Approximate extent of East Iranian languages the 1st century BCE is shown in orange. The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca
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The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (Old Iranian Sarumatah 'archer') were a people originally of Iranian stock. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian. Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. Mentioned by classical authors, they migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains around 5th century B. Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Riphean redirects here For the time period see Riphean stage The Ural Mountains (Ура́льские го́ры Uralskiye C. and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia, Ukraine, and the eastern Balkans. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe.
Pliny the Elder (N.H. book iv) wrote that the Latin Sarmatae is identical to the Greek Sauromatae. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author At their greatest reported extent these tribes ranged from the Vistula river to the mouth of the Danube and eastward to the Volga, and from the mysterious domain of the Hyperboreans in the north, southward to the shores of the Black and Caspian seas, including the region between them as far as the Caucasus mountains. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj In Greek mythology, according to tradition the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived far to the north of Thrace. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. This article is about the terrestrial Eurasian mountain range  The richest tombs and the most significant finds of Sarmatian artifacts have been recorded in the Krasnodar Krai of Russia. Krasnodar Krai (Краснода́рский край Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a Krai) located in the Southern Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
The old name of Paraćin (Paratjin) in Serbia was Sarmatae. Paraćin ( Serbian: Параћин Romanian: Paraţin or Paracin) is a town and municipality in Serbia, located in the valley Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae ( Old Iranian Sarumatah 'archer' Σαρμάτες
Around the year 100 BC, Sarmatian land ranged from Barents Sea or Baltic Sea ("Oceanus Sarmaticus") to tributary of Vistula River, to the Carpathian Mountains, to the mouth of the Danube, then eastward along the northern coast of the Black Sea, across the Caucasus to the Caspian Sea and north along the Volga up to the polar circle. The Barents Sea (Barentshavet Баренцево море is a part of the Arctic Ocean located north of Norway and Russia. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians (Carpaţi Czech, Polish and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged Sea. A polar circle is either the Arctic Circle or the Antarctic Circle.
The Sarmatians flourished from the time of Herodotus and allied partly with the Huns when they arrived in the 4th century AD. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy
A popular belief (Sarmatism) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between the 16th and 19th centuries, held that the nobility were direct descendants of the Sarmatians. Sarmatism embodied the dominant Lifestyle, Culture and Ideology of the Szlachta ( Nobility) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, officially the Commonwealth of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania also known as the Most Serene Republic No concrete evidence exists to back up this claim.
In 1947, the leading Soviet historian Boris Grakov defined a culture apparent in late Kurgan graves, sometimes reusing part of much older Kurgans. Boris Nikolaevich Grakov (Борис Николаевич Граков ( in Onega &mdash September 14 1970 in Moscow) was a Soviet Kurgan (курга́н is the Russian word (of Turkic origin for a Tumulus, a type of Burial mound or barrow heaped over a It is a nomadic steppe culture ranging from the Black Sea to beyond the Volga, and is especially evident at two of the major sites at Kardaielova and Chernaya in the trans-Uralic steppe. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Chernaya River (Чёрная река — Chyornaya Reka, or more commonly Чёрная речка — Chyornaya Rechka) literally Black River is a common name
The date of the culture (from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD) and the location are in sync with the written information we have about the Sarmatians. Accordingly Grekov defined four phases:
The Sarmatians of Ptolemy fall into the Middle Sarmatian period. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca However, Grekov’s Sarmatia does not extend at all into the Balto-Slavic range, where the two elements have their own archeologies descending to the Balts and the Slavs. The Balts or Baltic peoples (People who live by the Baltic Sea) defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European
Already anchored in the west in east Europe, the Huns were located to the north of the Alans and extended east to the borders of the Han Dynasty. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. These Huns were quite peaceful trading partners of the Alans. Their archeology and mode of life is nearly indistinguishable from that of the Alans. The various peoples of the extensive eastern plains did own distinctive bronze kettles. A kettle is a Kitchenware piece Depending on culture and historical location in the context of bathware the word kettle can have a variety of meanings Also, the graves of the people of central Asia, including those of the Huns, include remains that many believe are of mixed features, just as are the peoples of central Asia today.
Whatever happened in the east to bring warriors from there upon the Alans did not introduce a new people to the steppes or to Europe. As far as the Sarmatians are concerned, the Hunnic augment from the east only worked an ethnic reversal of dominance. Some Alans chose to flee to the Romans and others to fight for the Huns. The former disappeared into Europe long ago, while the latter remain in the Caucasus region
Herodotus (Histories 4. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. 21) in the 5th century BC placed the land of the Sarmatians east of the Tanais, beginning at the corner of the Maeotian Lake, stretching northwards for fifteen days' journey, adjacent to the forested land of the Budinoi. The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. Tanais ( Greek: Τάναϊς Tánaïs) is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре - Azovskoye more; Азо́вське мо́ре - Azovs'ke more, Azaq deñizi is the world's shallowest sea linked The Budini were an ancient people who lived in Scythia, in what is today Ukraine. Herodotus describes the Sarmatians' physical appearance as blond, stout and tanned; in short, pretty much as the Scythians and Thracians were seen by the other classical authors. "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity
Herodotus (4. 110-117) reports a tale of the origin of the Sauromatae (sg. Σαυρομάτης meaning one who has lizard-like eyes, possibly because of the asiatic almond shaped eyes features), as the descendants of a band of young Scythian men and a group of Amazons. The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical In the story, some Amazons were captured in battle by Greeks in Pontus (northern Turkey) near the river Thermodon, and the captives were loaded into 3 boats. The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical Geography The Black Sea region loosely called Pontus by various scholars has a steep rocky coast with rivers that cascade through the gorges of the coastal ranges Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Terme River (Terme Çayı Θερμώδων Thermōdōn) is in the border of Terme district, located in central northern Turkey between the cities They overcame their captors while at sea, but were not able sailors. Their ships were blown north to the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov) onto the shore of Scythia near the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea). The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре - Azovskoye more; Азо́вське мо́ре - Azovs'ke more, Azaq deñizi is the world's shallowest sea linked The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре - Azovskoye more; Азо́вське мо́ре - Azovs'ke more, Azaq deñizi is the world's shallowest sea linked In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым After encountering the Scythians and learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, but only on the condition that they move away and not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus the descendants of this band settled toward the northeast beyond the Tanais (Don) river and became the Sauromatians. The Don (Дон is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 Kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast Herodotus' account explains the origins of the Sarmatians' language as an "impure" form of Scythian and credits the unusual freedoms of Sauromatae women, including participation in warfare, as an inheritance from their supposed Amazon ancestors. Later writers refer to the "woman-ruled Sarmatae" (γυναικοκρατούμενοι).
Hippocrates (De Aere, etc. Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca , 24) explicitly classes them as Scythian.
Strabo mentions the Sarmatians in a number of places, never saying very much about them. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. He uses both Sarmatai and Sauromatai, but never together, and never suggesting that they are different peoples. He often pairs Sarmatians and Scythians in reference to a series of ethnic names, never stating which is which, as though Sarmatian or Scythian could apply equally to them all. In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th
In Strabo the Sarmatians extend from above the Danube eastward to the Volga, and from north of the Dnepr into the Caucasus, where, he says, they are called Caucasii like everyone else there. For the rocket see Dnepr rocket. For other uses see Dnieper (disambiguation. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East This statement indicates that the Alans already had a home in the Caucasus, without waiting for the Huns to push them there. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people
Even more significantly he points to a Celtic admixture in the region of the Basternae, who, he says, are of Germanic origin. The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian ethnic origin who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo Geography The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Celtic Boii, Scordisci and Taurisci are there. Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Boii ( Latin plural singular Boius; Greek) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various Scordisci were in ancient geography a war-like tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia, comprising parts of the present-day countries Austria, A fourth ethnic element being melted in are the Thracians (7. "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity 3. 2). Moreover, the peoples toward the north are Keltoskythai, "Celtic Scythians" (11. 6. 2).
Strabo also portrays the peoples of the region as being nomadic, or Hamaksoikoi, "wagon-dwellers" and Galaktophagoi, "milk-eaters" referring, no doubt, to the universal koumiss eaten in historical times. Kumis ( Turkish:kımız Mongolian:airag is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk The wagons were used for porting tents made of felt, which must have been the yurts used universally by Asian nomads. Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting condensing and pressing fibers A yurt is a portable Felt -covered wood lattice -framed dwelling structure used by Nomads in the Steppes of Central Asia.
Tacitus is not the only Roman military man to have been interested in the Sarmatians; the admiral, Pliny the Elder, relying on intelligence from Roman military stations in the north (by that time amber from the Baltic was being purchased by Roman agents on location), provides the most defining statement regarding the Sarmatians (4. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author 12. 79-81):
|“||From this point (the mouth of the Danube) all the races in general are Scythian, though various sections have occupied the lands adjacent to the coast, in one place the Getae . The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The Getae ( Greek: Γέται singular Γέτης was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the . . at another the Sarmatae . . . Agrippa describes the whole of this area from the Danube to the sea . . . as far as the river Vistula in the direction of the Sarmatian desert . . . The name of the Scythians has spread in every direction, as far as the Sarmatae and the Germans, but this old designation has not continued for any except the most outlying sections . . . .||”|
What this passage seems to tell us is that the Scythians or Scythian rule once extended even to the Germans, but now remained only in the far districts. Jordanes supports this hypothesis by telling us on the one hand that he was familiar with the Geography of Ptolemy, which includes the entire Balto-Slavic territory in Sarmatia, and on the other that this same region was Scythia. Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca By "Sarmatia", Jordanes means only the Aryan territory. The Sarmatians therefore did come from the Scythians.
Germania omnis a Gallis Raetisque et Pannoniis Rheno et Danuvio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu aut montibus separatur: cetera Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum inmensa spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. The Germania ( Latin title De Origine et situ Germanorum, English for the Origin and Situation of the Germans) written by Gaius The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj
We also read that, like the Persians, the Sarmatians wore long, flowing robes (ch 17). layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Moreover, the Sarmatians exacted tribute from the Cotini and Osi, and iron from the Cotini (ch. Cotini was a Celtic tribe most probably living in today's Slovakia, or (according to occasional opinions in Moravia and southern Poland. 43), “to their shame” (presumably because they could have used the iron to arm themselves and resist).
By the 3rd century BC, the Sarmatian name appears to have supplanted the Scythian in the plains of what is now south Ukraine. The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. The geographer, Ptolemy, reports them at what must be their maximum extent, divided into adjoining European and central Asian sections. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca Considering the overlap of tribal names between the Scythians and the Sarmatians, no new displacements probably took place. The people were the same Indo-Europeans they used to be, but now under yet another name.
Later, Pausanias, viewing votive offerings near the Athenian Acropolis in the 2nd century AD. Pausanias ( Greek:) was a Greek traveller and Geographer of the 2nd century CE, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a Sacred place for Ritual purposes The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. (Description of Greece 1. 21. 5-6), found among them a Sauromic breastplate.
|“||On seeing this a man will say that no less than Greeks are foreigners skilled in the arts: for the Sauromatae have no iron, neither mined by themselves nor yet imported. They have, in fact, no dealings at all with the foreigners around them. To meet this deficiency they have contrived inventions. In place of iron they use bone for their spear-blades, and corneal-wood for their bows and arrows, with bone points for the arrows. The Dogwoods comprise a group of 30-50 species of mostly Deciduous Woody plants growing as Shrubs and Trees some species are herbaceous perennial They throw a lasso round any enemy they meet, and then turning round their horses upset the enemy caught in the lasso. |
Their breastplates they make in the following fashion. Each man keeps many mares, since the land is not divided into private allotments, nor does it bear any thing except wild trees, as the people are nomads. These mares they not only use for war, but also sacrifice them to the local gods and eat them for food. Their hoofs they collect, clean, split, and make from them as it were python scales. Whoever has never seen a python must at least have seen a pine-cone still green. He will not be mistaken if he liken the product from the hoof to the segments that are seen on the pine-cone. These pieces they bore and stitch together with the sinews of horses and oxen, and then use them as breastplates that are as handsome and strong as those of the Greeks. For they can withstand blows of missiles and those struck in close combat.
Pausanias' description is well borne out in a relief from Tanais. These facts are not necessarily incompatible with Tacitus, as the Sarmatians on the west might have kept their iron to themselves, it having been a scarce commodity on the plains. If true, this circumstance argues for a lack of central government or even for bad communication (as opposed to the Persians).
The greater part of the barbarian names occurring in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais and Panticapaeum are supposed to be Sarmatian, and as they have been well explained from the Iranian language now spoken by the Ossetians of the Caucasus (the Ossetic language), these are supposed to be the modern representatives of the Sarmatians and can be shown to have a direct connection with the Alans, one of their tribes. Pontic Olbia or Olvia is the site of a colony founded by the Milesians on the shores of the Southern Bug estuary (Greek Hypanis) Tanais ( Greek: Τάναϊς Tánaïs) is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Panticapaeum ( Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikápaion) present-day Kerch: an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian. The Ossetians (ирæттæ irættæ are an Iranic Ethnic group indigenous to Ossetia, a region that spans the Caucasus Mountains The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Ossetic or Ossetian (Ирон ӕвзаг Iron ævzag or Иронау Ironau) also sometimes called Ossete, is an Iranian The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people
Sarmatians were still a force the Romans had to reckon with in the late 4th century A. D. Ammianus Marcellinus (29. Amiricanus Gambilinus (325/330-after 391 was a fourth-century Roman historian. 6. 13-14) describes a severe defeat, which Sarmatian raiders inflicted upon Roman forces in the province of Valeria in Pannonia in late 374 A. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, D. The Sarmatians almost annihilated both a legion recruited from Moesia and one from Pannonia, which had been sent to intercept a party of Sarmatians who had been pursuing a senior Roman officer named Aequitius deep into Roman territory. Moesia (Μοισία Moisía; Мизия Miziya; Moesia Мезија Mezija) was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the The two legions failed to coordinate and their quarreling allowed the Sarmatians to catch them unprepared and deal a stunning blow.
The Sarmatians remained dominant until the Gothic ascendancy in the Black Sea area and then disappeared at the Hunnish destruction of the Gothic empire and subsequent invasion of central Europe. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Ossetians (ирæттæ irættæ are an Iranic Ethnic group indigenous to Ossetia, a region that spans the Caucasus Mountains The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy From bases in Hungary the Huns ruled the entire former Sarmatian territory. Their various constituents enjoyed a floruit under Hunnish rule, fought for the Huns against a combination of Roman and Germanic troops, and went their own ways after the Battle of Chalons (a stand-off), the death of Attila and the disappearance of the Chuvash ruling elements west of the Volga.
This contradicts Priscus who sees a lot of 'happy' Scythians around Attila. Priscus was from Panium (in Thrace) living in the Roman Empire during the 5th century. They played a significant part in the rise of early Russia. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending
In a recent excavation of Sarmatian sites by Dr. Jeannine Davis-Kimball, a tomb was found wherein female warriors were buried, thus lending some credence to the myths about the Amazons. The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical Amazons are reported as Sauromatae wives.
In Hungary a great Late Sarmatian pottery center was reportedly unearthed between 2001-2006 near Budapest, in Üllő5 archaeological site. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Üllő5 is an archeological site in Hungary, near the village of Üllő, next to Budapest. Typical gray, granular Üllő5 ceramics forms a distinct group of Sarmatian pottery found everywhere in the north-central part of the Great Hungarian Plain region, indicating a lively trading activity. The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Great Alföld, Alföld, or Pannonian Plain) is a plain occupying the southern and eastern part of Hungary A recent paper on the study of glass beads found in Sarmatian graves suggests wide cultural and trade links. 
Those Sarmatians, being in the early Iranian range of south Russia, were probably Iranian people akin to the Scythians/Saka. Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic The Sakas ( English form of Old Iranian Sakā, Nominative plural masculine case; Ancient Greek Σάκαι, The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea Coast indicate that the Sarmatians there spoke a north-eastern Iranian dialect related to Sogdian and Ossetic. Ossetic or Ossetian (Ирон ӕвзаг Iron ævzag or Иронау Ironau) also sometimes called Ossete, is an Iranian
Like the Scythians, Sarmatians were of Caucasian appearance; before the arrival of the Huns it is thought that few of the western steppe peoples had Asiatic or Turco-Mongol features. 
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Below is a list of tribes considered by some to be among the people called Sarmatian, or to be in territory considered Sarmatian. Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Indo-European language family's Centum branch The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in Ancient times. The Dacian language was spoken by the ancient inhabitants of Dacia. The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians a people from Thrace who later migrated to Asia Minor. The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe Tocharian or Tokharian is one of the branches of the Indo-European language family. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Balts or Baltic peoples (People who live by the Baltic Sea) defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European Modern Celts are those peoples who are speakers of Celtic languages, or who consider themselves or have been considered by others to participate in a Celtic culture This is a list of Germanic peoples. Classical philosophy The Greeks assigned names to populations they considered distinct based on the city-state ( The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions The Iranian people are a collection of Ethnic groups defined along linguistic lines as speaking Iranian languages. Latin European peoples are those who speak Romance languages, descended from Vulgar Latin, spread during the time of the Roman Empire. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who spoke a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family and established Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the Celts (ˈkɛlts or /ˈsɛlts/, see Names of the Celts Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic Illyrians has come to refer to a broad ill-defined " Indo-European " group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans ( Illyria, roughly Ancient peoples of Italy are all those peoples that lived in Italy (including the islands of Sicily and Sardinia) before the Roman domination The Scythians or Scyths (Σκύθες Σκύθοι were an Iranian speaking people of horse-riding Nomadic pastoralists who dominated the Pontic "Thracians" also refers to modern inhabitants of Thrace, regardless of ethnicity The Tocharians were the Tocharian -speaking inhabitants of the Tarim basin, making them the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity Indo-Iranian peoples consist of the Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Dardic and Nuristani peoples that is speakers of Indo-Iranian languages The Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi- Nomadic pastoralists subdivided into temporary settlements ( vish, viś and headed Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language, who likely lived around 4000 BC, during the Copper Age and the The society of the Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE existed during the Bronze Age (roughly fifth to fourth millennium BC and has been reconstructed The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European (IE peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European The question of the homeland ( Urheimat) of the Proto-Indo-European peoples and their Proto-Indo-European language has been a recurring topic in Indo-European The Kurgan hypothesis (also theory or model) is a model of early Indo-European origins, which postulates that the Kurgan culture of the Pontic steppe The Anatolian hypothesis is also called Renfrew's NDT; it proposes that the dispersal ( Discontinuity) of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic The Armenian hypothesis of the Proto-Indo-European Urheimat, based on the Glottalic theory suggests that the Proto-Indo-European language The Out of India theory ( OIT, also called the Indian Urheimat Theory) is the proposition that the Indo-European language family originated in The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (or PCT,Italian La teoria della continuità) is a Hypothesis suggesting that the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies is a field of Linguistics dealing with Indo-European languages, both current and extinct
On the whole however the ancients recognized a separate unity, whether of political affiliations, language, or both, called the Sarmatian. We do not know its languages for certain.
One can always find proponents of the hypothesis that two distinct peoples existed, the Sauromatae and the Sarmatae. The Achaei were an ancient people of Scythia, mentioned by Strabo (11 Agathyrsi were a people of Scythian, Thracian, or mixed Thraco-Scythic origin who in the time of Herodotus occupied the plain of the Maris ( Mures The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Hamaxobians, also or Amaxobii or Amaxobians, in ancient Geography, were a kind of people who had no Houses or Tents but lived together The Amazons (in Greek, grc Ἀμαζόνες are a nation of all-female warriors in Classical and Greek mythology, who were possibly historical An anta (pl antæ ( Latin, possibly from ante, 'before' or 'in front of' is an architectural term describing the posts or pillars The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Aspurgiani ( Greek: or) were an ancient people a tribe of the Maeotae dwelling along east side of the Cimmerian Bosporus along the Palus Maeotis The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian ethnic origin who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo Geography The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, The Budini were an ancient people who lived in Scythia, in what is today Ukraine. "Prussians" redirects here "Prussians" may also refer to citizens of the former German state of Prussia. The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău County The Cercetae are an ancient people of Scythia mentioned by Strabo ( Geographia 11 Chionites, Chionitae or Xionites ( Chinese: Xiōng (匈 or Xīróng (西戎 meaning "Western Barbarians" Middle Persian: Xiyon See Cimmeria (Conan or Cimmeria (Poem for the fiction of Robert E The Costoboci were a Dacian tribe which lived in the areas known today as Maramureş and south-western Ukraine. Fenni were a people living in Fennoscandia in the 1st century mentioned by Cornelius Tacitus in Germania in 97 A The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic term Galindians may be applied to two distinct and now extinct tribes of the Balts. In Greek mythology, according to tradition the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived far to the north of Thrace. White Croats ( Byelohravati) is the designation for one group of Slavic (Croatian tribes which migrated to Dalmatia (the coastal part of today's Croatia The Iazyges ( Jazyges is an orthographic variant were a nomadic tribe Melanchlaeni (meaning "black-cloaks" may refer to two ancient tribes The Mysians (Mysi were the inhabitants of Mysia, a region in northwestern Asia Minor. The Ossetians (ирæттæ irættæ are an Iranic Ethnic group indigenous to Ossetia, a region that spans the Caucasus Mountains The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian ethnic origin who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo Geography The Rhoxolani were a Sarmatian people who are believed to be an off-shoot of the Alans. The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Siraces were a Sarmatian tribe The Siraces are believed to be the same as the Serboi. Yotvingians or Sudovians (also called Suduvians, Jatvians, or Jatvingians in English (Jotvingiai Sūduviai Jatvingi Jaćwingowie Яцьвягі WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Tigri is a Census town in the Jyotiba Phule Nagar district in the Indian state The Torekkadae or Toreccadae ( Greek:) are an ancient tribe mentioned by Ptolemy (iii The Tyrageti, Tyragetae, or Tyrangitae (, or, Strabo vii Ptol The Vistula Veneti (alternatively also called the Baltic Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of This is not a popular hypothesis, as both peoples would have to be using many of the same tribal names. Moreover, Jordanes, a churchman of mixed Gothic and Sarmatian background, states that they were the same and that the Goths changed their name in some places to Sarmatians before conquering. Jordanes (also Jordanis or even Iornandes) was a 6th century Roman Bureaucrat, who turned his hand to History later in life The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s
There is a suggestion in Lubotsky's Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (on the Leiden University IED site) that the name is related to the Avestan zarəman-, "old". Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. This is the same zar- that appears in Zarathustra. Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت The exact sense is not clear, but words with that root can mean "senior" and "undying" (through being very old) or kos'tur of sun or fire. This word has the advantage of being in the most appropriate language and of being able to be the source of both Sar- and Sauro-.
The Avesta contains references to a people sairima. In later tradition, recorded in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, "Salm" is one of three sons of Fereydun, and the ancestor of the European peoples. Hakīm Abū l-Qāsim Firdawsī Tūsī ( more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935&ndash1020 was a highly revered Persian Poet. Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma ((alternative spellings are Shahnama Shahnameh Shahname Shah-Nama, etc Salm is a character in the Persian epic Shahnameh. He is the oldest son of legendary hero and king Fereydun. Fereydūn (فریدون also pronounced Farīdūn, in medieval Persian Firēdūn, Middle Persian Frēdōn, and Avestan Θraētaona
Since there is the theory that the linguistic descendants of the Sarmatians are the Ossetians
(contrary to, at that time completely unknown genetic data), one may include the three following theories for the origin of the name: 1) Dumezil: oss. The Ossetians (ирæттæ irættæ are an Iranic Ethnic group indigenous to Ossetia, a region that spans the Caucasus Mountains Georges Dumézil ( March 4, 1898 – October 11, 1986) was a French comparative Philologist best known for his analysis of Sovereignty saw (black) scr. róman- (fur), oss tae (plural marker) 2) Abaev: oss. Vaso (Vasily Ivanovich Abaev (Ossetian Абайты Васо, Russian Василий Иванович Абаев, also transilterated as Abaity and saw (black) oss arm (arm), oss tae (plural marker) 3) Christol: *sarumant (archer) from scr. saru (arrow)
The Indo-European root, which is the *ĝerh2- of Julius Pokorny, "old", opens out exciting speculations. Julius Pokorny ( 12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was a scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter The word Greek, Latin Graeci, is from the same root, originating from an obscure Balkan tribe, the Graioi, which the ancients took to be "the old ones. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca " In the area of Sauro-matae lived Ma-zurian. If zur(zar -sun) is similar to saur (sol -sun) then is also related to water founded 'zur niesiemy zur', vedi vodi or (sola sla). Graroi, given ż<>g<>h may be related to Żaroi Graroi Haroy Harian Hurian or even Hunga till today sing as Ha'Hary, Compare the war cray Hurra of people from this area. Sarmatian is the satem equivalent of centum Greek. It must be noted here that Αέρα ( AERA ) is the Greek battle cry to this day. A genetic commonality would require an original satem word in Proto-Indo-European. Such a connection is speculative at this point.
The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea Coast indicate that the Sarmatians spoke a North-Eastern Iranian dialect ancestral to Ossetic (see Scytho-Sarmatian). The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Ossetic or Ossetian (Ирон ӕвзаг Iron ævzag or Иронау Ironau) also sometimes called Ossete, is an Iranian The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languagesspoken by the Scythian ( Sarmatian  One of the inscription reads "Clnyslovenepomnotceleshka".