|المملكة العربية السعودية|
al-Mamlaka al-‘Arabiyya as-Su’ūdiyya
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
|Motto: "There is no god but God; Muhammad is His messenger" (the Kalima)|
|Anthem: "Aash Al Maleek"|
"Long live the King"
(and largest city)
|Demonym||Saudi, Saudi Arabian|
|-||King||Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz|
|-||Crown Prince||Sultan bin Abdul Aziz|
|-||Kingdom declared||January 8, 1926|
|-||Recognized||May 20, 1927|
|-||Unified||September 23, 1932|
|-||Total||2,149,690 km² (14th)|
829,996 sq mi
|-||2007 estimate||27,601,038 (46th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2007 estimate|
|-||Total||$446 billion (27th)|
|-||Per capita||$21,200 (41st)|
|HDI (2004)||▲ 0. The flag of Saudi Arabia is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since March 15, 1973. The Saudi Arabian Coat of arms ( شعار السعودية) was adopted in 1950 A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group See also Shahadah The Six Kalimas (or Six "Words" are recorded in various books of knowledge and are recited (and remembered by Muslims across the A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's For Jordanian Royal Anthem with the same name ( عاش المليك) see As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni. Saudi Arabia 's July 2006 population is estimated to be over 27 million including about 5 Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. Absolute monarchy is a monarchical Form of government where the king and queen have absolute power over everything The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia 's Head of state and Absolute monarch. Khaled bin Abdullah Mutaib bin Abdullah Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah Faisal bin Abdullah Crown Princess redirects here for the ship see Crown Princess (ship. Khalid Bandar Fahad Turki The rise of Islam in the 620s AD, the subsequent religious importance of the Arabian cities of Makkah ( Makkah al-Mukarramah, or Mecca) and Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1932 ( MCMXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different surface Areas here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km² This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 812 (high) (61)|
|Time zone||AST (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||(not observed) (UTC+3)|
|1||Population estimate includes 5,576,076 non-nationals. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The riyal ( Arabic: ريال ISO 4217 code SAR) is the currency of Saudi Arabia. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E|
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia or KSA (Arabic: المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) It is bordered by Jordan on the northwest, Iraq on the north and northeast, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed Qatar ( قطر; ˈqɑtˁɑr local pronunciation giṭar officially the State of Qatar (Arabic دولة قطر transliterated The Kingdom of Bahrain (in مملكة البحرين,, literally Kingdom of the Two Seas) is an Island country in the Persian Gulf Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya The Persian Gulf lies to the northeast and the Red Sea to its west. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. It has an estimated population of 27. 6 million, and its size is approximately 2,150,000 square km (830,000 square miles).
The Kingdom is sometimes called "The Land of The Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Mecca and Medina, the two holiest places in Islam. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In English, it is most commonly referred to as Saudi Arabia (pronounced /ˈsɒdɪ/ or /ˈsaʊdɪ əˈɹeɪbɪə/). The Kingdom was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, whose efforts began in 1902 when he captured the Al-Saud’s ancestral home of Riyadh, and culminated in 1932 with the proclamation, and recognition of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city
Saudi Arabia is the world's leading petroleum exporter and petroleum exports fuel the Saudi economy. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities  Oil accounts for more than 90 percent of exports and nearly 75 percent of government revenues, facilitating the creation of a welfare state, which the government has found difficult to fund during periods of low oil prices. This article refers specifically to the Welfare state of the United Kingdom. This article is about the price of crude oil see Gasoline usage and pricing for information about derivative motor fuels  Human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have repeatedly expressed concern about the state of human rights in Saudi Arabia, although these concerns have been dismissed by the Saudi government. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. Human rights in Saudi Arabia are based on Sharia Religious laws under rule of the Saudi royal family.
Although the region in which the country stands today has an ancient history, the emergence of the Saudi dynasty began in central Arabia in 1744. The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and Codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from 4 February The history of Pre- Islamic Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s is not known in great detail That year, Muhammad ibn Saud, the ruler of the town of Ad-Dir'iyyah near Riyadh, joined forces with a cleric, Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, to create a new political entity. Abdul Aziz Faysal Saud Ali Abdallah "Imam" Muhammad ibn Saud Al-Diriyah ( الدرعية; also spelled Ad-Dir'iyah, Ad-Dar'iyah or Dir'aiyah) is a town in Saudi Arabia located on the northwestern Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab at-Tamimi' (1703&ndash1792 ( Arabic: محمد بن عبد الوهاب التميمي)was an Islamic scholar born in This alliance formed in the 18th century remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today. Over the next 150 years, the fortunes of the Saud family rose and fell several times as Saudi rulers contended with Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and other Arabian families for control on the peninsula (see First Saudi State and Second Saudi State). This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 A The Second Saudi State refers to the period in the 19th century when the rule of the House of Saud was restored to central and eastern Arabia after having previously The third and current Saudi state was founded in the early 20th century by King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (known internationally as Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud). King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad
In 1902 at the age of only 22, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud re-captured Riyadh, the Al-Saud dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al Rashid family. Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city The House of Rashid ( ar آل رشيد) were a historic dynasty of the Arabian Peninsula, and the most formidable enemies of the House of Saud Continuing his conquests, Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa, Al-Qatif, the rest of Nejd, and Hejaz between 1913 and 1926. This article refers to the traditional region of Al-Hasa For the current Saudi Arabian administrative unit sometimes called Al-Hasa see Al-Ahsa (governorate. For other uses see Katif. Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; القطيف Al-Qaṭīf Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula. al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia On 8 January 1926 Abdul Aziz bin Saud became the King of Hejaz. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On 29 January 1927 he took the title King of Nejd (his previous Nejdi title was Sultan). Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. By the Treaty of Jeddah, signed on 20 May 1927, the United Kingdom recognized the independence of Abdul Aziz's realm, then known as the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz. There have been two treaties known as the Treaty of Jedda, after the Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah 1927 The 1927 Treaty of Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In 1932, the principal regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz were unified to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Abdul Aziz's military and political successes were not mirrored economically until vast reserves of oil were discovered in March 1938. Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Development programmes, which were delayed due to the onset of the Second World War in 1939, began in earnest in 1946 and by 1949 production was in full swing. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Oil has provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and a great deal of leverage in the international community.
Prior to his death in 1953 Abdul Aziz, aware of the difficulties facing other regional absolute rulers reliant on extended family networks, attempted to regulate the succession.
Saud succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1953. However, by the early 1960s the Kingdom was in jeopardy due to Saud's economic mismanagement and failure to deal effectively with a regional challenge from Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the elected Head of State of Egypt. Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President As a consequence Saud was deposed in favour of Faisal in 1964.
Intra-family rivalry was one of the factors that led to the assassination of Faisal by his nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musa'id, in 1975. Faisal bin Musa'id bin Abdul Aziz ( April 4, 1944, Riyadh - June 18 1975, Riyadh (فيصل بن مساعد بن عبد العزيز He was succeeded by King Khalid until 1982 and then by King Fahd. Bandar bin Khalid Abdallah bin Khalid Al-Jauhara bint Khalid Nuf bint Khalid Mudhi bint King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, ( 1921 - August 1, 2005) was the King of the Kingdom When Fahd died in 2005, his half-brother Abdullah ascended to the throne. Khaled bin Abdullah Mutaib bin Abdullah Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah Faisal bin Abdullah
The kingdom occupies about 80 percent of the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a country situated in Southwest Asia, largest country of Arabia, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-jazīra al-ʻarabīya or جزيرة العرب jazīrat al-ʻarab) In 2000 Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed an agreement to settle their long-running border dispute.  A significant length of the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates, and Oman, are not precisely defined or marked, so the exact size of the country remains unknown. Oman, officially the Sultanate of Oman ( Arabic: سلطنة عُمان) is an Arab Country in Southwest Asia on the southeast The Saudi government's estimate is 2,217,949 km² (856,356 miles²). Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Other reputable estimates vary between 1,960,582 km² (756,934 mi²) and 2,240,000 km² (864,869 mi²). The kingdom is commonly listed as the world's 14th largest state.
Saudi Arabia's geography is varied. From the western coastal region (Tihamah), the land rises from sea level to a peninsula-long mountain range (Jabal al-Hejaz) beyond which lies the plateau of Nejd in the center. al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia Nejd or Najd (literally "highland" نجد) is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula. The southwestern 'Asir region has mountains as high as 3,000 m (9,840 ft) and is known for having the greenest and freshest climate in all of the country, one that attracts many Saudis to resorts such as Abha in the summer months. ʿAsīr ( عسير) is a province of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country Abha (أبها is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. The east is primarily rocky or sandy lowland continuing to the shores of the Persian Gulf. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the The geographically hostile Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") desert along the country's imprecisely defined southern borders contains almost no life. The Rub' al Khali ( Arabic: الربع الخالي which translates as Empty Quarter in English, is one of the largest sand Deserts in the
Mostly uninhabited, much of the nation's landmass consists of desert and semi-arid regions, with a dwindling traditional Bedouin population. A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. A Semi-arid climate or steppe climate generally describes climatic regions that receive low annual Rainfall (250-500 mm or 10-20 in The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously In these parts of the country, vegetation is limited to weeds, xerophytic herbs and shrubs. A xerophyte or xerophytic organism ( xero meaning dry phyte meaning plant is a Plant which is able to survive in an ecosystem with little available Less than two percent of the kingdom's total area is arable land. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for Population centers are mainly located along the eastern and western coasts and densely populated interior oases such as Hofuf and Buraydah. Al-Hofuf also Hofuf or Al-Hufuf ( الهفوف) is the major urban center in the huge Al-Ahsa Oasis in the Eastern Province of Buraydah (Arabic burayda 'بريدة' or Buraidah is the capital of Al-Qassim Province in northcentral Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula In some extended areas, primarily the Rub' al-Khali and the Arabian Desert, there is no population whatsoever, although the petroleum industry is constructing a few planned communities there. The Arabian Desert is a vast Desert wilderness stretching from Yemen to the Persian Gulf and Oman to Jordan and Iraq. Saudi Arabia has no permanent year-round rivers or lakes; however, its coastline extends for 2640 km (1640 miles) and, on the Red Sea side, offers world-class coral reefs, including those in the Gulf of Aqaba. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. The Gulf of Aqaba ( Arabic: خليج العقبة transliterated: Khalyj al-'Aqabah in Israel known as the Gulf of Eilat ( Hebrew
Native animals include the ibex, wildcats, baboons, wolves, and hyenas in the mountainous highlands. An ibex, commonly called by its French name bouquetin also called Steinbock in German an individual of any of several species of wild mountain goats (genus The Wildcat ( Felis silvestris) sometimes Wild Cat or Wild-cat, is a small felid native to Europe, the western part of Asia The baboons are African Old World monkeys belonging to the genus Papio, part of the subfamily Cercopithecinae. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The Hyaenidae is a Mammalian family of order Carnivora. The Hyaenidae family native to both African and Asian continents consists of four Small birds are found in the oases. In Geography, an oasis (plural oases) or Cienega ( Southwestern United States) is an isolated area of vegetation in a Desert, typically The coastal area on the Red Sea with its coral reefs has a rich marine life. Coral reefs are Aragonite structures produced by living organisms found in marine waters with little to no nutrients in the water Marine biology is the scientific study of living Organisms in the Ocean or other marine or Brackish bodies of water
Extreme heat and aridity are characteristic of most of Saudi Arabia. It is one of the few places in the world where summer temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F) have been recorded, 51. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 7C (124F) being the highest ever recorded temperature. In winter, frost or snow can occur in the interior and the higher mountains, although this only occurs once or twice in a decade. Lowest ever recorded temperature is -12. 0C recorded at Turaif. The average winter temperature range is 8° to 20 °C (47° to 68 °F) in January in interior cities such as Riyadh and 19° to 29 °C (66° to 83 °F) in Jeddah on the Red Sea coast. Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the The average summer range in July is 27° to 43 °C (81° to 109 °F) in Riyadh and 27° to 38 °C (80° to 100 °F) in Jeddah. Nighttime temperatures in the central deserts can be famously chilly even in summer, as the sand gives up daytime heat rapidly once the sun has set. Annual precipitation is usually sparse (up to 100 mm or 4 inches in most regions), although sudden downpours can lead to violent flash floods in wadis. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic lowlying areas - washes rivers and streams Wadi (وادي) (also Vadi) is traditionally a valley In some cases it can refer to a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain Annual rainfall in Riyadh averages 100 mm (4 inches) and falls almost exclusively between January and May; the average in Jeddah is 54 mm (2. 1 inches) and occurs between November and January.
The central institution of the Saudi Arabian government is the Saudi monarchy. The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in a framework of an Absolute monarchy whereby the King of Saudi Arabia is not only Head of state, but also the Khaled bin Abdullah Mutaib bin Abdullah Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah Faisal bin Abdullah The House of Saud ( Arabic: آل سعود romanized Āl Suʿūd is the Royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Basic Law of Government adopted in 1992 declared that Saudi Arabia is a monarchy ruled by the sons and grandsons of the first king, Abd Al Aziz Al Saud. King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad It also claims that the Qur'an is the constitution of the country, which is governed on the basis of the Sharia (Islamic Law). The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity According to The Economist's Democracy Index, the Saudi government is the ninth most authoritarian regime in the world. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London The Economist has in a study examined the state of Democracy in 167 countries and attempted to quantify this with an Economist Intelligence Unit Index of Democracy
There are no recognized political parties or national elections, except the local elections which were held in the year 2005 when participation was reserved for male citizens only.  The king's powers are theoretically limited within the bounds of Shari'a and other Saudi traditions. He also must retain a consensus of the Saudi royal family, religious leaders (ulema), and other important elements in Saudi society. Ulema ( ar علماء,, singular ar عالِم,, "scholar" refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several The Saudi government spreads Islam by funding construction of mosques and Qur'an schools around the world. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. The leading members of the royal family choose the king from among themselves with the subsequent approval of the ulema.
Saudi kings have gradually developed a central government. Since 1953, the Council of Ministers, appointed by the king, has advised on the formulation of general policy and directed the activities of the growing bureaucracy. This council consists of a prime minister, the first prime minister and twenty ministers.
Legislation is by resolution of the Council of Ministers, ratified by royal decree, and must be compatible with the Shari'a. A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. A 150-member Consultative Assembly, appointed by the King, has limited legislative rights. The Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia also known as Majlis as-Shura or Shura Council is the legislature of the country Justice is administered according to the Shari'a by a system of religious courts whose judges are appointed by the king on the recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, composed of twelve senior jurists. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom. Independence of the judiciary is protected by law. Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The king acts as the highest court of appeal and has the power to pardon. Access to high officials (usually at a majlis; a public audience) and the right to petition them directly are well-established traditions. The right to petition is the freedom of individuals (and sometimes groups and corporations to Petition their government for a correction or repair of some form of
The combination of relatively high oil prices and exports led to a revenues windfall for Saudi Arabia during 2004 and early 2005. For 2004 as a whole, Saudi Arabia earned about $116 billion in net oil export revenues, up 35 percent from 2003 revenue levels. Saudi net oil export revenues are forecast to increase in 2005 and 2006, to $150 billion and $154 billion, respectively, mainly due to higher oil prices. Increased oil prices and consequent revenues since the price collapse of 1998 have significantly improved Saudi Arabia's economic situation, with real GDP growth of 5. 2 percent in 2004, and forecasts of 5. 7% and 4. 8% growth for 2005 and 2006, respectively.
For fiscal year 2004, Saudi Arabia originally had been expecting a budget deficit. A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly" Financial statements in Businesses A budget deficit occurs when an Entity (often a Government) spends more Money than it takes in However, this was based on an extremely conservative price assumption of $19 per barrel for Saudi oil and an assumed production of 7. 7 Mbbl/d (1,220,000 m³/d). Both of these estimates turned out to be far below actual levels. As a result, as of mid-December 2004, the Saudi Finance Ministry was expecting a huge budget surplus of $26. 1 billion, on budget revenues of $104. 8 billion (nearly double the country's original estimate) and expenditures of $78. 6 billion (28 percent above the approved budget levels). This surplus is being used for several purposes, including: paying down the Kingdom's public debt (to $164 billion from $176 billion at the start of 2004); extra spending on education and development projects; increased security expenditures (possibly an additional $2. 5 billion dollars in 2004; see below) due to threats from terrorists; and higher payments to Saudi citizens through subsidies (for housing, education, health care, etc. ). For 2005, Saudi Arabia is assuming a balanced budget, with revenues and expenditures of $74. 6 billion each.
In spite of the recent surge in its oil income, Saudi Arabia continues to face serious long-term economic challenges, including high rates of unemployment (12 percent of Saudi nationals), one of the world's fastest population growth rates, and the consequent need for increased government spending. All of these place pressures on Saudi oil revenues. The Kingdom also is facing serious security threats, including a number of terrorist attacks (on foreign workers, primarily) in 2003 and 2004. In response, the Saudis reportedly have ramped up spending in the security area (reportedly by 50 percent in 2004, from $5. 5 billion in 2003). Saudi Arabia's per capita oil export revenues remain far below high levels reached during the 1970s and early 1980s. In 2007, Saudi Arabia's citizens earned around $20,700 per person, versus $22,589 in 1980, but it is catching up. This 80 percent decline in real per capita oil export revenues since 1980 is in large part because Saudi Arabia's young population has nearly tripled since 1980, while oil export revenues in real terms have fallen by over 40 percent (despite recent increases). Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia has faced nearly two decades of heavy budget and trade deficits, the expensive 1990-1991 war with Iraq, and total public debt of around $175 billion. On the other hand, Saudi Arabia does have extensive foreign assets (around $110 billion) which provide a substantial fiscal "cushion. "
Saudi municipal elections took place in 2005 and some commentators saw this as a first tentative step towards the introduction of democratic processes in the Kingdom, including the legalization of political parties. The Saudi Arabian municipal elections in 2005 involved 178 municipalities in Saudi Arabia and were held from 10 February to 21 April, 2005 Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Other analysts of the Saudi political scene were more skeptical. 
The Basic Law, in 1992, declared that Saudi Arabia is a monarchy ruled by the progeny of King Abd Al Aziz Al Saud. The Basic Law of Saudi Arabia (النظام الأساسي للحكم بالمملكة العربية السعودية (Alternative name Basic System of Governance King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad It also declared the Qur'an as the constitution of the country, governed on the basis of Islamic law. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. 
Criminal cases are tried under Sharia courts in the country. These courts exercise authority over the entire population including foreigners (regardless of religion). Cases involving small penalties are tried in Shari'a summary courts. More serious crimes are adjudicated in Shari'a courts of common pleas. Courts of appeal handle appeals from Shari'a courts. 
Civil cases may also be tried under Sharia courts with one exception: Shia may try such cases in their own courts. Other civil proceedings, including those involving claims against the Government and enforcement of foreign judgments, are held before specialized administrative tribunals, such as the Commission for the Settlement of Labor Disputes and the Board of Grievances. 
Main sources of Saudi law are Hanbali fiqh as set out in a number of specified scholarly treatises by authoritative jurists, other schools of law, state regulations and royal decrees (where these are relevant), and custom and practice. Hanbali ( حنبلى) is one of the four schools ( Madhhabs of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam (the other three being Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the 
The Saudi legal system prescribes capital punishment or corporal punishment, including amputations of hands and feet for certain crimes such as murder, robbery, rape, drug smuggling, homosexual activity, and adultery. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to Punish a person or change his/her behavior Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or Surgery. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. Adultery is the voluntary Sexual intercourse between a married person and another person who is not his or her Spouse, though in many places it is The courts may impose less severe punishments, such as floggings, for less serious crimes against public morality such as drunkenness. Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, "whip" the human body Public morality refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society by law or police work or social pressure and applied to public life to the content of the Drunkenness or inebriation is the state of being intoxicated by consumption of Alcoholic beverages to a degree that mental and physical faculties are noticeably  Murder, accidental death and bodily harm are open to punishment from the victim's family. Retribution may be sought in kind or through blood money. Blood money is Money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally The blood money payable for a woman's accidental death is half as much as that for a man.  The main reason for this is that, according to Islamic law, men are expected to be providers for their families and therefore are expected to earn more money in their lifetimes. The blood money from a man would be expected to sustain his family, for at least a short time. Honor killings are also not punished as severely as murder. This generally stems from the fact that honor killings are within a family, and done to compensate for some dishonorable act committed. Slavery was abolished in 1962. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another 
Several international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and the United Nations Human Rights Committee have issued reports critical of the Saudi legal system and its human rights record in various political, legal, and social areas, especially its severe limitations on the rights of women. Human rights in Saudi Arabia are based on Sharia Religious laws under rule of the Saudi royal family. Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Human Rights Watch is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Human rights. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a Western based international Non-governmental organization which defines its mission as "to The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security The Saudi government typically dismisses such reports as being outright lies or asserts that its actions are based on its adherence to Islamic law.
In 2002, the United Nations Committee against Torture criticized Saudi Arabia over the amputations and floggings it carries out under the Shari'a. The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment is an international human rights instrument, under the purview of The Saudi delegation responded defending its legal traditions held since the inception of Islam in the region 1300 years ago and rejected "interference" in its legal system. 
Saudi Arabia is also the only country in the world where women are banned from driving on public roads.  (Women may drive off-road and in private housing compounds - some of which extend to many square miles. ) The ban may be lifted soon. 
The Government views its interpretation of Islamic law as its sole source of guidance on human rights. In 2000, the Government approved the October legislation, which the Government claimed would address some of its obligations under the Convention Against Torture or Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. 
"The state protects human rights in accordance with the Islamic Shari'ah. "
The first independent human rights organization, the National Society for Human Rights was established in 2004. The National Society for Human Rights (NSHR is a non-governmental organization based in Saudi Arabia and was established on the 10th March 2004 The Saudi Government is an active censor of Internet reception within its borders.  A Saudi blogger, Fouad al-Farhan, was jailed for five months in solitary confinement in December, 2007, without charges, after criticizing Saudi religious, business and media figures. A blog (a contraction of the term " Web log " is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary descriptions of Fouad Ahmad al-Farhan (b 1975 in Taif, Saudi Arabia) is a popular Saudi Arabian Blogger and political commentator noted for his advocacy of political reforms Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to in American English as "the hole" or "the pound" (or in British English "the block" is a Punishment 
Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 emirates (manatiq, - singular mintaqah). Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 emirates ( manatiq idāriyya, singular – Mintaqah idariyya,) |||} Governorates ( محافظات; muhafazat, sing Muhafazah) are the second level of regional administration within Saudi Arabia. Mintaqah ( منطقة; plural manatiq مناطق is a term for a Country subdivision used in Saudi Arabia and several other Arab countries The emirates are further divided into governorates.
|Al Bahah||Al Bahah city|
|Al Jawf||Al Jawf city|
|Al Riyadh||Riyadh city|
Saudi Arabia's economy is Petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. Al-Bahah ælˈbæːħa (الباحة is a province of Saudi Arabia. Al Bahah (الباحة is a city in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh Province ʔɑrːijɑːdˁ( Arabic: منطقة الرياض, Mantiqat ar-Riyadh) is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the Al-Bahah ælˈbæːħa (الباحة is a province of Saudi Arabia. Jizan ( Arabic: جيزان is a province of Saudi Arabia. It stretches some 300km along the southern Red Sea coast just north of Yemen ʿAsīr ( عسير) is a province of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country Najran ( Arabic: نجران) is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country with an extended coastline Eastern Province (الشرقية Ash-Sharqīyah) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the Persian Al Qassim Province (also spelled Al Qaseem, Al Qasim, or Qassim; ælqɑˈsˁiːm Arabic: منطقة القصيم is one of the thirteen Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah ælħuˈduːd æʃːæmæːˈliːjæ ( Arabic: منطقة الحدود الشمالية, "The Northern Borders Region" is a Haʾil (حائل is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the north of the country Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) ( Arabic: تبوك is a province of Saudi Arabia, located along the north-west coast of the country facing Al Jawf ælˈʤɑu̯f (الجوف is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the north of the country bordering Jordan. Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah ælħuˈduːd æʃːæmæːˈliːjæ ( Arabic: منطقة الحدود الشمالية, "The Northern Borders Region" is a Arar is also the ancient name of the Saône river in France the surname of Canadian citizen Maher Arar, and the nickname of Jordanian poet Mustafa Wahbi Al Jawf ælˈʤɑu̯f (الجوف is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the north of the country bordering Jordan. Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Al Qassim Province (also spelled Al Qaseem, Al Qasim, or Qassim; ælqɑˈsˁiːm Arabic: منطقة القصيم is one of the thirteen Buraydah (Arabic burayda 'بريدة' or Buraidah is the capital of Al-Qassim Province in northcentral Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula Haʾil (حائل is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the north of the country Ha'il (also spelled Hail, Ha'yel, or Hayil Arabic: حائل is an Oasis city in Nejd in northwestern Saudi Arabia ʿAsīr ( عسير) is a province of Saudi Arabia located in the southwest of the country Abha (أبها is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. Eastern Province (الشرقية Ash-Sharqīyah) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the Persian Dammam (Also Ad Dammām) (الدمام is the Capital of the Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh Province ʔɑrːijɑːdˁ( Arabic: منطقة الرياض, Mantiqat ar-Riyadh) is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) ( Arabic: تبوك is a province of Saudi Arabia, located along the north-west coast of the country facing For the city in the Philippines see Tabuk City Kalinga. For the Iraqi rifle see Tabuk Sniper Rifle Tabuk (تبوك also spelled Najran ( Arabic: نجران) is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. Najran (formerly Aba as Sa'ud) (نجران is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the frontier with Yemen. Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country with an extended coastline Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Jizan ( Arabic: جيزان is a province of Saudi Arabia. It stretches some 300km along the southern Red Sea coast just north of Yemen Jizan (also called Jazan, Gizan or Gazan) (جيزان is the new name of the capital of the Jizan Province in the far south-west of Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities Saudi Aramco, the state-owned national oil company of Saudi Arabia, is the largest oil corporation in the world and the world's largest in terms of proven crude This article is about Dhahran the city For the Saudi Aramco residential compound see Dhahran Aramco Camp. The oil industry comprises about 45% of Saudi Arabia's gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector (see below). Saudi Arabia officially has about 260 billion barrels (41,000,000,000 m³) of oil reserves, comprising about 24% of the world's proven total petroleum reserves. Oil reserves are the estimated quantities of Crude oil that are claimed to be recoverable under existing Economic and operating conditions 
The government is attempting to promote growth in the private sector by privatizing industries such as power and telecom. Saudi Arabia announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies in 1999, which followed the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. Shortages of water and rapid population growth may constrain government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 with in 1998.  Recent oil price increases have helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars, or about $7,400 adjusted for inflation. 
Recent oil price increases have triggered a second oil boom, pushing Saudi Arabia's budget surplus to $28 billion (110SR billion) in 2005. Tadawul (the Saudi stock market Index) finished 2004 with a massive 76. Tadawul ( Arabic: تداول is the only Stock exchange in Saudi Arabia. 23% to close at 4437. 58 points. Market capitalization was up 110. Market capitalization/capitalisation (aka market cap, mkt cap or capitalized/capitalised value) is a measurement of Corporate or Economic 14% from a year earlier to stand at $157. 3 billion (589. 93SR billion), which makes it the biggest stock market in the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.
OPEC limits its member's oil production based on its "proven reserves. " The higher their reserves, the more OPEC allows them to produce. Saudi Arabia's published reserves have shown little change since 1980, with the main exception being an increase of about 100 billion barrels (16,000,000,000 m³) between 1987 and 1988.  Some have suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines (see peak oil).
To diversify the economy, Saudi Arabia launched a new city on the western coast with investments exceeding 26. 6 billion dollars. The city which is named "King Abdullah Economic City" will be built near al-Rabegh industrial city north to Jeddah. King Abdullah Economic City (abbreviated as KAEC pronounced CAKE (مدينة الملك عبدالله اللإقتصادية is a mega project revealed in 2005 by Abdullah bin The new city, where construction work started in December 2005, includes a port which is the largest port of the kingdom. Extending along a coastline of 35 km, the city will also include petrochemical, pharmaceutical, tourism, finance and education and research areas.
Saudi Arabia officially became a World Trade Organization member in December 2005.
Saudi Arabia is one of the few fastest growing countries in the world with a high per capita income of $20,700 (2007), Saudi Arabia will be launching six economic cities (King Abdullah Economic City) which will be completed by the year 2020. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status King Abdullah Economic City (abbreviated as KAEC pronounced CAKE (مدينة الملك عبدالله اللإقتصادية is a mega project revealed in 2005 by Abdullah bin These six new industrialized cities will diversify the economy of Saudi Arabia, and will also increase the per capita income to a high level. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status The King of Saudi Arabia has announced that the per capita income is forecast, to rise from $ 15,000 in 2006 to $33,500 in 2020. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country  The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities will contribute $ 150 billion to the GDP. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status
However the urban areas of Riyadh and Jeddah will contribute $287 billion dollars by the year 2020. Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the 
Despite the government's efforts to promote Saudization, many men and women from South, South East (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, Nepal, Sri Lanka), East Asia, East Africa (Egypt) and the Middle East continue to seek work in Saudi Arabia. Saudization refers to the national policy in Saudi Arabia to encourage employment of Saudi nationals in the Private sector, which as of 2006 is largely dominated India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Nepal (नेपाल) is a Landlocked country in South Asia. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.  There are also some people from North America, South America, and Europe. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a Hundreds of thousands of low-skilled workers and skilled workers from regions of the developing world migrate to Saudi Arabia, sometimes only for a short period of time, to work. A skilled worker is any worker who has some special skill, Knowledge, or (usually acquired ability in his work. Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Although exact figures are not known, skilled experts in the banking and services professions seek work in the Kingdom. A banker or bank is a Financial institution whose primary activity is to act as a payment agent for customers and to borrow and lend money
Saudi Arabia's population as of July 2006 is estimated to be about 27,019,731, including about 5,576,076 resident foreigners. Saudi Arabia 's July 2006 population is estimated to be over 27 million including about 5 Until the 1960s, a majority of the population was nomadic; but presently more than 95% of the population is settled, due to rapid economic and urban growth. Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that As recently as the 1950s, the Saudi Arabia’s slave population was estimated at 450,000 — 20% of the population.  Slavery was finally abolished in 1962. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another  The birth rate is 29. 56 births per 1,000 people. The death rate is 2. 62 deaths per 1,000 people. Some cities and oases have densities of more than 1,000 people per square kilometer (2,600/sq mi).
Around 85 percent of Saudis are ethnically Arab. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Approximately 12% of the population is South Asian or of South Asian ancestry, including Indians, Pakistanis, and Bangladeshis. In addition, there are some citizens of Asian and sub-Saharan/East African ancestry. Asian or Asiatic is a Demonym for people from Asia. However the use of the term varies by country and person often referring to people from a particular Sub-Saharan Africa is a geographical term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara, or those African countries East Africa is the Easternmost Region of the African Continent. Many Arabs from nearby countries are employed in the kingdom. There are over seven million migrants from countries all around the world, including (including non-Muslims): Indian: 1. A non-resident Indian (NRI is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country a person of Indian origin who is born outside India or a person of 4 million, Bangladeshi: 1 million, Filipino: 950,000, Pakistani: 900,000, Egyptian: 900,000, Yemeni: 800,000, Indonesian: 500,000, Sri Lankan: 350,000, Sudanese: 250,000, Syrian: 100,000 and Turkish: 80,000. ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ inc-Latn Bangladesh) officially Filipinos or the Filipino people are the citizens of the Philippines. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and This article is about the contemporary North African ethnic group Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. Syrians today are an overall indigenous Levantine people closely related to their immediate neighbours like the Lebanese and (to a lesser extent Jordanians The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language  There are around 100,000 Westerners in Saudi Arabia, most of whom live in compounds or gated communities. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings In Military science, a compound is a type of Fortification made up of walls or fences surrounding several buildings in the center of a large piece of land In its modern form a gated community is a form of Residential community containing controlled entrances for Pedestrians Bicycles and Automobiles
Saudi Arabia expelled 800,000 Yemenis in 1990 and 1991 to punish Yemen for its opposition to the war against Iraq. Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. An estimated 240,000 Palestinians are living in Saudi Arabia. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn They are not allowed to hold or even apply for Saudi citizenship, as the new law passed by Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers in October 2004 (which entitles expatriates of all nationalities who have resided in the kingdom for ten years to apply for citizenship, with priority being given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields) has one glaring exception: Palestinians will not be allowed to benefit from the new law because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship in order "to avoid dissolution of their identity and protect their right to return to their homeland. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية "
The majority of the population adheres to a theological interpretation within Islam most commonly known as Salafism or Wahhabism. Wahhabism ( Arabic: Al-Wahhābīyya الوهابية or Wahabism is a conservative reformist call of Sunni Islam attributed to The Shia population of the country is estimated at around 15-25 percent, primarily in the eastern provinces on the Gulf, southwestern provinces bordering Yemen, Makkah and particularly, Medina, as well as other larger cities in the Kingdom. The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005 Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya
When the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932, education was not accessible to everyone and limited to individualized instruction at religious schools in mosques in urban areas. The US Department of State estimates the Literacy rate in Saudi Arabia for males to be 84 Education encompasses both the Teaching and Learning of Knowledge, proper conduct, and technical competency These schools taught Islamic law and basic literacy skills. By the end of the century, Saudi Arabia had a nationwide educational system providing free training from preschool through university to all citizens. The modern Saudi educational system provides quality instruction in diverse fields of modern and traditional arts and sciences. This diversity helps meet the Kingdom's growing need for highly-educated citizens to build on its rapid progress.
The primary education system began in Saudi Arabia in the 1930s. By 1945, King Abdulaziz bin Abdelrahman Al-Saud, the country's founder, had initiated an extensive program to establish schools in the Kingdom. Six years later, in 1951, the country had 226 schools with 29,887 students. In 1954, the Ministry of Education was established, headed by then Prince Fahd bin Abdulaziz as the first Minister of Education. The first university, now known as King Saud University, was founded in Riyadh in 1957. General Information King Saud University (جامعة الملك سعود is Saudi Arabia 's oldest and most prestigious University, located in the capital
Today, Saudi Arabia's nationwide public educational system comprises twenty universities, more than 24,000 schools, and a large number of colleges and other educational and training institutions. The system provides students with free education, books and health services and is open to every Saudi. Over 25 percent of the annual State budget is for education including vocational training. The Kingdom has also worked on scholarship programs to send students overseas to the United States, Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, Malaysia and other nations. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Currently thousands of students are being sent to higher-educations programs every year.
The study of Islam remains at the core of the Saudi educational system. The Islamic aspect of the Saudi national curriculum is examined in a recent report by Freedom House. Freedom House is a United States -based international Non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on Democracy, political  The report found that in religious education classes (in any religious school), children are taught to deprecate other religions, in addition to other branches of Islam. The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom in madrasah throughout the world. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə.
Men can often be found playing sports. Women rarely participate in sports, and always away from the presence of men; this often leads to indoor gyms. Even though football is the most popular sport, Saudi Arabia has recently participated in the Summer Olympic Games and in international competitions in volleyball and other sports. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an International Multi-sport event, usually quadrennial organised by the International Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet The Saudi Arabian national youth baseball team has also participated in the Little League World Series. The Saudi Arabia national football team is often most known for being in four consecutive times in the FIFA World Cup and six times in the AFC Asian Cup, which the team won three times and was runner-up three times. The Saudi Arabia national football team (منتخب السعودية لكرة القدم (known by its fans as al-Sogour which means "The Falcons" or al-Akhdar The FIFA World Cup, occasionally called the Football World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international Association football Some popular football players include Majed Abdullah, Mohamed Al-Deayea, Sami Al-Jaber, and Saeed Al-Owairan. Majed Ahmed Abdullah Al-Mohammed (ماجد عبد الله (born November 1, 1959 in Jeddah) is a former Saudi Arabian Football (soccer Mohamed Abdullaziz Al-Deayea (محمد الدعيع (born August 2, 1972 in Tabuk) is a Saudi Arabian football goalkeeper Sami Abdullah Al-Jaber (سامي الجابر born 11 December, 1972 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) is a retired football Striker Saeed Al-Owairan (or Owairan; Arabic: سعيد العويران born August 19, 1967) is a Saudi Arabian football
Saudi Arabian culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Islam's two holiest sites, Mecca and Medina, are located in the country. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. The weekend begins on Thursday due to Friday being the holiest day for Muslims. All Muslim countries have a Thursday-Friday or Friday-Saturday weekend.  The public practice of any religion other than Islam, including Christianity and Judaism, the presence of churches, and possession of non-Islamic religious materials is not allowed except in Aramco compounds in which many expatriates attend church services. Saudi Arabia's cultural heritage is celebrated at the annual Jenadriyah cultural festival. Al Jenadriyah ( Arabic,مهرجان الجنادرية is a culture and heritage festival held in Jenadriyah near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia each
However, secret negotiations are rumored to be taking place between the Vatican and Saudi Arabia regarding authorization to build Catholic Churches in the Kingdom. 
One of Saudi Arabia's most compelling folk rituals is the Al Ardha, the country's national dance. Ardha ( is a type of Folkloric Dance performed by the Bedouin tribes of the Arabian peninsula, especially the Arab states of the Persian This sword dance is based on ancient Bedouin traditions: drummers beat out a rhythm and a poet chants verses while sword-carrying men dance shoulder to shoulder. Sword dances are recorded from throughout world history There are various traditions of solo and mock battle ( Pyrrhic) sword dances from Greece, the Middle East The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (ar بدوي pl badū) are a desert-dwelling Arab Nomadic pastoralist, or previously Al-sihba folk music, from the Hejaz, has its origins in al-Andalus. al-Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz; الحجاز al-Ḥiǧāz, literally "the barrier" is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or In Mecca, Medina and Jeddah, dance and song incorporate the sound of the mizmar, an oboe-like woodwind instrument in the performance of the mizmar dance. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut Mizmar ( is the name of a Folkloric Dance native to the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia. The drum is also an important instrument according to traditional and tribal customs. The drum is a member of the percussion group technically classified as a Membranophone. Samri is popular traditional form of music and dance in which poetry is sung. Samri (is the name of a Folkloric Music and Dance native to the Arab Gulf states, especially Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
Saudi Arabian dress follows strictly the principles of hijab (the Islamic principle of modesty, especially in dress). Islam and clothing Hijab or ħijāb ( ar حجاب, pronounced) is the Arabic term for "cover" (noun based on the root حجب meaning "to Standards of modesty (also called demureness or reticence) are aspects of the Culture of a Country or people at a given point in time The predominantly loose and flowing but covering garments are helpful in Saudi Arabia's desert climate. A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation. Traditionally, men usually wear an ankle-length shirt woven from wool or cotton (known as a thawb), with a keffiyeh (a large checkered square of cotton held in place by a cord coil) or a ghutra (a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by a cord coil) worn on the head. A thawb or thobe (ثوب) dishdasha (ar دشداشة) kandura (ar كندورة) khameez (ar قميص The keffiyeh (كوفية, plural ar كوفيات kūfiyyāt) shmagh, shemagh or yashmag (ar شماغ) (from Turkish The keffiyeh (كوفية, plural ar كوفيات kūfiyyāt) shmagh, shemagh or yashmag (ar شماغ) (from Turkish For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair cloak (bisht) over the top. Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the Bisht (Arabic بشت is a traditional Arabic men’s Cloak popular in the Persian Gulf and some Arab Women's clothes are decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. Women are required to wear an abaya or modest clothing when in public. The abaya ( Arabic عباءة plural abayat عباءات is an Overgarment worn by some women in parts of the Islamic world.
Islamic dietary laws forbid the eating of pork and the drinking of alcohol, and this law is enforced strictly throughout Saudi Arabia. This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. Pork' is the Culinary name for Meat from the domestic Pig ( Sus scrofa) often specifically the fresh meat but can be used as an all-inclusive Arabic unleavened bread, or khobz, is eaten with almost all meals. Khubz (Ar خبز) is an Arabic Flatbread, which is part of the local diet in many countries of the Arabian Peninsula. Other staples include lamb, grilled chicken, falafel (deep-fried chickpea balls), shawarma (spit-cooked sliced lamb), and Ful medames (a paste of fava beans, garlic and lemon). Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of Domestic sheep. The meat of an animal in its first year is lamb; that of an older sheep is hogget Chicken is the Meat derived from the Chicken. It is the most common type of Poultry in the world and is frequently prepared as Food Falafel (فلافل; פלאפל also known in Egypt and Sudan as ta'meya Arabic طعمية is a fried ball or patty made from Spiced Fava The chickpea ( Cicer arietinum) (also garbanzo bean, Indian pea, ceci bean, bengal gram, chana, kadale kaalu, Shawarma (شاورما or שווארמה also spelled Chawarma, Schawarma, Shwarma, Shuarma, Shawerma, Shoarma, Ful medames ( Arabic: فول مدمس fūl mudammas) is one of the National dishes of Sudan and Egypt, often eaten at breakfast Vicia faba, the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, horse bean, field bean, tic bean is a species of Allium sativum L, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the Onion family Alliaceae. The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants Traditional coffeehouses used to be ubiquitous, but are now being displaced by food-hall style cafes. A coffeehouse ( French / Portuguese: café; Spanish: cafetería; Italian: caffè Arabic tea is also a famous custom, which is used in both casual and formal meetings between friends, family and even strangers. Tea refers to the cured agricultural product of the leaves leaf buds and internodes of Camellia sinensis, which have been prepared and cured for the market The tea is black (without milk) and has herbal flavoring that comes in many variations.
Public theatres and cinemas are prohibited, as Wahhabi tradition deems those institutions to be incompatible with Islam. This article is about venues for live Theatre performances for information about venues for Film projection see Movie theater. Cinemaaustraliajpg|thumb|A movie theater in Australia ]]A movie theater, movie theatre, picture theatre or cinema is a venue However, an IMAX theatre is available, and in private compounds such as Dhahran and Ras Tanura public theaters can be found, but often are more popular for local music, arts, and theatre productions rather than the exhibition of motion pictures. IMAX (short for Image MAXimum is a Film format created by Canada 's IMAX Corporation that has the capacity to display images of far greater size and Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran, casually known by its inhabitants as the Dhahran Camp, is the residential community built by Saudi Aramco for its employees Ras Tanura (more accurately Ra's Tannūrah Arabic رأس تنورة meaning "cape oven cape brazier" presumably due to the unusual heat prevalent at the cape that projects Recently, plans for some cinemas that will be allowed to feature Arabic cartoons for women and children were announced. DVDs, including American and British movies, are legal and widely available.
Some Saudi novelists have had their books published in Beirut, Lebanon, because of censorship in Saudi Arabia. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Beirut (بيروت Bayrūt) is the Capital and Largest city of Lebanon with a population of over 2 Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Censorship is the suppression of speech or deletion of communicative material which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive as determined by a censor Despite signs of increasing openness, Saudi novelists and artists in film, theatre, and the visual arts face greater restrictions on their freedom of expression than in the West. The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography Contemporary Saudi novelists include:
Saudi military was founded as the Ikhwan army, the tribal army of Ibn Saud. Abdul Rahman Munif ( 1933 - January 24, 2004) (عبد الرحمن منيف is one of the most important Arabic novelists of the 20th century Turki al-Hamad ( تركي الحمد,) (born 1953 is a Saudi-Arabian political analyst journalist and novelist best known for his A fatwā (فتوى plural fatāwā فتاوى in the Islamic faith is a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an Raja'a Alem is a saudi novelisit from Mecca/Hejaz Abdullah Al-Qasemi (Arabic عبدالله القصيمي was a Saudi Arabian intellectual and Skeptic. Rajaa al-Sanea ( Arabic:رجاء الصانع is a Saudi writer who became famous through her novel Girls of Riyadh, or Banat al-Riyadh Girls of Riyadh or Banat al-Riyadh, is a novel by Rajaa Alsanea. Military situation With the collapse of the Iraqi Ba'athist regime in mid-2003 the greatest conventional threat to the Saudi Kingdom was eliminated Al Yamamah ( اليمامة The Dove) is the name of a series of a record Arms sales by the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia, which The Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG also known as the White Army) is one of five branches of the Saudi Arabian For Al-Ikhwān Al-Muslimūn, see Muslim Brotherhood. For the Kashmiri organization see Ikhwan (Kashmir The Ikhwan King Saud King Faisal Mohammed King Khaled Nasr Saad The Ikhwan had helped King Ibn Saud conquer the Arabian peninsula during the First World War.
By expanding the military forces years later, Saudi Arabia today has many military branches.
Saudi Arabia is one of the largest contributors of development aid, both in term of volume of aid and in the ratio of aid volume to GDP. History 1902 is considered to be the birth year of the Saudi Army when 63 men led by King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud supported by the Kuwaiti Prince Mubarak Al-Sabah The Royal Saudi Air Force (القوات الجوية الملكية السعودية) is the Air force branch of Saudi Arabian armed forces. The Royal Saudi Navy is the Naval force of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Royal Saudi Air Defense is the fourth branch of Saudi Armed Forces. The Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG also known as the White Army) is one of five branches of the Saudi Arabian The Saudi Arabian Royal Guard Regiment is one of the more visible units in the Saudi Arabian Army. The Re'asat Al Istikhabarat Al A'amah (رئاسة الاستخبارات العامة or the General Intelligence Presidency GIP (رئاسة الاستخبارات العامة Saudi is a non-aligned state whose foreign policy objectives are to maintain its security and its paramount position on the Arabian Peninsula, defend general Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid Official Development Assistance (ODA is a category of Development aid. 
Much of Saudi Arabia's aid has gone to poorer Islamic countries or Islamic communities in non-Islamic countries. This "aid" has contributed to the spreading of a uniform and puritanical form of Islam, disregarding the needs and traditions of the different ethnic groups. Therefore Saudi Arabia has spearheaded the destruction of formerly mellow and colorful Islamic cultures. Examples of the acculturizing effect of Saudi aid can be seen among the Minangkabau and the Acehnese in Indonesia, as well as among the people of the Maldives. The Minangkabau ethnic group (also known as Minang or Padang) is indigenous to the highlands of West Sumatra, in Indonesia. See also Sultanate of Aceh Aceh (ʔaˈtɕɛh generally anglicized as ˈɑːtʃeɪ is a special territory ( daerah istimewa) of Indonesia The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Maldives ( or, or Maldive Islands) officially the Republic of Maldives, is an Island nation consisting of a group of atolls stretching 
|Largest Cities by Population|
mill. This is a list of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia.
|Riyadh||4. Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city 7|
|Jeddah||3. Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the 6|
|Mecca||1. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored 7|
|Medina||1. Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as 3||Riyadh||Jeddah||Mecca|
|Dammam||1. Riyadh ( الرياض Ar-Riyāḍ) is the Capital of Saudi Arabia and its largest city Jeddah (also spelled Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda; جدّة Ǧiddah) is a Saudi Arabian city located on the coast of the Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Dammam (Also Ad Dammām) (الدمام is the Capital of the Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia. 3|
|Qatif||0. For other uses see Katif. Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; القطيف Al-Qaṭīf 8|
|Ta’if||0. Ta’if ( ar الطائف) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat 7|
|Buraydah||0. Buraydah (Arabic burayda 'بريدة' or Buraidah is the capital of Al-Qassim Province in northcentral Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula 6|
|Tabuk||0. For the city in the Philippines see Tabuk City Kalinga. For the Iraqi rifle see Tabuk Sniper Rifle Tabuk (تبوك also spelled 5|
|Khamis Mushait||0. Khamis Mushait ( Arabic: خميس مشيط Khamis Mushait is a city in south-west Saudi Arabia, located 35 minutes east of Abha, the provincial 4||Medina||Dammam||Tabuk|
|Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal||Index of Economic Freedom||62 out of 157|
|The Economist||Worldwide Quality-of-life Index, 2005||72 out of 111|
|Reporters Without Borders||Worldwide Press Freedom Index||161 out of 167|
|Transparency International||Corruption Perceptions Index||70 out of 163|
|United Nations Development Programme||Human Development Index||61 out of 177|
|A. T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine||Globalization Index 2005||45 out of 62|
Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide.