|Samuel R. "Sandy" Berger|
|Born||October 28, 1945 |
|Occupation||Lobbyist, Financial Services Industry, Campaign Advisor|
Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger (born October 28, 1945) served as the 19th United States National Security Advisor under President Bill Clinton from 1997 to 2001. The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Adviser (abbreviated NSA, or sometimes ANSA The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Sharon is a town located in Litchfield County, Connecticut, in the northwest corner of the state Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National Security Adviser (abbreviated NSA, or sometimes ANSA The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States In his position, he helped to formulate the foreign policy of the Clinton Administration. The Foreign policy of the Clinton Administration was the Foreign policy of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President of the United States Bill During this time he advised the President regarding the Khobar Towers bombing, Operation Desert Fox and other actions against Iraq, the NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia, responses to the terrorist bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the administration's policy of engagement with the People's Republic of China. The Khobar Towers bombing was a terrorist attack on part of a housing complex in the city of Khobar, Saudi Arabia, located near the national oil company ( Saudi The December 1998 bombing of Iraq (code-named Operation Desert Fox) was a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16 - December 19 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (code-named Operation Allied Force) was NATO 's military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that In the 1998 US Embassy bombings ( August 7, 1998) hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous Car bomb explosions at the United States The Republic of Kenya is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north Somalia to the northeast Tanzania to the south Tanzania ˌtænzəˈniːə officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES  He was also one of the prominent actors of the Camp David 2000 Summit. The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister
Before joining the administration Berger had worked as an international trade attorney. Currently, he is chairman of an international advisory firm and chairman of the board of an international investment fund. Living in the Georgetown section of Washington, D.C., he is married to Susan Berger and has three children (two daughters and one son). Georgetown is a Neighborhood located in the Northwest quadrant of Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D
In April 2005, Berger pled guilty to a misdemeanor charge of unauthorized removal and retention of classified material from the National Archives in Washington. The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged According to the lead prosecutor in the case Berger only took copies of classified information and that no original material was destroyed; however, there is notable controversy and speculation that he might have removed or destroyed originals of other unknown documents as well.
Berger currently serves as a foreign policy adviser to Senator Hillary Clinton in her presidential campaign. Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26 1947 is the junior United States Senator from 
Originally from Millerton, New York where his parents ran an Army-Navy store (and born in nearby Sharon, Connecticut), Berger earned his Bachelor of Arts degree from Cornell University in 1967 and his Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from Harvard Law School in 1971. Millerton is a Village in Dutchess County, New York, United States. A surplus store sells items that are used or purchased but unused and no longer needed Sharon is a town located in Litchfield County, Connecticut, in the northwest corner of the state Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional Harvard Law School (also known as Harvard Law or HLS) is one of the professional Graduate schools of Harvard University. At Cornell, Berger was a member of the Quill and Dagger society with Paul Wolfowitz and Stephen Hadley. Quill and Dagger is a senior honor society at Cornell University. Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a former United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U Stephen John Hadley (born February 13, 1947, in Toledo Ohio) is the current (21st U Opposed to the Vietnam War, Berger began working for Senator George McGovern's presidential campaign in 1972. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives George Stanley McGovern While there, he met Bill Clinton, forming a friendship that would last for decades. Berger later urged Clinton to run for president. 
After the McGovern campaign, Berger gained experience working in a variety of government posts, including serving as Special Assistant to former New York City Mayor John Lindsay and Legislative Assistant to former U. The City of New York John Vliet Lindsay ( November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American Politician who served as a member of the S. Senator Harold Hughes of Iowa and Congressman Joseph Resnick of New York. Harold Everett Hughes ( February 10 1922 – October 23 1996) was the Democratic Governor of Iowa from 1963 until 1969 The State of Iowa ( is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America. Joseph Yale Resnick ( July 13, 1924 - October 6, 1969) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous He was also Deputy Director of Policy Planning for the U.S. State Department from 1977 to 1980 under Secretary of State Cyrus Vance during the Carter administration. The Director of Policy Planning is the United States Department of State official in charge of the Department's internal think tank the Policy Planning Staff. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs Cyrus Roberts Vance ( Clarksburg West Virginia, March 27, 1917 &ndash January 12, 2002) was the United States Secretary of State James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 
After leaving the State Department, Berger went on to join the law firm Hogan & Hartson where he helped expand the firm's international law practice. Founded in 1904 Hogan & Hartson is the oldest major law firm headquartered in Washington D As a partner, he opened the firm's first two international offices, in London and Brussels. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is  "Sandy Berger," Nancy Pelosi said in 1997 prior to becoming Speaker of the House, "was the point person at. Nancy Patricia D'Alesandro Pelosi (born March 26 1940 is the current Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer&mdashor speaker &mdashof the United States House of Representatives. . . Hogan & Hartson. . . for the trade office of the Chinese government. Power within the Government of the People's Republic of China is divided among three bodies the Communist Party of China, the state and the People's He was a lawyer-lobbyist. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups "
Berger served as Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to Governor Clinton during the campaign, and as Assistant Transition Director for National Security of the 1992 Clinton-Gore Transition. The Governor of the State of Arkansas is the chief executive of the state and Commander-in-chief of its military forces. During Clinton's first term of office (1993-1997), Berger served as deputy national security advisor, under Anthony Lake in the National Security Council. The Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the Deputy National Security Advisor, is a member of the Executive Office of Anthony Lake (born April 2, 1939) is an American diplomat, political figure, and academic. The White House National Security Council ( NSC) in the United States is the principal forum used by the President for considering National In Clinton's second term of office, Berger succeeded Lake as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs from 1997 to 2001.
After leaving the Clinton administration, Berger became chairman of Stonebridge International, an international advisory firm he co-founded in 2001 which focuses on aiding companies in their expansion into markets such as Brazil, China, India, and Russia. Stonebridge International is an international advisory firm that helps businesses get a foothold in countries such as Brazil, the People's Republic of China, |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending  Berger is also Chairman of the DB Zwirn Global Advisory Board, an international investment fund and merchant capital provider founded in 2001 and with offices throughout North America, Europe and Asia.  Berger is an Advisory Board member for the Partnership for a Secure America, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recreating the bipartisan center in American national security and foreign policy. The Partnership for a Secure America ( PSA) is a Non-profit organization is a policy center in the United States.
In late 2003, Berger was called to testify before the 9/11 Commission regarding steps taken against terrorism during his tenure and the information he provided to his successor, Condoleezza Rice. 9/11 Commission ReportThe National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002 Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States At the time, Berger was also acting as an informal foreign policy advisor to Senator John Kerry during his campaign for the presidency. } John Forbes Kerry (born December 11 1943 is an American Politician who is currently serving his fourth term as the junior United States Senator He quit his advisory role after controversy arose regarding his preparations for testifying before the September 11 committee. 
In November 1997, Berger paid a $23,000 civil penalty to settle conflict of interest allegations stemming from his failure to sell his stock of Amoco Corporation as ordered by the White House. Civil law, as opposed to Criminal law, refers to that branch of Law dealing with disputes between Individuals and/or Organizations, in which A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust such as a Lawyer, Insurance adjuster, a Politician, executive or director Software for Fixed assets management and Stock control developed in 2004. The American Oil Company, or Amoco, also known as Standard Oil of Indiana, was a global Chemical and oil company founded in Baltimore in See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Berger was advised by the White House to sell the stock in early 1994. Berger said he had planned to sell the stock, but then forgot. He denied knowingly participating in decisions in which he had a financial interest. With no evidence that Berger intended to break the law, the U.S. Justice Department determined a civil penalty was adequate for a "non-willful violation" of the conflict of interest law. For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department 
In 1999, Berger was criticized for failing to promptly inform President Clinton of his knowledge that the People's Republic of China had managed to acquire the designs of a number of U. Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. S. nuclear warheads. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Berger was originally briefed of the espionage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in April 1996, but did not inform the president until July 1997. The United States Department of Energy ( DOE) is a Cabinet -level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy 
A number of Republicans, including then presidential hopeful Lamar Alexander, called for Berger's resignation. Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party They accused him of ignoring the allegations of Chinese espionage. "For his unwillingness to act on this serious matter, Mr. Berger should resign", Alexander said. "If he does not, he should be relieved of his duties by President Clinton. " President Clinton rejected the calls: "The record is that we acted aggressively," Clinton said. "Mr. Berger acted appropriately. "
|“||I asked DOE to widen and deepen its investigation, to intensify as they were planning their counterintelligence efforts to brief the Congress[. This article is a subset article of Intelligence cycle security. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses ] [W]ithin several weeks the FBI had opened up a full investigation on the prime suspect. So I took the actions that I believe were appropriate. I get an awful lot of threat information every day. I have to make a judgment as to what I brief the president on and what I don't. In 1997, when this was clearly a pattern and a systemic problem, I thought it was essential for the president to know — Sandy Berger, May 29, 1999. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian defeats the Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, under the walls of the Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) ||”|
On July 19, 2004, it was revealed that the U. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " S. Justice Department was investigating Berger for unauthorized removal of classified documents in October 2003 from a National Archives reading room prior to testifying before the 9/11 Commission. The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged The documents were five classified copies of a single report commissioned from Richard Clarke, covering internal assessments of the Clinton administration's handling of the unsuccessful 2000 millennium attack plots. The 2000 millennium attack plots were Terrorist attacks planned by members of Al-Qaeda to occur on or near January 1, 2000: the bombing of four An associate of Berger said Berger took one copy in September 2003 and four copies in October 2003. 
After a long investigation, Justice Department prosecutors determined that Berger only removed classified copies of data stored on hard drives stored in the National Archives, and that no original material was destroyed.  Berger eventually pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge of unauthorized removal and retention of classified material on April 1, 2005. A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems is a "lesser" criminal act Events 527 - Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Berger was fined $50,000 , sentenced to serve two years of probation and 100 hours of community service, and stripped of his security clearance for 3 years. Probation is the suspension of all or part of a jail sentence the Criminal who is "on probation" has been convicted of a crime but instead of serving jail  Berger also relinquished his license to practice law. 
|Deputy National Security Advisor|
|United States National Security Advisor|