Satyagraha (Sanskrit: सत्याग्रह satyāgraha) is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as "Mahatma" Gandhi). Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Gandhi deployed satyagraha in campaigns for Indian independence and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Satyagraha theory also influenced Martin Luther King, Jr. during the campaigns he led during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader See also Protests of 1968 Historically the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980 in The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
Satya is the Sanskrit word for “truth”; agraha means "firmness". Satya is a Sanskrit word that loosely translates into English as " Truth " or "correct The two words combined may be rendered as "the firmness of truth. ” The term was popularized during the Indian Independence Movement, and is used in many Indian languages including Hindi. The term " Indian independence movement " is diffuse incorporating various national and regional campaigns agitations and efforts of both Nonviolent and Militant Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is It can also mean "truth force. "
Gandhi described it as follows:
Its root meaning is holding onto truth, hence truth-force. I have also called it love-force or soul-force. In the application of satyagraha, I discovered in the earliest stages that pursuit of truth did not admit of violence being inflicted on one’s opponent but that he must be weaned from error by patience and sympathy. For what appears to be truth to the one may appear to be error to the other. And patience means self-suffering. So the doctrine came to mean vindication of truth, not by infliction of suffering on the opponent, but on oneself. 
Gandhi coined the term Satyagraha to describe his philosophy of nonviolent resistance. The concept was influenced by the notion of ahimsa in the Hindu Upanishads and the tenets of Jainism, as well as various theorists of nonviolent resistance and nonresistance including Jesus (particularly the Sermon on the Mount), the Imam Hussein, Leo Tolstoy (particularly The Kingdom of God Is Within You), John Ruskin (particularly Unto This Last), and Henry David Thoreau (particularly Civil Disobedience). Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - The Upanishads ( Devanagari: उपनिषद् IAST: upaniṣad also spelled "Upanisad" are Hindu scriptures that constitute the core teachings Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma / Shraman Dharma (जैन धर्म is an ancient religion of India. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, Nonresistance (or non-resistance) discourages physical resistance to an enemy and is a subdivision of Nonviolence. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) In the Gospel of St Matthew, the Sermon on the Mount is a compilation of Jesus' sayings epitomizing his moral teaching. Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar حسين بن علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب) (third of Shaban 4 AH / 8th January 626 AD at Medina Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded The Kingdom of God Is Within You (Царство Божие внутри вас Bozhiye vnutri vas'' is the Non-fiction Magnum opus of Leo Tolstoy John Ruskin (8 February 1819 &ndash 20 January 1900 is best known for his work as an Art critic, sage writer, and Social critic, but is remembered Unto This Last is an essay on Economy by John Ruskin, first published in December 1860 in the monthly journal Cornhill Magazine in Civil Disobedience ( Resistance to Civil Government) is an essay by Henry David Thoreau that was first published in 1849 
Speaking of his initial satyagraha campaign in South Africa, he said:
None of us knew what name to give to our movement. I then used the term “passive resistance” in describing it. I did not quite understand the implications of “passive resistance” as I called it. I only knew that some new principle had come into being. As the struggle advanced, the phrase “passive resistance” gave rise to confusion and it appeared shameful to permit this great struggle to be known only by an English name. Again, that foreign phrase could hardly pass as current coin among the community. A small prize was therefore announced in Indian Opinion to be awarded to the reader who invented the best designation for our struggle. We thus received a number of suggestions. The meaning of the struggle had been then fully discussed in Indian Opinion and the competitors for the prize had fairly sufficient material to serve as a basis for their exploration. Shri Maganlal Gandhi was one of the competitors and he suggested the word sadagraha, meaning “firmness in a good cause. Maganlal Gandhi was a follower of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. ” I liked the word, but it did not fully represent the whole idea I wished it to connote. I therefore corrected it to “satyagraha”. Truth (satya) implies love, and firmness (agraha) engenders and therefore serves as a synonym for force. I thus began to call the Indian movement Satyagraha, that is to say, the Force which is born of Truth and Love or non-violence, and gave up the use of the phrase “passive resistance”, in connection with it, so much so that even in English writing we often avoided it and used instead the word “satyagraha” itself or some other equivalent English phrase. 
Gandhi further distinguished between his ideas and passive resistance in the following letter:
"I have drawn the distinction between passive resistance as understood and practised in the West and satyagraha before I had evolved the doctrine of the latter to its full logical and spiritual extent. Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through Symbolic Protests Civil disobedience, I often used “passive resistance” and “satyagraha” as synonymous terms: but as the doctrine of satyagraha developed, the expression “passive resistance” ceases even to be synonymous, as passive resistance has admitted of violence as in the case of suffragettes and has been universally acknowledged to be a weapon of the weak. Suffragette is a term originally coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for the more radical and Militant members of the Moreover, passive resistance does not necessarily involve complete adherence to truth under every circumstance. Therefore it is different from satyagraha in three essentials: Satyagraha is a weapon of the strong; it admits of no violence under any circumstance whatever; and it ever insists upon truth. I think I have now made the distinction perfectly clear. "
In traditional violent and nonviolent conflict, the goal is to defeat the opponent or frustrate the opponent’s objectives, or to meet one’s own objectives despite the efforts of the opponent to obstruct these. The Salt Satyagraha was a campaign of non-violent protest against the British salt tax in colonial India which began with the Salt March to Dandi on March 12 1930 In satyagraha, by contrast, these are not the goals. “The Satyagrahi’s object is to convert, not to coerce, the wrong-doer. ” Success is defined as cooperating with the opponent to meet a just end that the opponent is unwittingly obstructing. The opponent must be converted, at least as far as to stop obstructing the just end, for this cooperation to take place.
The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable. The means used to obtain an end are wrapped up and attached to that end. Therefore, it is contradictory to try to use unjust means to obtain justice or to try to use violence to obtain peace. As Gandhi wrote: “They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end. . . ”
Gandhi used an example to explain this:
If I want to deprive you of your watch, I shall certainly have to fight for it; if I want to buy your watch, I shall have to pay for it; and if I want a gift, I shall have to plead for it; and, according to the means I employ, the watch is stolen property, my own property, or a donation. 
Gandhi rejected the idea that injustice should, or even could, be fought against “by any means necessary” — if you use violent, coercive, unjust means, whatever ends you produce will necessarily embed that injustice. To those who preached violence and called nonviolent actionists cowards, he replied: “I do believe that, where there is only a choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence. . . . I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour than that she should, in a cowardly manner, become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonour. . . . But I believe that nonviolence is infinitely superior to violence, forgiveness is more manly than punishment. ”
The essence of Satyagraha is that it seeks to eliminate antagonisms without harming the antagonists themselves, as opposed to violent resistance, which is meant to cause harm to the antagonist. A Satyagrahi therefore does not seek to end or destroy the relationship with the antagonist, but instead seeks to transform or “purify” it to a higher level. A euphemism sometimes used for Satyagraha is that it is a “silent force” or a “soul force” (a term also used by Martin Luther King Jr. during his famous “I Have a Dream” speech). " I Have A Dream " is the popular name given to the historic public speech by Martin Luther King Jr It arms the individual with moral power rather than physical power. Satyagraha is also termed a “universal force,” as it essentially “makes no distinction between kinsmen and strangers, young and old, man and woman, friend and foe. ”
Gandhi contrasted satyagraha (holding on to truth) with “duragraha” (holding on by force), as in protest meant more to harass than enlighten opponents. He wrote: “There must be no impatience, no barbarity, no insolence, no undue pressure. If we want to cultivate a true spirit of democracy, we cannot afford to be intolerant. Intolerance betrays want of faith in one's cause. ”
Civil disobedience and non-cooperation as practised under Satyagraha are based on the “law of suffering”, a doctrine that the endurance of suffering is a means to an end. Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Civil disobedience is the active refusal to obey certain Laws demands and commands of a Government, or of an occupying power, without resorting to physical Suffering, or pain, is an individual's basic Affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm This end usually implies a moral upliftment or progress of an individual or society. A moral is a message conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event Therefore, non-cooperation in Satyagraha is in fact a means to secure the cooperation of the opponent consistently with truth and justice. JUSTICE is a Human rights and law reform organisation based in the United Kingdom.
When using satyagraha in a large-scale political conflict involving civil disobedience, Gandhi believed that the satyagrahis must undergo training to ensure discipline. The Bardoli Satyagraha of 1928 in the state of Gujarat, India during the period of the British Raj, was a major episode of Civil disobedience The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat Dharasana Satyagraha was a protest against the British salt tax in Colonial India in May 1930 Flag Satyagraha is a term that describes campaigns of peaceful Civil disobedience during the Indian independence movement that focused on exercising the right and Guruvayur Satyagraha took place in (1931 - 32 was a Satyagraha in Trichur in Travancore now part of Kerala seeking entry for Untouchables The non-cooperation movement (असहयोग आन्दोलन was the first-ever series of nationwide people's movements of Nonviolent resistance and Civil Disobedience The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a Civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in The Salt Satyagraha was a campaign of non-violent protest against the British salt tax in colonial India which began with the Salt March to Dandi on March 12 1930 Vaikom Satyagraha (1924 - 25 was a Satyagraha (movement in Travancore, India (now part of Kerala) against Untouchability in He wrote that “only when a people have proved their active loyalty by obeying the many laws of the State that they acquire the right of Civil Disobedience. ”
He therefore made part of the discipline that satyagrahis:
This obedience has to be not merely grudging, but extraordinary:
…an honest, respectable man will not suddenly take to stealing whether there is a law against stealing or not, but this very man will not feel any remorse for failure to observe the rule about carrying headlights on bicycles after dark. … But he would observe any obligatory rule of this kind, if only to escape the inconvenience of facing a prosecution for a breach of the rule. Such compliance is not, however, the willing and spontaneous obedience that is required of a Satyagrahi. 
Gandhi envisioned satyagraha as not only a tactic to be used in acute political struggle, but as a universal solvent for injustice and harm. He felt that it was equally applicable to large-scale political struggle and to one-on-one interpersonal conflicts and that it should be taught to everyone. 
He founded the Sabarmati Ashram to teach satyagraha. Sabarmati Ashram ( Gujarati: સાબરમતી આશ્રમ also known as Gandhi Ashram Harijan Ashram or Satyagraha Ashram is located He asked satyagrahis to follow the following principles:
On another occasion, he listed seven rules as “essential for every Satyagrahi in India”:
Gandhi proposed a series of rules for satyagrahis to follow in a resistance campaign:
Gandhi's writings on Nazi persecution of the Jews in Germany were controversial. Ahimsa ( Devanagari: sa अहिंसा IAST ahiṃsā is a Sanskrit term meaning Non-violence (literally the avoidance of violence - Brahmacharya (brʌmatʃərɪə Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य is the first ashram in Vedic culture in which a person is dedicated to the quest for self realization Non-possession is a philosophy that holds that no one or anything possesses anything The Swadeshi ( Hindi: स्वदेशी movement, part of the Indian independence movement, was a successful economic strategy to remove the British Dalit is a self designation for group of people of South Asian descent who were traditionally regarded as untouchables or low Caste. Khādī ( IAST) or khaddar ( Devnagri: खादी or खद्दर Nastaliq: کھڈی کھدر simply means cotton Jews have lived in Germany, or " Ashkenaz " at least since the early 4th century, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of He offered Satyagraha non-violence as a method of combating oppression and genocide, stating:
If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment. And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example. If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now. And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy [. . . ] the calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities. But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant. For to the God-fearing, death has no terror. 
Gandhi was highly criticized for these statements and responded in another article entitled “Some Questions Answered” where he wrote:
Friends have sent me two newspaper cuttings criticizing my appeal to the Jews. The two critics suggest that in presenting non-violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new. . . What I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation. ”
In a similar vein, anticipating a possible attack on India by Japan during World War II, Gandhi recommended satyagraha as a defense:
…there should be unadulterated non-violent non-cooperation, and if the whole of India responded and unanimously offered it, I should show that, without shedding a single drop of blood, Japanese arms – or any combination of arms – can be sterilized. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including That involves the determination of India not to give quarter on any point whatsoever and to be ready to risk loss of several million lives. But I would consider that cost very cheap and victory won at that cost glorious. That India may not be ready to pay that price may be true. I hope it is not true, but some such price must be paid by any country that wants to retain its independence. After all, the sacrifice made by the Russians and the Chinese is enormous, and they are ready to risk all. The same could be said of the other countries also, whether aggressors or defenders. The cost is enormous. Therefore, in the non-violent technique I am asking India to risk no more than other countries are risking and which India would have to risk even if she offered armed resistance.