|San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge|
|Official name||James "Sunny Jim" Rolph Bridge|
|Carries||10 lanes (5 west-bound on upper level, 5 east-bound on lower) of I-80|
|Crosses||San Francisco Bay via Yerba Buena Island|
|Locale||San Francisco and Oakland|
|Maintained by||California Department of Transportation|
|Design||Double-decked Suspension, Truss & Cantilever Bridges and Tunnel|
|Longest span||Two main spans:|
2,310 feet (704 m) (west span)
1,400 feet (427 m) (east span)
|Total length||9,260 feet (2,822 m) (west span)|
10,176 feet (3,102 m) (east span)
8. James Rolph Jr ( August 23, 1869 June 2, 1934) was an American Politician and a member of the Republican Party In the US state of California, Interstate 80, a major east-west route of the Interstate Highway System, has its western terminus in San Francisco San Francisco Bay is a shallow productive Estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento "Sea Bird Island" and "Seabird Island" redirect here The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U The California Department of Transportation ( Caltrans) is a Government department in the U This article is concerned with a particular type of suspension bridge the suspended-deck type A truss bridge is a Bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response A cantilever bridge is a Bridge built using Cantilevers structures that project horizontally into space supported on only one end A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon 4 miles (14 km) (total bridge)
|Width||5 traffic lanes ~65 feet (~20 m)|
|Vertical clearance||West-bound minimum 14 feet (4. 27 m), with additional clearance in some lanes|
|Clearance below||220 feet (67 m) (west span)|
191 feet (58 m) (east span)
|Opening date||November 12, 1936|
|Toll||cars $4. Annual average daily traffic, abbrevated AADT, is a measure used primarily in Transportation planning and transportation engineering. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 00 (west-bound only) (FasTrak)|
The eastern side of the city of San Francisco, CA with the western side of the city of Oakland, CA
(Location 3 on map)
|Maps and aerial photos|
The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge ( toll bridge complex that spans San Francisco Bay and links the California cities of Oakland and San Francisco in the United States, as part of Interstate 80. FasTrak is the Electronic toll collection (ETC system used in the state of California in the United States. A toll bridge is a Bridge over which Traffic may pass upon payment of a fee or toll. San Francisco Bay is a shallow productive Estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Oakland (ˈoʊklənd founded in 1852 is the eighth-largest city in the U The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city The United States of America —commonly referred to as the In the US state of California, Interstate 80, a major east-west route of the Interstate Highway System, has its western terminus in San Francisco It carries approximately 280,000 vehicles per day. ; known locally as the Bay Bridge) is a multi-structure
The original bridge designs were by Ralph Modjeski. Benjamin Franklin Bridge from DUKWjpg|thumb| Benjamin Franklin Bridge]] Ralph Modjeski' (born Rudolf Modrzejewski) ( January 27 1861 - June The Bay Bridge opened for traffic on November 12, 1936, six months before the Golden Gate Bridge. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension Bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean
The bridge consists of two major spans connecting each shore with Yerba Buena Island, a natural outcropping located mid-bay. "Sea Bird Island" and "Seabird Island" redirect here The western crossing, from San Francisco to the island, consists of two suspension bridges end-to-end with an anchorage, plus three shorter truss spans connecting the San Francisco landing to the western cable anchorage located on Rincon Hill. This article is concerned with a particular type of suspension bridge the suspended-deck type Rincon Hill is one of many hills located in the greater South of Market in San Francisco, located just south of the Financial District The eastern span between Yerba Buena Island and Oakland consists of a double-tower cantilever span, five medium-span truss bridges, and a 14-section truss causeway. A cantilever bridge is a Bridge built using Cantilevers structures that project horizontally into space supported on only one end A truss bridge is a Bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response These east bay structures are scheduled to be replaced by an entirely new crossing now under construction. On Yerba Buena Island itself, the crossing consists of a short concrete viaduct at the west span's cable anchorage, a tunnel through the island's rocky central hill, another short concrete viaduct, and a longer high-level steel truss viaduct which leads to the eastern span. A viaduct is a Bridge composed of several small spans The term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for road and ducere to A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon
The toll plaza on the Oakland side (for west-bound traffic only) has 20 toll lanes, of which eight are dedicated FasTrak lanes. FasTrak is the Electronic toll collection (ETC system used in the state of California in the United States. It is now followed by a set of metering lights. A ramp meter, ramp signal or metering light is a device usually a basic Traffic light or a two-phase (red and green no yellow light together Two bus-only lanes bypass the toll booths and metering lights around the right (north) side of the toll plaza. The two far left toll lanes are operated as high-occupancy vehicle lanes during weekday morning and afternoon commute periods. In Transportation engineering and Transportation planning, a high-occupancy vehicle lane (or HOV lane) is a lane reserved for Vehicles with Vehicles carrying three or more persons, two-seaters with two persons, and motorcycles are permitted to use the bus lanes during weekday morning and afternoon commute periods. MotorCycle is the title of a 1993 album by Rock band Daniel Amos, released on BAI Records. There are no metering lights for east-bound traffic as there is no need to stop and pay tolls in this direction of travel. Since the number of lanes in the San Francisco approach is structurally restricted, backups are frequent in this direction during evening rush hour. During the morning commute hours, some of the Bay Area's worst traffic congestion stretches from the Oakland approach back onto feeder highways, especially I-80 toward Richmond, California. The MacArthur Maze (or simply The Maze, also called the Distribution Structure) refers to the large Freeway interchange located near the eastern In the US state of California, Interstate 80, a major east-west route of the Interstate Highway System, has its western terminus in San Francisco Richmond (ˈɹɪtʃmənd is a city in western Contra Costa County, California, United States. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.  The bridge is currently restricted to motorized freeway traffic; pedestrians, bicycles, and other non-freeway vehicles and devices are not allowed. However, a Caltrans bicycle shuttle operates during peak commute hours for $1. 00 each way. Separated bicycle and pedestrian lanes will be a feature of the bridge's new eastern span, which is currently under construction. This will only allow bicycle travel between Oakland and Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, so some form of bicycle shuttle on the western span will likely be continued.
San Francisco, located at the mouth of the bay, was in a perfect location to prosper during the California Gold Rush. The California Gold Rush (1848&ndash1855 began on January 24 1848 when Gold was discovered by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California Almost all goods not produced locally arrived by ship. After the first transcontinental railroad was completed in May 1869, the city found itself on the wrong side of the bay, separated from the new rail link. This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869 The fear of many San Franciscans was that the city would lose its position as the center of trade. The concept of a bridge spanning the San Francisco Bay had been considered since the Gold Rush days. Several newspaper articles during the early 1870s discussed the idea. In early 1872 a "Bay Bridge Committee" was hard at work on plans to construct a railroad bridge. The April 1872 issue of the San Francisco Real Estate Circular contained an item about the committee:
The self-proclaimed Emperor Norton I saw fit to decree several times that a suspension bridge be constructed to connect Oakland and San Francisco. Joshua Abraham Norton ( c 1819 &ndash January 8 1880 the self-proclaimed His Imperial Majesty Emperor Norton I, was a celebrated citizen of San Later in 1872, frustrated that nothing had happened, Norton decreed:
Unlike most of Emperor Norton's eccentric ideas, his decree to build a bridge had wide public and political appeal. Yet, the task seemed too daunting as the bay was deemed too wide and too deep. In 1921, over forty years after Norton's death, an underwater tube was considered, but it became clear that it would be inadequate for vehicular traffic. Support for a transbay crossing finally grew in the 1920s with the increasing popularity and availability of the automobile. In 1929, the California Legislature established the California Toll Bridge Authority with the responsibility of bridging San Francisco and Alameda County. Alameda County is a county in the US state of California. It occupies most of the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area.
To make the bridge design more feasible, the path was chosen to pass through Yerba Buena Island, significantly reducing the amount of material needed to construct a transbay crossing. "Sea Bird Island" and "Seabird Island" redirect here "Sea Bird Island" and "Seabird Island" redirect here Yerba Buena was a U. S. Naval base at the time (and until 1996). So approval of the U. S. Congress, which regulates the armed services and supervises all naval and military bases, was necessary for the island to be used. After a great deal of lobbying, California received Congressional approval to use the island on February 20, 1931. Events 1472 - Orkney and Shetland are left by Norway to Scotland, due to a Dowry payment Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
Construction began on July 9, 1933. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1933 ( MCMXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The 1. 78-mile (2. 86 km) western span of the bridge between San Francisco and Yerba Buena Island presented an enormous engineering situation. The bay was up to 100 feet (30 m) deep in places and the soil required new foundation-laying techniques. At the time of construction suspension bridges could not be made with more than a pair of towers owing to stability considerations, and a two tower span would be longer than practical. The solution was to construct a massive concrete anchorage halfway between San Francisco and the island and to build two complete suspension bridges, one on either side of the middle anchorage. (Modern cable-stayed bridges may have any number of towers. A The design for the now cancelled Chacao Channel bridge included an innovative suspension bridge with two main spans connected by a single rigid central tower composed of two A frames instead of two additional towers and a concrete anchorage. The Chiloé Bicentennial Bridge, popularly known as the Chacao Channel bridge, was a planned Suspension bridge to link the island of Chiloé with continental )
The eastern span was a marvelous engineering feat as well. The crossing from Yerba Buena Island to Oakland was spanned by a 10,176-foot (3,102 m) combination of double cantilever, five long-span through trusses and a truss causeway, forming the longest bridge of its kind at the time, with the cantilever portion being the most massive yet constructed.
Much of the original eastern span is actually founded upon treated wood. Owing to very deep muds on the bay bottom it was not practical to reach bedrock, although lower levels of mud are quite firm. Long wooden pilings were crafted from entire old growth Douglas fir trees and were driven through the soft mud to firmer bottom. Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous Trees of the Genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae.
Connecting the two halves of the bridge is Yerba Buena Tunnel measuring 76 feet (23 m) wide, 56 feet (17 m) high, and 540 feet (160 m) long. It was the largest diameter tunnel in the world at the time of construction. The enormous amount of rock and dirt excavated from the tunnel was used in part to create Treasure Island. Treasure Island is an Artificial island in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland.
The bridge was opened to traffic on November 12, 1936, at 12:30 p. Events 764 - Tibetan troops occupy Chang'an, the capital of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, for fifteen days Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. m. Among those in attendance were former U.S. president Herbert Hoover, Senator William G. McAdoo and Governor of California Frank Merriam. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10 1874 &ndash October 20 1964 was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933 William Gibbs McAdoo ( October 31, 1863 &ndash February 1, 1941) was an American Lawyer and political leader who served The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses Frank Finley Merriam ( December 22 1865 April 25 1955) was an American politician who served as the twenty-eighth Governor of Governor Merriam officially opened the bridge by cutting gold chains across the traffic lanes with an acetylene blowtorch. Acetylene ( IUPAC name ethyne), C2H2 is a Hydrocarbon belonging to the group of Alkynes It is the simplest of all alkynes The meaning of " blowtorch " varies between Britain and the USA  The San Francisco Chronicle report of November 13, 1936, read:
The total cost of construction for the bridge was $79. 5 million (equivalent to $1. 07 billion in 2005 dollars). Prior to its opening, the bridge was blessed by Cardinal Secretary of State Eugene Cardinal Pacelli, who later became Pope Pius XII. The Cardinal Secretary of State &mdashofficially Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope &mdashpresides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which Pope Pope  At completion, the bridge became the longest suspended-deck bridge in the world and the longest cantilever bridge in the world. Because it was in effect two bridges strung together, the western spans were ranked the second and third largest suspension bridges. Wikipedia_talkFeatured_lists#Proposed_change_to_all_featured_lists for an explanation of this and other inclusion tags below -->This list of suspension bridges Only the George Washington Bridge had a longer span between towers. The George Washington Bridge (known informally as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George) is a Suspension bridge spanning
The original west approach to (and exit from) the upper deck of the bridge was a long ramp which began at Fifth and Bryant Streets. There were also ramps for the upper deck on Rincon Hill at Fremont Street, and ramps for the lower deck at Essex and First Streets. Rincon Hill is one of many hills located in the greater South of Market in San Francisco, located just south of the Financial District The lower deck ramps, utilized mainly by trucks, were terminal points for the lower deck highway. Beyond them, the tracks of the bridge railway (see below) also left the lower deck, curving northward into a loop through the Transbay Terminal. San Francisco Transbay Terminal, or simply Transbay Terminal, is a transportation complex in San Francisco California, USA, located roughly in the
There were three original eastern approaches: a viaduct from the end of Cypress Street (State Route 17) in Oakland; a viaduct from the end of 38th Street (U.S. Route 50) at San Pablo Avenue in Oakland; and the Eastshore Highway which carried U.S. Route 40 along the shoreline of Albany, Berkeley and Emeryville. State Route 17 commonly known locally as Highway 17, is a Freeway and Expressway that runs between San Jose and Santa Cruz in the In the US state of California, US Route 50 (US 50 runs east from I-80 in West Sacramento to the Nevada state line in South The Eastshore Freeway is a segment of Interstates 80 and 580 along the northeast shoreline of San Francisco Bay in northern California. Albany is a city in Alameda County, California, United States. Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. Emeryville is a small city located in Alameda County California, in the United States.
When the bridge first opened, the upper deck consisted of three lanes of traffic in each direction and was restricted to automobiles only. The lower deck carried three lanes of truck and auto traffic on the north side. The middle of these three lanes was reversed according to the commute direction utilizing traffic lights, but with no divider. Two railroad tracks were built on the south side of the lower deck for the electric commuter trains of the Southern Pacific, the Key System, and the Sacramento Northern, although train service across the bridge did not begin until January 15, 1939. The East Bay Electric Lines was a division of the Southern Pacific Railroad which operated a system of electric Interurban -type trains in the East Bay region The Key System (or Key Route) was a privately owned company which provided Mass transit in the cities of Oakland, Berkeley, Alameda The Sacramento Northern Railway began as a 93 mile electric Interurban Railway system linking the California state capitol Sacramento with the An overhead catenary supplied power to the Southern Pacific and Sacramento Northern trains while a third rail was utilized by the Key trains. In Physics and Geometry, the catenary is the theoretical Shape of a hanging flexible Chain or Cable when supported at its ends and A third rail is a method of providing Electricity to power a railway through a continuous rigid conductor alongside the railway track or between the rails After 1941, only the Key System used these tracks. Rail service on the bridge ended in April of 1958.
The bridge was reconfigured to have five west-bound lanes on the upper deck and five east-bound lanes on the lower deck in 1963. Tolls continued to be collected in both directions until 1969. One-direction toll collection was implemented for west-bound traffic in September 1969.
The highway on the bridge was originally designated U.S. Routes 40 and 50. In the US state of California, US Route 50 (US 50 runs east from I-80 in West Sacramento to the Nevada state line in South This was replaced by Interstate 80 in 1964. In the US state of California, Interstate 80, a major east-west route of the Interstate Highway System, has its western terminus in San Francisco
The offramps for Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island are unusual as they are on the left-hand side both in the east-bound and west-bound directions. Treasure Island is an Artificial island in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland. "Sea Bird Island" and "Seabird Island" redirect here East-bound and west-bound onramps are on the usual right-hand side, but are tricky as the onramps require acceleration from a dead stop to freeway speeds in a relatively short distance.
Automobile traffic increased dramatically in the ensuing decades while the Key System declined, and in October 1963 the bridge was reconfigured with five lanes of west-bound traffic on the upper deck and five lanes of east-bound traffic on the lower deck. The Key System (or Key Route) was a privately owned company which provided Mass transit in the cities of Oakland, Berkeley, Alameda Trucks were allowed on both decks and the railway was removed. Owing to a lack of clearance for trucks through the upper-deck portion of the Yerba Buena tunnel, it was necessary to lower the upper deck where it passed through the tunnel and to correspondingly excavate the lower portion. This was done while the bridge was in use by using a movable temporary span over the portion being lowered. On the lower deck of the tunnel and its eastern viaduct extension it was necessary to remove central supports, with each transverse beam being doubled to take the load across all lanes. It was also necessary to further reinforce each beam supporting the upper deck throughout the entire span, modifications still visible to the traveler.
On February 11, 1968, a naval jet trainer, flying out of the nearby NS Alameda, crashed into the eastern span of the bridge, killing both aboard. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. One of the truss sections of the bridges was replaced due to damage from the impact. 
The series of lights adorning the suspension cables were added in 1987 as part of the bridge's 50th-anniversary celebration.
During the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake, which measured 6. Events 539 BC - King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Loma Prieta earthquake, also known as the Quake of '89 and the World Series Quake, was a major Earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay 9 on the moment magnitude scale, a 50-foot (15 m) section of the upper deck of the eastern truss portion of the bridge at Pier E9 collapsed onto the deck below, indirectly causing one death (some people claim this was actually due to misdirection of traffic by the California Highway Patrol). TalkMoment magnitude scale#Real world examples please.--> The moment magnitude scale A truss bridge is a Bridge composed of connected elements (typically straight which may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response The California Highway Patrol (CHP is a state agency that acts as the State police force of California. 
The bridge was closed for just over a month as construction crews repaired the section. It reopened on November 18 of that year. Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull
The western suspension span has undergone extensive seismic retrofitting. See also Earthquake engineering Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, During the retrofit, much of the structural steel supporting the bridge deck was replaced while the bridge remained open to traffic. Structural steel is Steel construction Material, a profile, formed with a specific Shape or cross section and certain standards of Engineers accomplished this by using methods similar to those employed on the Chicago Skyway reconstruction project. The Chicago Skyway also known as Chicago Skyway Toll Bridge System is a 7
The entire bridge was fabricated using hot steel rivets, which are impossible to heat treat and so remain relatively soft. Analysis showed that these could fail by shearing under extreme stress, and so at most locations each was removed by burning out with an oxygen cutting torch, the hole precision reamed and where present, lacing was replaced with plates, and the old rivets replaced with heat-treated high-strength locator bolts and nuts. Concerning a. " for the verdict on this matter --> Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding A reamer or ream is a tool used in Machining to make existing holes dimensionally more accurate and to improve surface finish This work had to be performed with great care as the steel of the structure had for many years been painted with lead based paint, which had to be carefully removed and contained by workers with extensive protective gear. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly
Most of the beams were originally constructed of two plate I-beams joined with lattices of flat strip or angle stock, depending upon structural requirements. These have all been reconstructed by replacing the riveted lattice elements with bolted steel plate and so converting the lattice beams into box beams. This replacement included adding face plates to the large diagonal beams joining the faces of the main towers, which now have an improved appearance when viewed from certain angles.
Diagonal box beams have been added to each bay of the upper and lower decks of the western spans. These add stiffness to reduce side-to-side motion during an earthquake and reduce the probability of damage to the decking surfaces.
Analysis showed that some massive concrete supports could burst and crumble under likely stresses. In particular the western supports were extensively modified. First, the location of existing reinforcing bar is determined using magnetic techniques. In areas between bars holes are drilled. Into these holes is inserted an L-shaped bar that protrudes 15 to 25 centimeters (6 to 10 inches). This bar is retained in the hole with a high-strength epoxy adhesive. In Chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a Thermosetting Epoxide Polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks when mixed with a The entire surface of the structure is thus covered with closely spaced protrusions. A network of horizontal and vertical reinforcing bars is then attached to these protrusions. Mold surface plates are then positioned to retain high-strength concrete, which is then pumped into the void. After removal of the forms work the surface appears similar to the original concrete. This technique has been applied elsewhere throughout California to improve freeway overpass abutments and some overpass central supports which have unconventional shapes. (Other techniques such as jacket and grout are applied to simple vertical posts; see the seismic retrofit article. See also Earthquake engineering Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, )
Engineers knew for more than thirty years that a major earthquake on either the San Andreas or Hayward faults would likely destroy the main cantilever span; however, there was no political will to act. As of December 2007 work is continuing on the eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. The San Andreas Fault is a geologic Transform fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 km through California in the United States. The Hayward Fault Zone is a Geologic fault zone capable of generating significantly destructive Earthquakes About 60 kilometers long it lies mainly along the The Loma Prieta Earthquake was a wake-up call for all concerned. The Loma Prieta earthquake, also known as the Quake of '89 and the World Series Quake, was a major Earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay The eastern span had to be either retrofitted or replaced.
The initial proposal for the eastern span involved the construction of substantial concrete pylons to replace or supplement the existing supports. There would also be modifications to the lattice beams as is now complete for the western span. The original cost estimate for this refit was US $200 million. The overall appearance would be little changed.
Engineering and economic analysis in 1999 suggested that a simple replacement bridge would cost only a few hundred million dollars more than a retrofit of the existing eastern span and that a replacement would have a far longer expected useful life — perhaps 75 to 100 years rather than 30, and would require far less maintenance. Remarkably, the number of traffic lanes was not increased in the proposed new span to anticipate growth in traffic through this core artery over this lengthy period, likely due to restrictions on the western span, which is expected to have a long useful life.
Rather than retrofit the existing bridge, the authorities decided to replace the entire eastern span with an elevated viaduct described by critics as a "freeway on stilts". This was not received well by either the public or the politicians. A design contest was held for a "signature span" (a span with distinctive and dramatic appearance, unique to the site). A number of innovative proposals were examined and a winner was selected.
After more than a decade of study, construction began on a replacement for the cantilever portion of the bridge on January 29, 2002, with completion originally slated for 2007. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. As of June 2006, the estimated completion year is 2013. June 2006 was a month with thirty days The following events also occurred during the month 
The authorities were shocked when they opened the bids on the proposed tower portion, as there was only a single bid and it was considerably more expensive than projected. The entire project is now expected to cost $6. 2 billion (as of July 2005), up from a 1997 estimate of $1. 2005: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October 1 billion (for a simple viaduct) and a March 2003 estimate of $2. 6 billion that included a tower span.
On December 10, 2004, the Governor's office announced that the "signature span" concept had been scrapped, with the completion of the bridge to be by the construction of the simple viaduct originally proposed. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The design, having gone full circle, remained expensive due to the continued high cost of materials.
Construction was also delayed by an investigation into charges by 15 former welders and inspectors who had worked on the new eastern span. They claimed that welders were rushed to such an extent that it affected their performance on up to one-third of the welds, and that workers were ordered to cover up defective welds by re-welding in a superficial manner. Subsequent detailed investigation by three separate independent outside consultants did not support these charges (see the eastern span replacement article for detailed information). As of December 2007 work is continuing on the eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge.
The controversy continued into the first half of 2005. In essence, the governor did not believe that the entire state should share in the costs of building the bridge, as he considered it to be a local (Bay Area) problem. In late June 2005, an agreement was reached between the various parties (Governor, Legislature, Caltrans, and Bay Area politicians) to build the signature span, to be paid for by a one dollar toll increase from $3. 00 to $4. 00 beginning in 2007.
After being approved by the legislature, the compromise legislation was signed by the governor on July 18, 2005. Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. At the time of the signing, the skyway portion of the bridge was 75% complete, and the state was beginning to prepare to put the suspension span out for new bids. The entire project is scheduled to be completed in 2012 at a cost of $6. 3 billion, making it the second-most-expensive public works project in the United States behind Boston's Big Dig. Below is a list of so-called " Megaprojects quot that are among the most expensive in U The Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project ( CA/T) a Megaproject that rerouted the
New bids for the main span were opened on March 22, 2006, with two submissions at $1. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been 43 and $1. 6 billion. On April 19, 2006, the lower bid from American Bridge and Fluor Corp. was accepted. Events 1012 - Martyrdom of Alphege in Greenwich London. 1529 - At the Second Diet of Speyer Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The American Bridge Company is a privately held Civil engineering firm specializing in the construction and renovation of Bridges and other large civil engineering Fluor Corporation is a publicly owned engineering procurement construction, and maintenance services organization 
The first section of the new East Span, the 300-foot (91 m) span connecting the main cantilever section to the Yerba Buena Island Tunnel, was put into service on September 3, 2007. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Construction of the new connector span started in early 2007 alongside the existing span. Caltrans closed the Bay Bridge during the Labor Day weekend so crews could demolish the old span. Once the old section was removed the new span was rolled into place using a computer-guided system of hydraulic jacks and rollers. The new section was secured into place and the bridge re-opened eleven hours ahead of schedule for the morning commute on the Tuesday (September 4, 2007) following the weekend. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
Separated bicycle lanes are a visually prominent feature on the south side of the new East Span. The bikeway will carry transportation and recreational cyclists back and forth from Oakland to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands until a bike lane is constructed on the suspension span carrying cyclists and pedestrians all the way to San Francisco.
The legal name of the bridge is "The James 'Sunny Jim' Rolph Bridge" — but this name has rarely been used, and was not widely recognized until the bridge's 50th-anniversary celebrations in 1986. James Rolph Jr ( August 23, 1869 June 2, 1934) was an American Politician and a member of the Republican Party The official name of the bridge for all functional purposes has always been the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge.
James Rolph, a mayor of San Francisco from 1912 to 1931, was Governor of California at the time construction began. The Mayor of the City and County of San Francisco is the head of the government of San Francisco, California. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses He died in office on June 2, 1934, two years before the bridge opened, leaving the bridge to be named for him out of respect. Events 455 - The Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However, due to the opposition of Joseph R. Knowland, publisher of the Oakland Tribune at the time, recognition of Rolph was withheld. Joseph Russell Knowland ( August 5 1873 - February 1 1966) was an American politician and newspaper publisher The Oakland Tribune is a daily Newspaper published in Oakland California by the Alameda Newspaper Group, a subsidiary of MediaNews
Emperor Norton's early work at promoting a bridge between San Francisco and Alameda County was commemorated on Tuesday, December 14, 2004, when the San Francisco Board of Supervisors approved a resolution calling for the new eastern span of the bridge to be named "The Emperor Norton Bridge". Joshua Abraham Norton ( c 1819 &ndash January 8 1880 the self-proclaimed His Imperial Majesty Emperor Norton I, was a celebrated citizen of San Events 1287 - St Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses killing over 50000 people "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The San Francisco Board of Supervisors is the legislature of the City and County of San Francisco, California.  The resolution was introduced by Supervisor Aaron Peskin. Aaron Peskin (born 1964 is the current president of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Oakland passed no similar resolution.
Plaques honoring the contributions of both Rolph and Norton exist. The Rolph plaque, originally placed at the west end of the bridge in San Francisco, was moved to the corner of Fifth and Bryant Streets in 1986 and removed entirely by Caltrans in 2006. The plaque honoring Emperor Norton for the original idea graces the western archway of the Transbay Terminal, the public transit and Greyhound bus depot at the west end of the bridge in downtown San Francisco.
When it opened in 1936, the toll was 65 cents, collected in each direction. Within months, it was lowered to 50 cents in order to compete with the ferry system, and finally to 25 cents as this was shown sufficient to pay off the original revenue bonds on schedule. As with other bridges of the era, passage was to be free after completion of the repayment of the original bonds.
In the interest of reducing the cost of collecting tolls and of building additional toll booths, all bridges in the Bay Area were converted to collect tolls in only one direction, with the amount collected doubled.
Tolls were subsequently raised to finance improvements to the bridge approaches, required to connect with new freeways, and to subsidize public transit in order to reduce traffic over the bridge.
Caltrans, the state highway transportation agency, maintains seven of the eight San Francisco Bay Area bridges (The Golden Gate Bridge is owned and maintained by the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District). The California Department of Transportation ( Caltrans) is a Government department in the U The Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District is a quasi-governmental corporation that owns and operates three regional transportation assets in the San Francisco
The base toll (for automobiles) on the seven state bridges was raised to $1 by Regional Measure 1, approved by Bay Area voters in 1988. A $1 seismic retrofit surcharge was added in 1998 by the state legislature, originally for eight years, but since extended to December 2037 (AB1171, October 2001). On March 2, 2004, voters approved Regional Measure 2, raising the toll by another dollar to a total of $3. Events 986 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks. 1127 - Assassination of Charles the Good "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " An additional dollar was added to the toll starting January 1, 2007 to cover cost overruns related to the replacement of the eastern span. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
The Metropolitan Transportation Commission, a regional transportation agency, in its capacity as the Bay Area Toll Authority, administers RM1 and RM2 funds, a significant portion of which are allocated to public transit capital improvements and operating subsidies in the transportation corridors served by the bridges. The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC is a regional planning financing and funding government agency in the San Francisco Bay Area. Caltrans administers the "second dollar" seismic surcharge, and receives some of the MTC-administered funds to perform other maintenance work on the bridges.
As of January 2007, the toll for autos is $4 (see Caltrans for details and exceptions), collected only for west-bound traffic, at a toll plaza on the eastern (Oakland) side. January 2007 is the first month of that year It began on a Monday and 31 days later ended on a Wednesday. For comparison, the original $0. 65 toll in 1936 would be $9. 23 in 2006 dollars (see  for CPI converter).
The Bay Bridge has appeared in countless works of fiction and film. In William Gibson's futuristic Bridge trilogy of novels, the Bay Bridge, closed to traffic after an earthquake, has been taken over by the homeless and turned into a miniature city of the dispossessed. William Ford Gibson (born March 17 1948 is an American - Canadian writer who has been called the "noir prophet" of the Cyberpunk subgenre The Bridge trilogy is a series of novels by William Gibson, his second after the successful Sprawl trilogy. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer In the movie The Graduate, Dustin Hoffman can be seen driving west-bound on the upper deck, though, according to the storyline, he was headed in the east-bound direction to Berkeley. The Graduate is a American comedy / drama / Romance film directed by Mike Nichols, based on the novel of the same name by Dustin Lee Hoffman (born August 8 1937 His brother Ronald is a lawyer and economist Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. The east-bound direction normally travels on the less-photogenic lower deck. In George R. Stewart's novel Earth Abides, Ish, the main character, lives near the bridge after a plague has wiped out most of the world's population. George Rippey Stewart ( May 31, 1895 – August 22, 1980) was an American Toponymist, a novelist and a professor of English Earth Abides, a 1949 Post-apocalyptic Science fiction novel by Berkeley English professor George R He notices that, due to neglect, parts of the bridge deteriorate and collapse decades after civilization has left, though, due to its strength, for many years the bridge is nearly unharmed by nature. The bridge also made prominent appearances in many other films including Shadow of the Thin Man (1941) (shows the Charles' driving east-bound on the upper deck, now west-bound-only), The Maltese Falcon (visible from Sam Spade's office), X-Men: The Last Stand, Born to Kill, Vertigo, The End of the World, George of the Jungle, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, Made in America, Basic Instinct, Sneakers, Sudden Impact, Sister Act I & II, Hulk, Bedazzled, The Dead Pool and Sid & Nancy. Shadow of the Thin Man is the fourth of the six Thin Man films The Maltese Falcon is a 1941 Warner Bros film written and directed by John Huston, based on the novel of the same name X-Men The Last Stand is a 2006 Superhero film and the third in the X-Men series For the 1974 film alternatively released as "Born to Kill" see Cockfighter. Vertigo ( is a Psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Kim Novak and featuring Barbara The End of the World ( Danish: Verdens Undergang) ( 1916) is a Danish science fiction thriller Silent film directed George of the Jungle was an American Animated television series produced by Jay Ward and Bill Scott, who created Star Trek IV The Voyage Home ( Paramount Pictures, 1986) is the fourth feature Film based on the Star Trek Science fiction Made in America is successful 1993 film released on May 28, 1993 by Warner Bros Basic Instinct is an American thriller / Neo-noir film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas Sneakers is a 1992 caper Film directed by Phil Alden Robinson ( Field of Dreams) and written by Robinson Sudden Impact is a 1983 crime thriller and the 4th film in the ''Dirty Harry'' series, directed by and starring Clint Sister Act is a 1992 American Comedy film released by Touchstone Pictures. Sister Act 2 Back in the Habit is a 1993 Comedy film starring Whoopi Goldberg, directed by Bill Duke, and released by Touchstone See also Hulk (video game Hulk (also known as The Hulk) is a 2003 Superhero film based on the fictional Bedazzled is a 2000 motion picture remake of the ( 1967) film Bedazzled, originally written by Peter Cook The Dead Pool ( 1988) is the fifth and last film in the Dirty Harry film series, set in San Francisco California and starring Clint Sid and Nancy, originally titled Love Kills, is a 1986 Film directed by Alex Cox. The bridge also appears in many television shows set in the Bay Area, including Nash Bridges and Journeyman. Nash Bridges is an American television Police Drama that was created by Carlton Cuse. A journeyman is a trader or crafter who has completed an Apprenticeship.