others have even taken measures such as having the children swipe identification cards as they board the school bus. For some schools, these plans have included the use of door numbering to aid public safety response. Door numbering is the systematic use of letters or numbers to identify individual entrances to a building
Other security concerns faced by schools include bomb threats and the presence of gangs. Gangsters redirects here For the computer game see Gangsters (video game. Bullying is of major concern in many schools. Bullying is the act of intentionally causing harm to others through verbal Harassment, physical Assault, or other more subtle methods of Coercion 
Some schools offer remote access to their classes over the Internet. Online schools also can provide support to traditional schools, as in the case of the School Net Namibia. School Net Namibia is a nonprofit provider of Internet service hardware and training to Namibia 's schools Some online classes provide experience in a class so that when you take it you have already been introduced to the subject and know what to expect, and even more classes provide High School/College credit allowing you to take the class at your own pace. Many online classes cost money to use but some are offered free.
Schools and schoolchildren are frequently portrayed in fiction and the media, ranging from Harry Potter and Grange Hill to Battle Royale. Fiction is the telling of stories which are not real More specifically fiction is an imaginative form of Narrative, one of the four basic Rhetorical modes. "Popular press" redirects here note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press" Harry Potter is a series of seven Fantasy novels written by British author J Grange Hill is a British is a Novel written by Japanese author Koushun Takami. The book (ISBN 4-89392-958-5 was first published in Japan in April 1999, and later formed the basis See List of fictional schools
As a profession, teaching has very high levels of Work-Related Stress (WRS) which are listed as amongst the highest of any profession in some countries, such as the United Kingdom. While real Schools and universities are often prominently featured in works of Fiction, this is a list of schools and universities which are entirely fictional The degree of this problem is becoming increasingly recognised and support systems are being put into place.  Teacher education is increasingly recognizing the need for new entrants to the profession to be aware of and trained to overcome the challenges that they will face on the 'mental health' front. Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip Teachers with the Knowledge, Attitudes Behaviours and Skills
Schools and their teachers have always been under pressure — for instance, pressure to cover the curriculum, to perform well in comparison to other schools, and to avoid the stigma of being "soft" or "spoiling" toward students. Forms of discipline, such as control over when students will and will not speak, and normalized behaviour, such as raising one's hand to speak, are imposed in the name of greater efficiency. Practitoners of critical pedagogy point out that such disciplinary measures have no positive effect on student learning; indeed, some would argue that disciplinary practices actually detract from learning since they undermine students' individual dignity and sense of self-worth, the latter occupying a more primary role in students' hierarchy of needs. Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach which attempts to help students question and challenge Domination, and the beliefs and practices that dominate In Psychology, self-esteem reflects a Person 's overall evaluation or appraisal of her or his own worth Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in Psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which