States and Territories of Malaysia
|State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti|
(Unity, Effort, Devotion)
|Anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku|
|Ruling party||Barisan Nasional|
|- Yang di-Pertua Negeri||Abang Muhammad Salahuddin|
|- Ketua Menteri||Abdul Taib Mahmud|
|- Brunei Sultanate||19th century|
|- Brooke dynasty||1841|
|- Japanese occupation||1941-1945|
|- British control||1946|
|- Accession into Malaysia||1963|
|- Total||124,450 km²|
|- 2006 estimate||2,357,500|
|- Density||19. The Flag of the Malaysian state of Sarawak is based on the flag of the Kingdom of Sarawak of the White Rajah. Ibu Pertiwiku ( English: My Motherland) is the official state anthem of Sarawak, Malaysia. Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. The 12th Malaysian general election was held on March 8, 2008, in accordance with Malaysian laws for national elections, which states that a general election Barisan Nasional ( National Front or BN) is a major political Coalition in Malaysia. Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the "head of state" in Malay, is the official title of the (largely symbolic State Governors of the Malaysian Tuan Yang Terutama Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Haji Muhammad Salahuddin is the fifth and current Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sarawak. A Chief Minister is the elected Head of government of a sub-national (e Pehin Sri Dr Haji Abdul Taib bin Mahmud (born 21 May 1936 in Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia) is the current Chief Minister of The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946 namely the Brookes who came originally from England Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 1/km²|
|HDI (2000)||0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 757 (medium)|
|National calling code||082a|
|National postal code||93xxx to 98xxx|
|Licence plate prefix||QA & QK1|
|a For Kuching & Serian|
b For Sri Aman
c For Sarikei, Kapit & Sibu
d For Lawas, Limbang & Miri
e For Bintulu
² Sri Aman
³ Kota Samarahan
10 Sarawak State Government vehicle
Sarawak (Jawi: سراوق) is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Telephone numbering in Malaysia is regulated by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC The postal codes used in Malaysia is a 5 digit code Listed below are the first 2 digits of codes assigned to each state and special administrative area Malaysian vehicle license plates ( Malay: Nombor plet kenderaan Malaysia or Nombor pendaftaran kenderaan Malaysia) are License Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. Sri Aman is a town and the capital of the Sri Aman District (2323 Sarikei is a town and the capital of the Sarikei District (985 square kilometers in Sarikei Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia. Kapit is a town and the capital of the Kapit District in Kapit Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia on the south bank of the Rajang River. Sibu is a town and the capital of Sibu District (2298 square kilometers in Sibu Division History In the 1970s up until the early 1990s Lawas and nearby Limbang was notorious for being the sin capitals of Sarawak Limbang is a border town and the capital of Limbang District in the Limbang Division of northern Sarawak, East Malaysia Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Bintulu is a coastal town and the capital of Bintulu District (7220 Jawi (جوي Jăwi (or Yawi in Pattani) is an adapted Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and An island (ˈaɪlənd or isle (/ˈaɪl/ is any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water in two dimensions above high tide and isolated from other significant Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. Known as Bumi Kenyalang (‘Land of the Hornbills’), it is situated on the north-west of the island. Hornbills ( family Bucerotidae) are a group of Birds characterized by a long down-curved bill sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible It is the largest state in Malaysia; the second largest, Sabah, lies to the northeast. Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo.
The administrative capital is Kuching which has a population of 579,900 (2006 census; Kuching City South - 143,500; Kuching City North - 133,600; Padawan- 3rd Mile/ 7th Mile/ 10th Mile - 302,800). Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology The name Kuching literally means ‘cat’ (kucing). Major cities and towns also include Sibu (pop. Sibu is a town and the capital of Sibu District (2298 square kilometers in Sibu Division 254,000), Miri (pop. Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. 263,000) and Bintulu (pop. Bintulu is a coastal town and the capital of Bintulu District (7220 176,800). As of last census (Dec 31, 2006), the state population was 2,357,500. Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. For more details about the population see Demographics of Malaysia, though it is interesting to note that Sarawak is, like Sabah to the north, a multicultural state, with no ethnic majority. Ethnicity Malays See also Malays (ethnic group Malays are an ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula
The eastern seaboard of Borneo had been charted (though never settled) by the Portuguese in the early 16th century. The Kingdom of Sarawak was a state established by Sir James Brooke in 1842 by gaining independence from the Sultanate of Brunei. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The area of today's Sarawak was known to Portuguese cartographers as Cerava. Sarawak had been a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei Sultanate in the early 19th century, although in the early 17th century Sarawak had her own the first and the last Sultan, Sultan Tengah. Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام During the reign of Pangeran Indera Mahkota in 19th century, Sarawak was in chaos. Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II (1827-1852) the Sultan of Brunei, ordered Pangeran Muda Hashim in 1839 to restore order and it was during this time that James Brooke arrived in Sarawak. James The Rajah of Sarawak (born James Brooke; 29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was the first White Rajah of Pangeran Muda Hashim initially requested for assistance but James Brooke refused. In 1841, James Brooke paid another visit to Sarawak and this he agreed to assist Pangeran Muda Hashim signed a treaty in 1841 surrendering Sarawak and Sinian to James Brooke. Thereafter, on 24 September 1841, Pangeran Muda Hashim bestowed the title Governor to James Brooke. He effectively became the Rajah of Sarawak and founded the White Rajah Dynasty of Sarawak, later extending his administration through an agreement with the Sultan of Brunei.
Brooke was appointed Rajah by the Sultan of Brunei on August 18, 1842; originally this territory was just the western end of later Sarawak, around Kuching. For other uses see Raja (disambiguation and Rajah (disambiguation. Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام Events 293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica. Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. He ruled Sarawak until his death in 1868. His nephew Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke became Rajah after his death; he was succeeded on his death in 1917 by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke, with a provision that Charles should rule in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke. Charles The Rajah of Sarawak GCMG ( Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke) ( June 3 1829 – May 17 1917) born Charles Vyner The Rajah of Sarawak GCMG ( Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke) ( 26 September 1874 &ndash 9 May 1963) was the third The territory was greatly expanded under the White Rajahs, mostly at the expense of areas nominally under the control of Brunei. The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946 namely the Brookes who came originally from England Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام In practice Brunei had only controlled strategic river and coastal forts in much of the lost territory, and so most of the gain was at the expense of Muslim warlords and of the de facto independence of local tribes. Brunei Darussalam, (bruːˈnaɪ in English officially the State of Brunei Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam Jawi: برني دارالسلام
The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the "White Rajahs", accorded a status within the British Empire similar to that of the rulers of Indian princely states. The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946 namely the Brookes who came originally from England For other uses see Principality, Other princely states A Princely State (also called Native State or Indian State) was a In contrast to many other areas of the empire, however, the Brooke family was intent on a policy of paternalism to protect the indigenous population against exploitation. Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a Family based on Patriarchy, that is there is a figurehead They governed with the aid of the Muslim Malay and enlisted the Ibans and other "Dayak" as a contingent militia. The Dayak or Dyak (ˈdaɪək are the peoples indigenous to Borneo. They also encouraged the immigration of Chinese merchants but forbade the Chinese to settle outside of towns in order to minimize the impact on the Dayak way of life. They also established the Sarawak Museum, the first museum in Borneo. The Sarawak State Museum is the oldest museum in Borneo. It was established in 1888 and opened in 1891 in a purpose-built building in Kuching, Sarawak.
In the early part of 1941 preparations were afoot to introduce a new constitution, designed to limit the power of the Rajah and give the people of Sarawak a greater say in government.
While the intention was clearly admirable, the draft constitution contained defects and improprieties, not least by reason of a secret agreement drawn up between Charles Vyner Brooke and his top government officials, by which he was to be financially compensated for this gesture out of treasury funds.
Japan invaded Sarawak and occupied the island of Borneo in 1941, occupying Miri on December 16 and Kuching on December 24, and held it for the duration of World War II until the area was secured by Australian forces in 1945. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. For campaigns on eastern Borneo see Battle of Tarakan (1942 and Battle of Balikpapan (1942. Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. Events 563 - The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by Earthquakes For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Rajah formally ceded sovereignty to the British Crown on July 1, 1946, under pressure from his wife among others. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In addition the British Government offered a healthy pension to sweeten the negotiations. His nephew Anthony continued to claim sovereignty as Rajah of Sarawak. Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, (born 10 December 1912) was appointed His Highness the Rajah Muda of Sarawak ( Heir apparent
After the end of the Second World War, Anthony Brooke then opposed the cession of the Rajah's territory to the British Crown, and was associated with anti-secessionist groups in Sarawak. Anthony Walter Dayrell Brooke, (born 10 December 1912) was appointed His Highness the Rajah Muda of Sarawak ( Heir apparent Anthony was banished from the country. He was allowed to return only seventeen years later, when Sarawak became part of the Federation of Malaysia.
Sarawak became a British colony (it was formerly an independent state under British protection) in July 1946, but Brooke's campaign continued. The Malays in particular resisted the cession to Britain, dramatically assassinating the first British governor. Sarawak was one of the main sites of the Indonesian Confrontation between 1962 and 1966. It became an autonomous state of the federation of Malaysia on September 16, 1963, despite initial opposition from parts of the population. Malaysia is a Federation which consists of thirteen '''states''' ( Negeri) and three '''federal territories''' ( Wilayah Persekutuan For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Events 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr is declared Prince of Wales by his followers Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Having land area of 124,450 km² spreading between latitude 0° 50′ and 5°N and longitude 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E, it makes up 37. Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi ( Φ) gives the location of a place on Earth (or other planetary body north or south of the Longitude (ˈlɒndʒɪˌtjuːd or ˈlɒŋgɪˌtjuːd symbolized by the Greek character Lambda (λ is the east-west Geographic coordinate measurement 5% of the land of Malaysia. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Sarawak also contains large tracts of tropical rain forest home to an abundance of plant and animal species.
Sarawak is currently divided into eleven Administrative Divisions: Kuching Division, Samarahan Division, Sri Aman Division, Betong Division, Sarikei Division, Sibu Division, Mukah Division, Kapit Division, Bintulu Division, Miri Division and Limbang Division. Kuching Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Sri Aman Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Betong Division, formed on March 26 2002, is the 11th and newest of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, Sarikei Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, located on the island of Borneo. Pdm Filemon Sukardi is the leader Sibu Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Mukah Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Kapit Division, formed on April 2 1973, is the seventh of eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Bintulu Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Miri Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Limbang Division is an administrative division of Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo.
The state stretches for some 750 km along the north east coastline of Borneo, interrupted in the north by about 150 km of Brunei coast. Sarawak is separated from the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These get higher to the north and culminate near the source of the Baram River with the steep Mount Batu Lawi, Mount Mulu in the Park of the same name and Mount Murud with the highest peak in Sarawak. The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. Mount Mulu ( Gunung Mulu) is a Sandstone and Shale mountain It is the second highest mountain in the state of Sarawak, after Mount Murud Mount Murud or Muru ( Malay: Gunung Murud) is a Sandstone mountain located in the Malaysian part of Borneo.
The most important rivers are from the south to the north. These include Sarawak River, the Lupar River, the Saribas River, the Rajang River with 563 km the longest river in Malaysia with the Baleh River branch, the Baram River, the Limbang River that drains into the Brunei Bay as it divides the two parts of Brunei and the Trusan River that also flows into the Brunei Bay. Sarawak River or Sungai Sarawak is a river in Sarawak state of Malaysia. The Rajang River is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river is located in northwest of Borneo and it originates in the Iran Mountains Balleh River is a river in Sarawak state Malaysia. It is a tributary of the Rajang River. The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo.
Sarawak can be divided into three natural regions. The coastal region is rather low lying flat country with large extents of swamps and other wet environments. A swamp is a Wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water The hill region provides most of the easily inhabited land. Most of the larger cities and towns have been built in this region. As the swamps make up much of the coast, the ports of Kuching and Sibu have been built some distance from the coast on rivers, while Bintulu and Miri are close to the coast at the only places that the hills stretch right to the China Sea. Sibu is a town and the capital of Sibu District (2298 square kilometers in Sibu Division The third region is the mountain region along the border and with the Kelabit and Murut highlands in the north. The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous people of the Sarawak highlands with a minority in the neighbouring state of Brunei
Sarawak is naturally blessed with vast areas of both lowland and highland rainforest. However, Sarawak has been hit hard by the logging industry and the expansion of monoculture tree plantations and oil palm plantations. Malaysia's deforestation rate is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. Statistics estimate Sarawak's primary forest has been depleted by around 90%. Malaysia's rates of deforestation are among the highest in Asia, jumping almost 86 percent between the 1990-2000 period and 2000-2005. In total, Malaysia lost an average of 1,402 km² —0. 65 percent of its forest area—per year since 2000 . By comparison, South East Asian countries lost an average of 0. 35% of their forest per annum during the 1990s.
Sarawak has more than 40 ethnic groups, each with their own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, and a smaller percentage of Ibans and Bidayuhs who have migrated from their home-villages for employment reasons. Origins The Melanau were in the 19th Century settled in scattered communities along the main tributaries of the Rajang River in Central Sarawak Han Chinese ( are an Ethnic group native to China and by most modern definitions the largest single Ethnic group in the world. Iban could be The Iban people (or Sea Dayak) an ethnic group in Kalimantan ( Indonesian Borneo) and Sarawak Location Predominantly Bidayuh areas are Lundu, Bau, Penrissen Padawan, and Serian. Sarawak is rather distinctive from the rest of Malaysia in that there is only a small community of Indians living in the state.
The Ibans form the largest percentage of Sarawak's population, making up some 30%. Gawai Day or Gawai Dayak, a festival celebrated in Sarawak on 1 June every year is both a religious and social occasion Debak is small town and district in Betong Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia. Betong may refer to Places in Sarawak Malaysia Betong Sarawak (town Betong Division Places in Reputed to be the most formidable headhunters on the island of Borneo, the Ibans of today are a generous, hospitable and placid people. Because of their history as pirates and fishermen, they were conventionally referred to as the "Sea Dayaks". The early Iban settlers who migrated from Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo south of Sarawak) set up home in the river valleys of Batang Ai, the Skrang River, Saribas, and the Rajang River. The Ibans dwell in longhouses, a stilted structure comprising many rooms housing a whole community of families. In Archaeology and Anthropology, a long house or longhouse is a type of long narrow single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world
The Ibans are renowned for their Pua Kumbu (traditional Iban weavings), silver craftings, wooden carvings and beadwork. Pua Kumbu is a traditional patterned multicolored ceremonial cotton cloth used by the Iban, made and used in Sarawak, Malaysia. Iban tattoos which were originally symbols of bravery for the Iban warriors have become amongst the most distinctive in the world.
The Ibans are also famous for their tuak, a sweet rice wine which is served during big celebrations and festive occasions.
Today, the majority of Ibans practice Christianity. However, like most other ethnic groups in Sarawak, they still hold strong to their many traditional rituals and beliefs. Sarawak is unique to colourful festivals such as the Gawai Dayak (harvest festival), Gawai Kenyalang (hornbill festival) penuaian padi and Gawai Antu (festival of the dead). A harvest festival is an annual celebration which occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region Festival of the Dead is held by many cultures throughout the world in honor or recognition of deceased members of the community generally occurring after the harvest in August September
The Chinese first came to Sarawak as traders and explorers in the 6th century. Today, they make up 29% of the population of Sarawak and comprise of communities built from the economic migrants of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The first Chinese (Hakka) migrants worked as labourers in the gold mines at Bau or on plantations. The Hakkas ( Hakka language: Hak-kâ; Mandarin Chinese: Kèjiā) are a subgroup of the Han Chinese people who live predominantly Through their clan associations, business acumen and work ethic, the Chinese organised themselves economically and rapidly dominated commerce. Today, the Chinese are amongst Sarawak's most prosperous ethnic groups.
The Sarawak Chinese belong to a wide range of dialect groups, the most significant being Hakka, Hokkien, Foochow, Teochew, Cantonese and Henghua. The Hakkas ( Hakka language: Hak-kâ; Mandarin Chinese: Kèjiā) are a subgroup of the Han Chinese people who live predominantly Hokkien, Hakka, Foochow and Mandarin are the most widely spoken dialects. The Hakkas ( Hakka language: Hak-kâ; Mandarin Chinese: Kèjiā) are a subgroup of the Han Chinese people who live predominantly The Chinese maintain their ethnic heritage and culture and celebrate all the major cultural festivals, most notably Chinese New Year and the Hungry Ghost Festival. The Sarawak Chinese are predominantly Buddhists and Christians.
The Malays make up 21% of the population in Sarawak. Traditionally fishermen, these seafaring people chose to form settlements on the banks of the many rivers of Sarawak. Today, many Malays have migrated to the cities where they are heavily involved in the public and private sectors and taken up various professions. Malay villages (kampungs) - a cluster of wooden houses on stilts, many of which are still located by rivers on the outskirts of major towns and cities, play home to traditional cottage industries. The Malays are famed for their wood carvings, silver and brass craftings as well as traditional Malays textile weaving with silver and gold thread (kain songket).
Malays are Muslim by religion, having brought the faith to Asia some 600 years ago. Their religion is reflected in their culture and art and Islamic symbolism is evident in local architecture - from homes to government buildings.
The Melanaus have been thought to be amongst the original settlers of Sarawak. Originally from Mukah (the 10th Administrative Division as launched in March 2002), the Melanaus traditionally lived in tall houses. Nowadays, they have adopted a Malay lifestyle, living in kampong-type settlements. Traditionally, Melanaus were fishermen and till today, they are reputed as some of the finest boat-builders and craftsmen.
While the Melanaus are ethnically different from the Malays, their lifestyles and practices are quite similar especially in the larger towns and cities where most Melanau have adopted the Islamic faith.
The Melanaus were believed to originally worship spirits in a practice verging on paganism. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Today most of them are Muslim and some are christians, though they still celebrate traditional animist festivals such as the annual Kaul Festival.
Originally from West Kalimantan, the Bidayuhs are now most numerous in the hill country of Bau and Serian, within an hour's drive from Kuching. Historically, as other tribes were migrating into Sarawak and forming settlements, the meek-natured Bidayuhs retreated further inland, hence earning them the name of "Land Dayaks". The traditional Bidayuh abode is the "baruk", a roundhouse that rises about 1. 5 metres off the ground. Typical of the Sarawak indigenous groups, the Bidayuhs are well-known for their hospitality, and are reputed to be the best makers of tuak, or rice wine.
The Bidayuhs speak a number of different but related dialects. To some Bidayuhs they either speak Malay or English as lingua franca. While some of them still practice traditional religions, most modern-day Bidayuhs have adopted the Christian faith.
The phrase Orang Ulu means upriver people and is a term used to collectively describe the numerous tribes that live upriver in Sarawak's vast interior. Such groups include the major Kayan and Kenyah tribes, and the smaller neighbouring groups of the Kajang, Kejaman, Punan, Ukit, and Penan. Nowadays, the definition also includes the down-river tribes of the Lun Bawang, Lun Dayeh(mean upriver/far upstream), Murut, Berawan, Saban as well as the plateau-dwelling Kelabits. The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei ( Temburong District The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous people of the Sarawak highlands with a minority in the neighbouring state of Brunei The various Orang Ulu groups together make up roughly 5. 5% of Sarawak's population. The Orang Ulu are artistic people with longhouses elaborately decorated with murals and woodcarvings. They are also well-known for their intricate beadwork detailed tattoos. The Orang Ulu tribe can also be identified by their unique music - distinctive sounds from their sape, a stringed instrument not unlike the mandolin.
A vast majority of the Orang Ulu tribe are Christians but old traditional religions are still practiced in some areas.
Some of the major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group include :
There are approximately 15,000 Kayans in Sarawak. The Kayan tribe built their longhouses in the northern interiors of Sarawak midway on the Baram River, the upper Rejang River and the lower Tubau River, and were traditionally headhunters. They are well known for their boat making skills, which they carve from a single block of belian, the strongest of the tropical hardwoods.
Although many Kayan have become Christians, some are still practise paganistic beliefs, but these are very rare today.
With a population of approximately 3000, the Kelabit are inhabitants of Bario - a remote plateau in the Sarawak Highlands, slightly over 1,200 meters above sea-level. The Kelabits form a tight-knit community and practise a generations-old form of agriculture. Famous for their rice-farming, they also cultivate a variety of other crops which are suited to the cooler climate of the Highlands of Bario.
The Kelabit are predominantly Christian, the Bario Highlands having been visited by Christian missionaries many years ago.
There are few findings on the exact origin of the Kenyah tribe. Their heartland however, is Long San, along the Baram River. Their culture is very similar to that of the Kayan tribe with whom they live in close association. The typical Kenyah village consists of only one longhouse and the people are mainly farmers, planting rice in burnt jungle clearings. With the rapid economic development, especially in timber industry, many of them work in timber camps.
The Penan are the only true nomadic people in Sarawak and are amongst the last of the world's hunter-gatherers. The Penan are a Nomadic Aboriginal people living in Sarawak and Brunei.  The Penan make their home under the rainforest canopy, deep within the vast expanse of Sarawak's virgin jungle. Even today, the Penan continue to roam the rainforest hunting wild boar and deer with blowpipes. The Penan are skilled weavers and make high-quality rattan baskets and mats. The traditional Penan religion worships a supreme god called Bungan. However, the increasing number who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle for settlement in longhouses have converted to Christianity.
Sarawakians practice a variety of religions, including Islam, Christianity, Chinese folk religion (a fusion of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and ancestor worship) and animism. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Chinese folk religion is a collective label given to various folkloric beliefs that draws heavily from Chinese mythology. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Many converts to Christianity among the Dayak peoples also continue to practice traditional ceremonies, particularly with dual marriage rites and during the important harvest and ancestral festivals such as Gawai Dayak, Gawai Kenyalang and Gawai Antu. Gawai Day or Gawai Dayak, a festival celebrated in Sarawak on 1 June every year is both a religious and social occasion
One of the least known tribes in Sarawak and be found in upper Tinjar river. Sebob are the first Tinjar settlers along the Tinjar river and it is said that the other tribes came later(migrated) The sebob/chebob tribes occupies up to 6 six longhouse in Tinjar namely; Long Luyang, Long Batan, Long Selapun, Long Pejawai,and Long Subeng. (All these names come from small stream where they lived) Amongst the longhouses, Long Luyang is the longest and most populated Sebob/Chebob settlement. It comprises almost 100 units. Most of these people have migrated and found work in the cities.
Sarawak's rainforests have been gradually depleted by the demand driven by the logging industry and the following introduction of palm oil plantations. Many of Sarawak's rural communities have felt changes affected by the economic activity of these industries. Peaceful protests and timber blockades between native communities and logging companies are common, often resulting in preventive police action. The Penan, Borneo's nomadic hunter gatherers have been most affected by these changes, complaining of illness through polluted rivers, game depletion resulting in widespread hunger and loss of traditional medicines and forest products. Their resistance to logging companies culminated in a series of protests and timber blockades in the 1990s, of which many were dismantled by the Police, within the remit of the Law. The Penan claim that their rights are not respected by the State nor by logging companies . Another example, the native customary rights court case of Rumah Nor in the Kemena Basin gave rural communities engaged in subsistence farming hope for continued communal use of land reserves. Native customary rights to land in Sarawak was a system of land tenure based on adat (native customary laws that existed prior to British arrival in Sarawak. Although the Court of Appeal ruled against Rumah Nor on the grounds that they had not produced sufficient evidence for their claim, it nevertheless upheld the principles stated by the lower court. These principles are the basis of not only Rumah Nor's claim, but of the claims of all Sarawak's native communities, namely, (i) that native customary rights are NOT created by legislation, although they can be extinguished by legislation, on condition of adequate compensation, and (ii) that these communities have a territory including forest reserves and rivers, and farmland, including land under fallow. Thus, although the Court of Appeal ruled against Rumah Nor's specific claims, it upheld the lower court's ruling in favour of Rumah Nor with regard to the general principles. In this sense, it represents a significant blow to the state's claims that native customary rights comprise only those rights recognised by the state through its legislation.
The problems caused by logging in Sarawak were starkly illustrated in Bruce Parry's BBC TV series, Tribe in 2007 (Series 3). He spent time living with the Penan and was shown some of the effects and heard them voice their concerns. He felt unable to help except by broadcasting their views around the world. . .
Sarawak is blessed with an abundance of natural resources. LNG and petroleum have provided the mainstay of the Malaysia federal government's economy for decades while State of Sarawak only get 5% royalty from it. Not to be confused with Natural Gas Liquids (NGL Liquefied natural gas or LNG is Natural gas (primarily Methane, CH4 Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Sarawak is also one of the world's largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber and is the major contributor to Malaysian exports. Lumber or timber is Wood in any of its stages from felling through readiness for use as structural Material for Construction, or This has led to wide scale deforestation of Sarawak's rainforest. The last UN statistics estimated Sarawak's sawlog exports at an average of 14109000 m³ between 1996 and 2000 .
With such vast land expanse, Sarawak has large tracts of land suitable for commercial agricultural development. Approximately 32% or about 40,000 km² of the state's total land area has been identified as suitable agricultural land. Nevertheless, less than 9% of this is planted with productive permanent crops, while the balance is still under shifting cultivation for hill paddy (rice) which is estimated at more than 16,000 km². Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many The main commercial crops are oil palm, which has been increasing steadily over the years, sago, and pepper. The oil palms ( Elaeis) comprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family Sago is a Starch extracted from the Pith inside stems of the sago palm Metroxylon sagu Black pepper ( Piper nigrum) is a flowering Vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its Fruit, which is usually dried
Since the 1980s, Sarawak has started to diversify and transform its economy into a more industrialized one. This endeavor has been seeing continuing success, with manufacturing and high-tech industries now playing a significant role in shaping the economic expansion of the state.
The global economic environment is expected to remain robust and dynamic right up to the next decade, with both the industrial and developing countries anticipated to maintain sustainable output growth. Global trade is predicted to expand by about 8%. This continuing favorable external outlook should keep the high growth momentum of the state's economy at a steady and stable level.
As the largest state in the Federation of Malaysia, Sarawak aims to be a fully developed state along with the rest of the country by 2020. For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and Sarawak has identified four sectors as key sources of growth:
The availability of vast competitively-priced land and rich reserves of natural resources has made Sarawak an attractive choice for manufacturing operations among investors. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, "making by hand" is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure