The saxophone (commonly referred to simply as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument considered a member of the woodwind family. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually The contrabass saxophone is one of the lowest-pitched members of the Saxophone family The bass saxophone is the second largest existing member of the Saxophone family (not counting the subcontrabass Tubax) The baritone saxophone, often called " bari sax " (to avoid confusion with the Baritone horn, which is often referred to simply as "baritone" is The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the Saxophone family a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s The alto saxophone is a member of the Saxophone a family of Woodwind instruments invented by Adolphe Sax. The soprano saxophone was invented in 1840 and is a variety of the Saxophone, a Woodwind instrument. The sopranino saxophone is one of the smallest members of the Saxophone family An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well The C melody saxophone is a Saxophone pitched in the key of C one whole step above the Tenor saxophone. The mezzo-soprano saxophone, also sometimes called the F alto saxophone, is an instrument in the Saxophone family Please see http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/HelpTable if you're having difficulty understanding the syntax used here The bore of a Wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut Saxophones are usually made of brass and are played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to the clarinet. Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties A single-reed instrument is a Woodwind instrument that uses only one reed to produce sound The mouthpiece of a Woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the player's mouth The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The saxophone was invented by Adolphe Sax in the early 1840s, and patented in 1846 in two groups of seven instruments each. Antoine-Joseph 'Adolphe' Sax (November 6 1814 &ndash February 4 1894 was a Belgian Musical instrument designer and Musician ( Clarinetist Each series consisted of instruments of various sizes in alternating transposition. In Music transposition refers to the process of moving a collection of notes ( pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. The series pitched in B♭ and E♭, designed for military bands, has proved extremely popular and most saxophones encountered today are from this series. A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually A few saxophones remain from the less popular orchestral series pitched in C and F. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well
While proving very popular in its intended niche of military band music, the saxophone is most commonly associated with popular music, big band music, blues, and particularly jazz. A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States There is also a substantial repertoire of concert music in the classical idiom for the members of the saxophone family. Saxophone players are called saxophonists. Please see http//enwikipediaorg/wiki/HelpTable if you're having difficulty understanding the syntax used here
The saxophone was developed in the 1840s by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian-born instrument-maker, flautist, and clarinetist working in Paris. Antoine-Joseph 'Adolphe' Sax (November 6 1814 &ndash February 4 1894 was a Belgian Musical instrument designer and Musician ( Clarinetist The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those A flautist, flutist, or flute player is a Musician who plays the Flute. A clarinetist (also spelled clarinettist) is a Musician who plays the Clarinet. While still working at his father's instrument shop in Brussels, Sax began developing an instrument which had the projection of a brass instrument with the mobility of a woodwind. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is Another priority was to create an instrument which, while similar to the clarinet, would overblow at the octave, unlike the clarinet, which rises in pitch by a twelfth when overblown; an instrument which overblew at the octave would have identical fingering for both registers. Overblowing is a technique used in playing a Wind instrument to produce a different pitch by changing the direction and/or force of the air stream In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound In Music theory, the term interval describes the relationship between the pitches of two Notes Intervals may be described as vertical Fingering is the choice of which fingers and hand positions to use when playing a Musical instrument. In Music, a register is the relative "height" or range of a Note, set of pitches or Pitch classes Melody Prior to his work on the saxophone, Sax made several improvements to the bass clarinet by improving its keywork and acoustics and extending its lower range. Sax was also a maker of the then-popular ophicleide, a large conical brass instrument in the bass register with keys similar to a woodwind instrument. The ophicleide ( is a family of conical bore Brass keyed bugles History and playing It is reported to have been invented in 1817 and patented His experience with these two instruments allowed him to developed the skills and technologies needed to make the first saxophones. Adolph sax created an instrument with a single reed mouthpiece like a clarinet, coical brass body like an ophicleide, and the acoustic properties of the flute. Having constructed saxophones in several sizes in the early 1840s, Sax applied for, and received, a 15-year patent for the instrument on June 28, 1846. Events 1098 - Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosul. For the game see 1846 (board game. Year 1846 ( MDCCCXLVI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display  The patent encompassed 14 versions of the fundamental design, split into two categories of seven instruments each and ranging from sopranino to contrabass. In the group Sax envisaged for orchestral work, the instruments transposed at either F or C, while the "military band" group included instruments alternating between E♭ and B♭. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well A transposing instrument is a musical instrument for which written notes are played at a pitch different from concert pitch, which a non-transpositing instrument such as a The orchestral soprano saxophone was the only instrument to sound at concert pitch. Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound All the instruments were given an initial written range from the B below the treble staff to the F three ledger lines above it, giving each saxophone a range of two and a half octaves. A ledger line or leger line is Musical notation to inscribe Notes outside the lines and spaces of the regular Musical staffs A line slightly In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems
Sax's patent expired in 1866; thereafter numerous saxophonists and instrument manufacturers implemented their own improvements to the design and keywork. Antoine-Joseph 'Adolphe' Sax (November 6 1814 &ndash February 4 1894 was a Belgian Musical instrument designer and Musician ( Clarinetist The first substantial modification was by a French manufacturer who extended the bell slightly and added an extra key to extend the range downwards by one semitone to B♭. A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest Musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music and it is considered the It is suspected that Sax himself may have attempted this modification. This extension was adopted into almost all modern designs.
Sax's original keywork was very simplistic and made playing some legato passages and wide intervals extremely difficult to finger, so numerous developers added extra keys and alternate fingerings to make chromatic playing less difficult. While the early saxophone had two separate octave vents to assist in the playing of the upper registers just as modern instruments do, players of Sax's original design had to operate these via two separate octave keys operated by the left thumb. The octave key is a key on a Saxophone or Oboe which raises the pitch of all notes by an Octave when pressed A substantial advancement in saxophone keywork was the development of a method by which both tone holes are operated by a single octave key by the left thumb which is now universal on all modern saxophones. One of the most radical, however temporary, revision of saxophone keywork was made in the 1950s by M. Houvenaghel of Paris, who completely redeveloped the mechanics of the system to allow a number of notes (C♯, B, A, G, F and E♭) to be flattened by a semitone simply by lowering the right middle finger. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city In Music, flat means "lower in pitch" More specifically in Music notation, flat means "lower in pitch by a Semitone A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest Musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music and it is considered the This enables a chromatic scale to be played over two octaves simply by playing the diatonic scale combined with alternately raising and lowering this one digit. In Music theory, a diatonic scale (from the Greek διατονικος, meaning " through tones" also known as the heptatonia prima and  However, this keywork never gained much popularity, and is no longer in use.
The saxophone consists of an approximately conical tube of thin metal, most commonly brass, flared at the tip to form a bell. A cone is a three-dimensional Geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat round base to a point called the apex or vertex A wind instrument is a Musical instrument that contains some type of Resonator (usually a tube in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing At intervals along the tube are between 20 and 23 tone holes of varying size, including two very small 'speaker' holes to assist the playing of the upper register. A tone hole is an opening in the body of a Wind instrument which when covered alters the pitch of the sound produced In Music, a register is the relative "height" or range of a Note, set of pitches or Pitch classes Melody These holes are covered by pads which are capable of pressing the holes to produce an airtight seal; at rest some of the holes stand open and others are closed by pads. The pads can be controlled by a number of keys by the left and right fingers, while the left thumb operates an octave key to open the speaker holes for the upper register. The octave key is a key on a Saxophone or Oboe which raises the pitch of all notes by an Octave when pressed The fingering for the saxophone is a combination of that of the oboe with the Boehm system, and is very similar to the flute or the upper register of the clarinet. "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. The Böhm system for the Clarinet is a system of clarinet keywork developed between 1839 and 1843 by Hyacinthe Klosé and Auguste Buffet ''jeune'' The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its On the larger instruments, the leverage required to play the very lowest notes (which are customarily played with the left and right little fingers) is great enough that additional keywork is introduced to enable these to be played with the thumbs. The little finger, often called the pinky in American English and pinkie in Scottish English (from the Dutch word pink
The simplest design of saxophone is a straight conical tube, and the sopranino and soprano saxophones are usually of this straight design. The sopranino saxophone is one of the smallest members of the Saxophone family The soprano saxophone was invented in 1840 and is a variety of the Saxophone, a Woodwind instrument. However, as the lower-pitched instruments would be unacceptably lengthy if straight, the larger instruments usually incorporate a U-bend at or slightly above the third-lowest tone hole. As this would cause the bell of the instrument to point almost directly upwards, the end of the instrument is either beveled or tilted slightly forwards. This U-shape has become an iconic feature of the saxophone family, to the extent that soprano and even sopranino saxes are sometimes made in the curved style even though this is not strictly necessary. For other uses of the term see Icon (disambiguation. For a list of icons for use on Wikipedia see WikipediaIcons. By contrast, tenors and even baritones have occasionally been made in the straight style. The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the Saxophone family a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s The baritone saxophone, often called " bari sax " (to avoid confusion with the Baritone horn, which is often referred to simply as "baritone" is  Most commonly, however, the alto and tenor saxophones incorporate a curved 'crook' above the highest tone hole but below the top speaker hole, tilting the mouthpiece through 90 degrees; the baritone, bass and contrabass extend the length of the bore mainly by double-folding this section. The alto saxophone is a member of the Saxophone a family of Woodwind instruments invented by Adolphe Sax.
Nearly all saxophones, past and present, are made from brass. Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties Despite this, they are categorized as woodwind instruments rather than brass due to the fact that the sound waves are produced by an oscillating reed, not the player's lips against a mouthpiece as in a brass instrument, and the fact that different pitches are produced by opening and closing keys. Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut A brass instrument is a Musical instrument whose tone is produced by vibration of the lips as the player blows into a tubular Resonator. Brass is used to make the body of the instrument; the pad cups; the rods that connect the pads to the keys; the keys themselves and the posts that hold the rods and keys in place. The screw pins that connect the rods to the posts, and the needle springs and leaf springs that cause the keys to return to their rest position after being released, are generally made of blued or stainless steel. Originally called laminated or carriage spring, a leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Since 1920, nearly all saxophones have 'key touches' (smooth decorative pieces placed where the fingers will touch the instrument) made of either plastic or mother of pearl. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Nacre, also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic Composite material produced by some Mollusks as an inner shell layer
Other materials have been tried with varying degrees of success, as with the 1950s plastic saxophones made by the Grafton company, and the rare wooden saxophones. Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products The Grafton saxophone was an injection moulded cream-coloured plastic Alto saxophone manufactured by the Grafton company and later by 'John Dallas Ltd' A few companies, such as Yanagisawa, have made some saxophone models from phosphor bronze. Yanagisawa Wind Instruments is a Japanese woodwind company known for its range of student intermediate and professional grade Saxophones Along with Yamaha they are Phosphor bronze is an Alloy of Copper with 35 to 10% of Tin and a significant Phosphorus content of up to 1% They and some other manufacturers have made saxophone necks or entire instruments from Sterling silver, copper, nickel silver or synthetic materials. Sterling silver is an Alloy of Silver containing 925% pure silver and 7 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Nickel silver is a metal Alloy of Copper with Nickel and often but not always Zinc. Cannonball Saxophones of Salt Lake City, Utah nearly exclusively uses alternative materials in their manufacturing processes including extensive use of black anodized nickel plating. Anodizing, or anodising, is an electrolytic Passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural Oxide layer on the surface of metal Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 
After completing the instrument, manufacturers apply a thin coating of clear or colored acrylic lacquer, or silver plate, over the bare brass. In a general sense lacquer is a clear or coloured Varnish, that dries by solvent evaporation and often a curing process as well that produces a hard durable finish in any Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen Plating describes surface-covering where a Metal is deposited on a conductive surface The lacquer or plating serves to protect the brass from corrosion, and gives the instrument a pleasing appearance. Several different types and colors of surface finish have been used over the years.  It is also possible to plate the instrument with nickel or gold, and a number of gold-plated saxophones have been produced. Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79  It is commonly claimed that the type of lacquer or plating, or absence thereof, may enhance an instrument's tone quality; the possible effects of different finishes on tone is a hotly debated topic. 
The saxophone uses a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet, but the saxophone mouthpiece is larger, has a wider inner chamber and lacks the cork-covered tenon of a clarinet mouthpiece because the saxophone neck inserts into the mouthpiece whereas the clarinet mouthpiece piece is inserted into the barrel. The mouthpiece of a Woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the player's mouth A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a Musical instrument. The mouthpiece of a Woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the player's mouth The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The most important difference between a saxophone mouthpiece and a clarinet mouthpiece is that the saxophone mouthpiece should enter the mouth at a much lower or flatter angle than the clarinet. Mouthpieces come in a wide variety of materials, including vulcanized rubber (sometimes called rod rubber or ebonite), plastic, and metals such as bronze or surgical steel. The mouthpiece of a Woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the player's mouth Vulcanization (or Vulcanisation refers to a specific curing process of Rubber involving high heat and the addition of Sulfur or other equivalent curatives Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Bronze is any of a broad range of Copper alloys, usually with Tin as the main additive but sometimes with other elements such as Phosphorus Surgical stainless steel is an specific type of Stainless steel, used in medical applications Less common materials that have been used include wood, glass, crystal, porcelain, and even bone. According to Larry Teal, the mouthpiece material has little, if any, effect on the sound, and the physical dimensions give a mouthpiece its tone colour. Larry Teal (1905-1984 was a noted Saxophone teacher Teal became the first full-time professor of saxophone at any American university when he was appointed to the faculty  Mouthpieces with a concave ("excavated") chamber are more true to Adolphe Sax's original design; these provide a softer or less piercing tone, and are favored by some saxophonists, including students of Sigurd Raschèr, for classical playing. Sigurd Manfred Raschèr (pronounced 'Rah-sher' ( 15 May 1907 in Elberfeld, Germany - 25 February 2001 in Shushan Conversely, mouthpieces with a smaller chamber or lower clearance above the reed, called high baffle, produce a brighter sound with maximum projection and are favored by many jazz and funk players. Most skilled saxophonists settle on a mouthpiece somewhere between these extremes regardless of their primary idiom and most that play both jazz and classical music have different equipment for each.
Like clarinets, saxophones use a single reed. The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a Musical instrument. Saxophone reeds are proportioned slightly differently to clarinet reeds, being wider for the same length. Each size of saxophone (alto, tenor, etc. ) uses a different size of reed. Reeds are commercially available in a vast array of brands, styles, and strengths. Each player experiments with reeds of different strength (hardnesses) to find which strength and cut that suits his or her mouthpiece, embouchure tendencies and playing style.
The saxophone was originally patented as a group of 14 instruments in two families. The orchestral family consisted of instruments in the keys of C and F, and the military band family in E♭ and B♭. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually Each family consisted of sopranino, soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass and contrabass instruments, alternating in transposition. In Music transposition refers to the process of moving a collection of notes ( pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. While all seven members of the military band family are still relatively common, the orchestral group was less successful; Adolphe Sax's personal rivalry with influential German composer Wilhelm Wieprecht may have been partially responsible for the complete failure of the saxophone in orchestral music. Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht ( August 10, 1802 - August 4, 1872) German musical conductor composer and inventor was born at Only the orchestral tenor and soprano saxes, both pitched in C and therefore able to easily play music written for strings or voice, attained any popularity; the tenor was popularized by players such as Rudy Wiedoeft and Frankie Trumbauer, but did not secure a permanent place in either jazz or classical music. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Vocal music is Music performed by one or more Singers with or without non-vocal instrumental accompaniment Rudolph "Rudy" Cornelius Wiedoeft ( January 3, 1893 - February 18, 1940) was a U Frankie (Tram Trumbauer ( 30 May 1901 &ndash 11 June 1956) was one of the leading Jazz Saxophonists of the 1920s and 1930s In the early 20th century, the orchestral soprano was marketed to those who wished to perform oboe parts in military band, vaudeville arrangements, or church hymnals. A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually Vaudeville was a Genre of variety entertainment prevalent on the stage in the United States and Canada, from the early 1880s None have been produced since the late 1920s. The orchestral alto, produced by the American firm Conn during the period 1928–1929, is now extremely rare; most remaining examples are in the possession of serious instrument collectors. Adolphe Sax made a few F baritone prototypes, but no serious F baritones were manufactured. There are no known remaining specimens of the bass saxophone in C, the first saxophone constructed and exhibited by Sax in the early 1840s, or the sopranino in F, despite Ravel's scoring for the instrument in Bolero. The only known F alto made by Sax himself known to exist is owned by retired Canadian classical saxophonist Paul Brodie. The saxophone (commonly referred to simply as sax) is a conical- bored transposing Musical instrument considered a member of the Woodwind Paul Brodie ( 10 April 1934 &ndash 19 November 2007) was a Canadian Saxophonist.
The saxophone first gained popularity in the niche it was designed for: the military band. A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually Although the instrument was studiously ignored in Germany, French and Belgian military bands took full advantage of the instrument that Sax had designed specifically for them. Most French and Belgian military bands incorporate at least a quartet of saxophones comprising at least the E♭ baritone, B♭ tenor, E♭ alto and B♭ soprano. These four instruments have proved the most popular of all of Sax's creations, with the E♭ contrabass and B♭ bass usually considered impractically large and the E♭ sopranino insufficiently powerful. British military bands tend to include at minimum two saxophonists on the alto and tenor.
The saxophone has more recently found a niche in both concert band and big band music, which often calls for the E♭ baritone, B♭ tenor and E♭ alto. A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late The B♭ soprano is also occasionally utilised, in which case it will normally be played by the first alto saxophonist. The bass saxophone in B♭ is called for in band music (especially music by Percy Grainger) and big band orchestrations, especially music performed by the Stan Kenton "Mellophonium Orchestra". George Percy Grainger (8 July 1882&ndash20 February 1961 was an Australian born Composer, Pianist and champion of the Saxophone and the Stanley Newcomb Kenton ( December 15, 1911 – August 25, 1979) was a pianist who led a highly innovative influential and often controversial The mellophone is a Brass instrument that is typically used in place of the horn (sometimes called a French horn in Marching bands or Drum In the 1920s the bass saxophone was used often in classic jazz recordings, since at that time it was easier to record than a tuba or double bass. It is also used in the original score (and movie) of Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes West Side Story is a musical by Arthur Laurents (book Leonard Bernstein (music and Stephen Sondheim (lyrics The saxophone has been more recently introduced into the symphony orchestra, where it has found increased popularity. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well In one or other size, the instrument has been found a useful accompaniment to genres as wide-ranging as opera, choral music and chamber pieces. Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto For the musical composition see Chorale. A choir, chorale, or chorus is a Musical ensemble of Singers Chamber music is a form of Classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber Many musical scores include parts for the saxophone, usually assigned to the second or third reed. Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance.
By far the most well known, and iconic, implementation of the saxophone is in modern jazz music, usually in the form of a saxophone quartet or larger ensemble. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States
The saxophone quartet is usually made up of one B♭ soprano, one E♭ alto, one B♭ tenor and one E♭ baritone. The soprano saxophone was invented in 1840 and is a variety of the Saxophone, a Woodwind instrument. The alto saxophone is a member of the Saxophone a family of Woodwind instruments invented by Adolphe Sax. The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the Saxophone family a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s The baritone saxophone, often called " bari sax " (to avoid confusion with the Baritone horn, which is often referred to simply as "baritone" is On occasion, the soprano is replaced with a second alto sax; a few professional saxophone quartets have featured non-standard instrumentation, such as James Fei's Alto Quartet (four altos) and Hamiet Bluiett's Bluiett Baritone Nation (four baritones). James Cheng Ting Fei ( Chinese name 費[[wikt 正|正]] 廷; pinyin Fèi Zhèngtíng b Hamiet Bluiett (b Brooklyn (or Lovejoy Illinois, September 16, 1940) is an American jazz saxophonist clarinetist and composer
There is a repertoire of classical compositions and arrangements for the soprano-alto-tenor-baritone instrumentation dating back to the nineteenth century, particularly by French composers who knew Adolphe Sax. The Raschèr, Amherst, Aurelia, Amstel and Rova Saxophone Quartets are among the best known groups. The Raschèr Saxophone Quartet is a professional ensemble of four saxophonists which performs classical and modern Music. The Rova Saxophone Quartet is a San Francisco -based Saxophone quartet formed in October 1977 at the same time as their "less adventurous" but better known Historically, the quartets led by Marcel Mule and Daniel Deffayet, saxophone professors at the Conservatoire de Paris, were started in 1928 and 1953, respectively, and were highly regarded. Marcel Mule ( June 24, 1901 &ndash December 19, 2001) was a French classical Saxophonist. The Conservatoire de Paris is an institution of higher education that has played an important role in the development of Music in France and Western Europe The Mule quartet is often considered to be the prototype for all future quartets due the level of virtuosity demonstrated by its members and its central role in the development of the quartet repertoire. However organised quartets did exist before Mule's ensemble, the prime example being the quartet headed by Eduard Lefebre (1834-1911), former soloist with the Sousa band, in the United States c1904-1911. John Philip Sousa ( November 6, 1854 &ndash March 6, 1932) was an American Composer and conductor of the late Other ensembles most likely existed at this time as part of the saxophone sections of the many touring "business" bands that existed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. More recently, the World Saxophone Quartet has become known as the preeminent jazz saxophone quartet. The World Saxophone Quartet is an Avant-garde jazz group founded in 1977 implementing elements of Free funk and African jazz into their musical routines The Rova Saxophone Quartet, based in San Francisco, is noted for its work in the fields of contemporary classical music and improvised music. The Rova Saxophone Quartet is a San Francisco -based Saxophone quartet formed in October 1977 at the same time as their "less adventurous" but better known Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to a period that started in the mid-1970s with the retreat of modernism.
There are a few larger all-saxophone ensembles, the most prominent including the 9-member SaxAssault, and Urban Sax, which includes as many as 52 saxophonists. Urban Sax is an ensemble founded by the French composer Gilbert Artman made up of massive numbers of saxophones accompanied by percussion and sometimes voices The 6-member Nuclear Whales Saxophone Orchestra owns one of the few E♭ contrabass saxophones, and plays a variety of ensemble pieces including "Casbah Shuffle", a duet for sopranino and contrabass. The Nuclear Whales Saxophone Orchestra are a group of six American saxophonists who play as a Saxophone ensemble in recordings and live performance The contrabass saxophone is one of the lowest-pitched members of the Saxophone family A duet is a Musical composition or piece for two Performers In Classical music the term is most often used for a composition for two singers The sopranino saxophone is one of the smallest members of the Saxophone family  Very large groups, featuring over 100 saxophones, are sometimes organized as a novelty at saxophone conventions. 
The "contralto" saxophone, similar in size to the orchestral soprano, was developed in the late 20th century by California instrument maker Jim Schmidt.  This instrument has a larger bore and a new fingering system, and does not resemble the C melody instrument except for its key and register. Another new arrival to the novelty sax scene is the soprillo sax, a piccolo-sized straight instrument which has the upper speaker hole built into the mouthpiece. Soprillo is the brand name of a piccolo or Sopranissimo Saxophone, the smallest saxophone in the family. The piccolo is a small Flute. Like the flute the piccolo is normally pitched in the key of C one octave above the concert flute (making it effectively a sopranino The instrument, which extends Sax's original family as it is pitched a full octave higher than the B♭ soprano sax, is manufactured by Benedikt Eppelsheim, of Munich, Germany. There is a rare prototype slide tenor saxophone, but few were ever made. One known company that produced a slide soprano saxophone was Reiffel & Husted, Chicago, ca. 1922 (catalog NMM 5385). 
A number of saxophone-related instruments have appeared since Sax's original work, most enjoying no significant success. These include the saxello, essentially a straight B♭ soprano, but with a slightly curved neck and tipped bell; the straight alto; and the straight B♭ tenor. ) Since a straight-bore tenor is approximately five feet long, the cumbersome size of such a design makes it almost impossible to either play or transport. "King" Saxellos, made by the H. N. White Company in the 1920s, now command prices up to US$4,000. A number of companies, including Rampone & Cazzani and L. A. Sax, are marketing straight-bore, tipped-bell soprano saxophones as saxellos (or "saxello sopranos").
The tubax, developed in 1999 by the German instrument maker Benedikt Eppelsheim, plays the same range, and with the same fingering, as the E♭ contrabass saxophone; its bore, however, is narrower than that of a contrabass saxophone, making for a more compact instrument with a "reedier" tone (akin to the double-reed contrabass sarrusophone). The tubax is a modified Saxophone developed in 1999 by the German instrument maker Benedikt Eppelsheim. Benedikt Eppelsheim is a world-renowned German maker of high- and low-voiced Saxophones the Soprillo ( Sopranissimo) and Tubax ( The sarrusophone is a family of transposing Musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856 It can be played with the smaller (and more commonly available) baritone saxophone mouthpiece and reeds. Eppelsheim has also produced subcontrabass tubaxes in C and B♭, the latter being the lowest saxophone ever made. Among the most recent developments is the aulochrome, a double soprano saxophone invented by Belgian instrument maker François Louis in 2001. The aulochrome is a new Woodwind instrument invented by Belgian François Louis in 2001. The aulochrome is a new Woodwind instrument invented by Belgian François Louis in 2001.
Although not true saxophones, inexpensive keyless folk versions of the saxophone made of bamboo were developed in the 20th century by instrument makers in Hawaii, Jamaica, Thailand, Indonesia, and Argentina. Bamboo is a group of Woody perennial Evergreen Plants in the True grass family Poaceae, subfamily The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. The Hawaiian instrument, called a xaphoon, was invented during the 1970s and is also marketed as a "bamboo sax," although its cylindrical bore more closely resembles that of a clarinet, and its lack of any keywork makes it more akin to a recorder. The Xaphoon (also known as Maui Xaphoon or Bamboo Sax) is a single-reed keyless Bamboo wind instrument The bore of a Wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds The recorder is a woodwind Musical instrument of the family known as Fipple Flutes ' or internal duct flutes &mdash whistle-like Jamaica's best known exponent of a similar type of homemade bamboo "saxophone" was the mento musician and instrument maker 'Sugar Belly' (William Walker). The article is about the Jamaican musical style For the DC comics character see Mento (comics.  In the Minahasa region of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, there exist entire bands made up of bamboo "saxophones" and "brass" instruments of various sizes. The Minahasa (alternative spelling Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an Ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia Sulawesi (formerly known as Celebes, ˈsɛlɛbiz is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the These instruments are clever imitations of European instruments, made using local materials. Very similar instruments are produced in Thailand.  In Argentina, Ángel Sampedro del Río and Mariana García have produced bamboo saxophones of various sizes since 1985, the larger of which have bamboo keys to allow for the playing of lower notes. audio
Music for all sizes of saxophone is usually notated using treble clef. A clef (from the French for "key" is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes. The standard written range extends from a B♭ below the staff to an F or F♯ three ledger lines above the staff. There are a few models of soprano saxophone that have a key for high G, and several models of baritone saxophone have an extended bore and key to produce low A; it is also possible to play a low A on any saxophone by blocking the end of the bell, usually with the foot or inside of the left thigh. Notes above F are considered part of the altissimo register of any sax, and can be produced using advanced embouchure techniques and fingering combinations. For Italian commune see Altissimo (commune. For the politician see Renato Altissimo. Sax himself had mastered these techniques; he demonstrated the instrument as having a range of just beyond three octaves up to a (written) high B4. In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems
Because all saxophones use the same key arrangement and fingering to produce a given notated pitch, it is not difficult for a competent player to switch among the various sizes when the music has been suitably transposed. Since the baritone and alto are pitched in E♭, players can read concert pitch music notated in the bass clef by reading it as if it were treble clef and adding three sharps to the key signature. A clef (from the French for "key" is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes. In Music, sharp means higher in pitch More specifically in Musical notation, sharp means "higher in pitch by a Semitone (half step" In Musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently This process, referred to as clef substitution, makes it possible for the baritone or alto to play from parts written for bassoon, tuba, trombone or string bass. The bassoon is a Woodwind instrument in the Double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and Tenor registers and occasionally Mediatubaogg -->The tuba is the largest and lowest pitched Brass instrument. The trombone is a Musical instrument in the brass family Like all brass instruments it is a lip-reed Aerophone: sound is produced when the player’s The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. This can be useful if a band or orchestra lacks one of those instruments