|City of San Antonio|
|Nickname: Alamo City|
Location in the state of Texas
|- Mayor||Phil Hardberger|
|- City||412. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. A county of the United States is a local level of government created as a subdivision of a state by the state government or by the federal or territorial government as a subdivision Bexar County is a County located in the US state of Texas. As of 2006 the population was estimated at 1555931 A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Phil Hardberger (born July 27, 1934) is the Mayor of San Antonio, Texas. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. 1 sq mi (1,067. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. 3 km²)|
|- Land||407. To help compare Orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here areas between 1000 km2 and 10000 km2 6 sq mi (1,055. 6 km²)|
|- Water||4. 5 sq mi (11. 7 km²)|
|Elevation||650 ft (198 m)|
|- City||1,296,682 (7th)|
|- Density||2,808. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 5/sq mi (1,084. 4/km²)|
|Time zone||Central (UTC-6)|
|- Summer (DST)||Central (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||210, 830|
San Antonio (pronounced /ˌsænænˈtoʊnioʊ/) is the second-largest city in the state of Texas and the seventh largest city in the United States. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving Areas using UTC−6 Single zone countries Belize Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Daylight saving time ( DST The Central Time Zone observes Standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time ( UTC−6) and five hours during Daylight saving UTC−5 is the Time offset used in the North American Eastern Time Zone during Standard time and in the North American Central Time Zone during A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks The map to the right is now clickable click on an area code to go to the page for that code The map to the right is now clickable click on an area code to go to the page for that code Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The Located in South Texas, the city is a cultural gateway into the American Southwest. South Texas is a region of the US state of Texas that lies roughly south of or beginning at San Antonio. The Southwestern area of the United States could be defined as the states west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit such as the 37 San Antonio is the seat of Bexar County with a population just under 1. A county seat is a term for an Administrative center for a County, primarily used in the United States. Bexar County is a County located in the US state of Texas. As of 2006 the population was estimated at 1555931 3 million as of the 2006 U. S. Census estimate, as well as the 4th fastest growing large city in the nation from 2000-2006 in terms of percentage.  Its metropolitan area has a population of over 1. The San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in South Texas. 9 million and is the 28th-largest metropolitan area in the U. See also Metropolitan Statistical Area, Core Based Statistical Area Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasThe United States Census Bureau has defined S.
San Antonio was named for the Portuguese Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day it was (June 13) when a Spanish expedition stopped in the area in 1691. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Saint Anthony ( August 15, 1195 – June 13, 1231) also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon and Saint Anthony of Padua, The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints The city has a strong military presence—it is home to Fort Sam Houston, Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, and Brooks City-Base, with Camp Bullis and Camp Stanley right outside the city. Fort Sam Houston is a US Army post in San Antonio Texas.Known colloquially as "Fort Sam" it is named for the first President of the Republic of Lackland Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force operated by the Air Education and Training Command ( AETC) Randolph Air Force Base ( Randolph AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in Universal City, Texas, near San Antonio Brooks City-Base is a former United States Air Force base located 7 miles southeast of San Antonio, Texas. San Antonio is home to the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. The South Texas Medical Center (STMC is a "regional leading" research and educational center in San Antonio, Texas.
Famous for its River Walk, the Alamo, Tejano culture, and home to the SeaWorld San Antonio and Six Flags Fiesta Texas theme parks, the city is visited by 20 million tourists per year. The San Antonio River Walk (also known as Paseo del Río) is a network of walkways along the banks of the San Antonio River, one story beneath downtown San Antonio The Alamo, originally known as Mission San Antonio de Valero, is a former Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound now a museum in San Antonio, Texas Tejano or Tex-Mex music is also a kind of music originating in Texas SeaWorld San Antonio is a marine-life theme park located in the Westover Hills area of San Antonio, Texas. Six Flags Fiesta Texas is a seasonally operated theme park located on approximately of land within an old quarry near the northwest intersection of Loop 1604 and Interstate 10 in San Antonio is also home to the first museum of modern art in Texas—the Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, as well as one of the more successful National Basketball Association teams in league history, the San Antonio Spurs. History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth Marion Koogler McNay ( 7 February 1883 – 13 April 1950) was an American painter and art teacher who inherited a The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional Basketball team based in San Antonio Texas.
Native Americans originally lived in the San Antonio River valley in the San Pedro Springs area, calling the vicinity "Yanaguana," meaning "refreshing waters. The San Antonio River is a major waterway that originates in central Texas near San Antonio and follows a roughly southeastern path through the state San Pedro Springs is the name of a cluster of springs in Bexar County, Texas, U "
In 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, a shipwrecked captive of Native Americans, visited the interior of what would later be called Texas. Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca ( Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, ca He saw and described the river later to be named the San Antonio. 
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Native American settlement (located in the area of present-day La Villita) on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony, and named the place and river "San Antonio" in his honor. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Saint Anthony ( August 15, 1195 – June 13, 1231) also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon and Saint Anthony of Padua,
In 1716, The Spanish Council of War approved a site on the San Antonio River for construction of a fortified presidio (fort). The Domingo Ramón expedition, accompanied by the trader St. Domingo Jesús Ramón Menargues (born March 10, 1958 in Crevillente, Alicante) is a retired Long-distance runner from Denis from Louisiana (who had come to the site two years previous) established a presidio on the river. That council also approved a request by Father Olivares to establish a Catholic Mission at the site. 
In 1718, Martin de Alarcón, then Governor of Texas, reinforced the presidio and the ten soldiers and their families were recognized officially as the beginning of the villa. Alarcón named the presidio San Antonio de Béjar in honor of the Duke of Béjar, in Spain, the viceroy's brother, who died what was considered a hero's death defending Budapest from the Ottoman Empire in 1686. A duke is a member of the Nobility, historically of highest rank below the Sovereign, and historically controlled a Duchy or a Dukedom Béjar is a town and Municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish 
That same year, the Mission of San Francisco de Solano was moved from the Rio Grande to merge with Mission San Antonio de Padua. Father Olivares renamed his merged mission Mission San Antonio de Valero. The presidio, the villa and the mission comprised the municipality named San Antonio de los Llanos (of the Plains) by Governor Alarcón. One year later, in 1719, Mission San Antonio moved to its second site on the east bank near the present day St. Joseph's Church on Commerce. 
In 1721, The Marquis de Aguayo moved the presidio San Antonio de Béjar to its present site on the Plaza de Armas, where permanent quarters were constructed for the soldiers. In 1726 the official settlement population was 200, including 45 military and their families. 
The Mission San Antonio was moved to its third and final site on Alamo Plaza in 1724 due to hurricane flooding at the previous location. 
On eleven o'clock on the morning of March 9, 1731, sixteen families (56 people) from the Canary Islands, often referred to as the "Canary Islanders," arrived at the Presidio of San Antonio de Bexar in the Province of Texas. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1731 ( MDCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year By royal decree of the King of Spain, they founded La Villa de San Fernando and established the first civil government in Texas.  The Marquis of Casafuerte, Viceroy of Spain, (King of Spain) bestowed upon each Canary Island family titles of nobility.  Many descendants of these first settlers still reside in San Antonio. 
The Battle of the Alamo took place in 1836, and eventually the town would grow to encompass the mission where the battle took place, a mile to the east. The Battle of the Alamo was fought in February and March 1836 in San Antonio, Texas. This was where 189 defenders comprised of both Mexicans and settlers, were besieged in the old mission against 4,000 Mexican troops led by Antonio López de Santa Anna for 13 days. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón ( February 21, 1794 &ndash June 21, 1876) often known as Santa The defenders were all killed in the final assault on the garrison. Some recent evidence suggests there might have been a few prisoners, Colonel Davy Crocket perhaps among them, that were executed after the battle had ended. The cry "Remember the Alamo" became the rallying point of the Texas Revolution. The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was fought from October 2 1835 to April 21 1836 between Mexico and the Texas (Tejas portion of the Mexican Texas independence was finally attained at the subsequent Battle of San Jacinto the following April. The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution.
Like many municipalities in the American Southwest, San Antonio experiences a steady population growth. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The Southwestern area of the United States could be defined as the states west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit such as the 37 The city's population has nearly doubled in 35 years, from just over 650,000 in the 1970 census to an estimated 1. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population 2 million in 2005.
The city has also grown substantially in area. Unlike most large cities in the U. S. , San Antonio is not completely surrounded by independent suburban cities, and under Texas law exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) over much of the surrounding unincorporated land, including directing growth and zoning. Extraterritorial jurisdiction or ETJ is the legal ability of a Government to exercise Authority beyond its normal boundaries  It pursues an aggressive annexation policy and opposes the creation of other municipalities within its ETJ.  This is the reason the city is the 7th largest in the U. S. but its metropolitan area is just 29th largest. Nearly three-fourths of its current land area has been annexed since 1960.  In recent years, the city has annexed several long narrow corridors along major thoroughfares to facilitate eventual annexation of growth developing along the routes. The city plans to annex nearly forty additional square miles by 2009. 
As of 2007, the Alamo is a shrine and museum located in the heart of downtown, and is surrounded by many hotels and tourist attractions. The Alamo, originally known as Mission San Antonio de Valero, is a former Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound now a museum in San Antonio, Texas It is clearly San Antonio's most well-known landmark, and is featured in its flag and seal and in the city's nickname, "Alamo City. " Also right by the Alamo is the world famous Crockett Hotel. It is named after the legendary pioneer Davy Crockett. Colonel David Stern Crockett ( August 17, 1786 March 6, 1836) was a celebrated 19th-century American Folk hero,
San Antonio is located at 29°N 100°W. According to the United States Census Bureau, in 2000 the city had a total area of 412. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 07 square miles (1,067. 3 km²) — 407. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 56 square miles (1,055. 6 km²) of land and 4. 51 square miles (11. 7 km²) of water. The city sits on the Balcones Escarpment. The Balcones Fault is a zone of normal faulting in Texas ( USA) that runs approximately from the southwest part of the state to the north central region along
The primary source of drinking water for the city is the Edwards Aquifer. The Edwards Aquifer is one of the most prolific artesian Aquifers in the world Impounded in 1962 and 1969, respectively, Victor Braunig Lake and Calaveras Lake were among the first reservoirs in the country built to use recycled treated wastewater for power plant cooling, reducing the amount of groundwater needed for electrical generation. Victor Braunig Lake, formerly known as East Lake, is a reservoir on Calaveras Creek and Chupaderas Creek 17 miles (27 kilometers south Calaveras Lake is a reservoir on Calaveras Creek, located 20 miles (32 kilometers southeast of downtown San Antonio, Texas, USA A reservoir is most broadly a place or hollow vessel where Fluid is kept in Reserve, for later use A power station (also referred to as generating station, power plant or powerhouse) is an industrial facility for the generation of
Because of its status as a historic urban center, the architecture and layout of San Antonio are more traditionally urban than other cities in Texas, such as Dallas and Austin, which have developed in the last half century.
Downtown is encircled by three numerical freeways, I-35, I-37, and I-10. Interstate 35 in Texas (abbreviated I-35 or IH-35) is a major north-south Interstate Highway running from Laredo near the United States-Mexico Interstate 37 (I-37 is a intrastate Interstate Highway located within the U In the US state of Texas, Interstate 10 is the major east-west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. Together the three highways create a rectangular route around the downtown area of San Antonio: I-35 to the north and west, I-37 to the east, and I-10 to the south.
Downtown is home to many districts including the Alamo District, Alamodome District, Central Business District, Convention Center District, Historic Civic District, Houston Street District, King William Historic District, La Villita District, Market Square District, North Downtown, North River District, River Bend District, SoSo (South of Southtown), Southtown, and the University District.
The Central Business District is home to Rivercenter, anchored by Dillard's and Macy's. For the St Paul RiverCentre see RiverCentre. Rivercenter is a shopping mall located in downtown San Antonio Texas along the This article is about a Department store chain For The Dillards a Progressive bluegrass band see The Dillards. Macy's is a chain of mid-range American Department stores Its Flagship store in Herald Square, New York City has been billed The five-level Art Deco Dillard's, at the corner of Alamo and Commerce streets, opened in 1887 as Joske's. Art Deco was a popular international design movement from 1925 until 1939 affecting the decorative arts such as Architecture, Interior design, and Industrial Joske's, founded by German immigrant Julius Joske in 1867 was a Department store chain originally based in San Antonio, Texas. Joske's flagship store was 551,000 square feet (51,200 m²) in floor space until Dillard's bought the Joske's chain in 1987. Today, Dillard's only occupies a fraction of the original building.
Housing the famous Alamo many people can be seen traveling to visit the historic district. Attractions such as the river walk are home to many of the festivities throughout the year including NIOSA (Night In Old San Antonio) which celebrates Fiesta, Cinco de Mayo, and numerous parades such as celebrations for their home NBA team the Spurs, Christmas parades and much more.
The River Walk at North St. Mary's St.
The Emily Morgan Hotel, one of the city's earliest highrises. A high-rise is a tall Building or structure Normally the function of the building is added for example high-rise Apartment building or
The Cathedral of San Fernando, the Tower Life Building, and the Tower of the Americas. The Cathedral of San Fernando is a Cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church located in San Antonio Texas, in the United States. The Tower Life Building is a landmark and historic building in San Antonio Texas. Tower of the Americas is a 750- foot (229 m observation tower with a restaurant in San Antonio Texas.
The Weston Centre
Tower of the Americas
Hilton Palacio del Rio
San Antonio's weather is alternately dry or humid depending on prevailing winds, turning hot in the summer, mild to cool winters subject to descending northern cold fronts in the winter with cool nights, and comfortably warm and rainy in the spring and fall. The Weston Centre can describe one of two buildings located in North America The city of San Antonio Texas is made up of a number of neighborhoods spreading out surrounding the central downtown area San Antonio Texas has a vibrant art community that reflects the rich history and culture of the area Only a few freezes occur each year and snow is rare.
In San Antonio, July and August tie for the average warmest months with an average high of 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 °C). The highest temperature ever to be recorded was 111 °F (43. 8 °C) on September 5, 2000. Events 1590 - Alexander Farnese 's army forces Henry IV of France to raise the siege of Paris. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.  The average coolest month is January. The lowest recorded temperature ever was 0 °F (-17. 7 °C) on January 31, 1949. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1949 ( MCMXLIX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. May, June, and October have quite a bit of precipitation. For the last 135 years, the average annual precipitation has been 29. 05 inches (73. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 79 cm), with a maximum of 52. 28 inches (132. 79 cm) and a minimum of 10. 11 inches (25. 68 cm) in one year. 
|Average high °F (°C)||62 (16)||66 (18)||74 (23)||80 (27)||86 (30)||92 (33)||95 (35)||95 (35)||90 (32)||82 (28)||71 (22)||64 (17)||80 (27)|
|Rec high °F (°C) (year)||89 (32) (1971)||100 (38) (1996)||100 (38) (1971)||101 (38) (1996)||103 (39) (1927)||107 (42) (1998)||106 (41) (1894)||108 (42) (1986)||111 (44) (2000)||99 (37) (1991)||94 (34) (1988)||90 (32) (1955)||111 (44) (2000)|
|Average low °F (°C)||39 (3)||43 (6)||50 (10)||58 (14)||66 (18)||72 (22)||74 (23)||74 (23)||69 (20)||59 (15)||48 (8)||42 (5)||58 (14)|
|Rec low °F (°C) (year)||0 (-18) (1949)||4 (-16) (1899)||19 (-7) (1980, 2002)||31 (-1) (1987)||43 (6) (1984)||48 (9) (1919)||60 (16) (1905)||57 (14) (1891)||46 (8) (1981, 1983, 1890)||27 (-3) (1993)||21 (-6) (1976)||6 (-14) (1989)||0 (-18) (1949)|
|1. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. 7 (43)||1. 9 (48)||1. 6 (41)||2. 6 (66)||4. 2 (107)||3. 6 (91)||1. 9 (48)||2. 5 (64)||3. 2 (81)||3. 2 (81)||2. 1 (53)||1. 7 (43)||30. 3 (770)|
inches (mm) (year)
|8. 52 (216) (1968)||7. 88 (200) (1903)||7. 24 (184) (2007)||11. 64 (296) (1915)||14. 07 (357) (1935)||11. 95 (304) (1986)||16. 92 (430) (2002)||11. 14 (283) (1974)||15. 78|
|18. 07 (459) (1998)||9. 46 (240) (1874)||13. 96 (355) (1991)||18. 07 (459) (1998)|
|Source: Weatherbase, National Weather Service |
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 1,144,646, ranking it the ninth-most populated city in the country. The United States Census is a decennial Census mandated by the United States Constitution. Due to San Antonio's low density rate and lack of significant population surrounding the city limits, the metropolitan area ranked just 30th in the U. S. with a population of 1,592,383. 
Subsequent population estimates indicate continued growth in the area. The July 1, 2006, population estimate for the city was 1,296,682, making it the second-most populous city and the third-most populous metro area in Texas, as well as the seventh-most populous city in the U. S. The 2006 U. S. Census estimate for the eight-county (Atascosa, Bandera, Bexar, Comal, Guadalupe, Kendall, Medina, and Wilson Counties) San Antonio metropolitan statistical area (MSA) placed its population at 1,942,217, making it the third-most populous metro area in Texas and the 30th-most populous metro area in the U. The San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in South Texas. S. San Antonio's MSA is bordered to the Northeast by the Austin-Round Rock metropolitan statistical area (MSA), and the two metros together combine to form a region of almost 3. Greater Austin (officially known as the Austin-Round Rock metropolitan statistical area) is a five-county Metropolitan area in Central Texas, anchored by 6 million people.
There are 405,474 households, and 280,993 families residing in San Antonio. The population density is 2,808. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 5 people per square mile (1,084. 4 km²).
There are 433,122 housing units at an average density of 1,062. 7 per square mile (410. 3 km²). According to U. S. Census data from 2006, the racial composition of San Antonio is 66. 0% White, 6. 7% African American, 2. 1% Asian, 0. 5% Native American, 22. 5% Other, and 2. 1% from two or more races. However, 61. 3% of the population identify themselves as being of Hispanic origin. Whites of non-Hispanic background were 31. 83% of the population. 
The age of the city's population is spread out with 28. 5% under the age of 18, 10. 8% from 18 to 24, 30. 8% from 25 to 44, 19. 4% from 45 to 64, and 10. 4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. In San Antonio, 48% of the population are males, and 52% of the population are females. For every 100 females there are 93. 5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 89. 7 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $36,214, and the median income for a family is $53,100. Males have a median income of $30,061 versus $24,444 for females. The per capita income for the city is $17,487. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country 17. 3% of the population and 14. 0% of families are below the poverty line. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country Out of the total population, 24. 3% of those under the age of 18 and 13. 5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
San Antonio has a diversified economy with four primary focuses: financial services, health care, national defense, and tourism. The South Texas Medical Center (STMC is a "regional leading" research and educational center in San Antonio, Texas. Financial services refer to services provided by the finance industry. Health care is the prevention treatment and management of illness and the preservation of mental health through the services offered by the medical, Nursing Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Located northwest of the city center is the South Texas Medical Center, the largest medical research and care provider in South Texas, which is a conglomerate of numerous major hospitals, clinics, and research and higher educational institutions. The South Texas Medical Center (STMC is a "regional leading" research and educational center in San Antonio, Texas. South Texas is a region of the US state of Texas that lies roughly south of or beginning at San Antonio. The center is "chief catalyst" for a $14 billion biomedical industry.  It employs over 27,000 persons with a combined total budget of $2. 8 billion.  It employs over 27,000 persons with a combined total budget of $2. 8 billion.  San Antonio is the only city in the United States hosting three Level I Trauma Centers within the city limits (2 military, 1 civilian).
The city is also home to one of the largest military concentrations in the United States. Fort Sam Houston on the city's northeast side hosts Brooke Army Medical Center, focus of the U.S. Army's medical command and training functions. Fort Sam Houston is a US Army post in San Antonio Texas.Known colloquially as "Fort Sam" it is named for the first President of the Republic of Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC - SAMMC-North at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio is part of the United States Army Medical Command The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. Lackland Air Force Base on the city's west side is one of the world's largest training complexes. Lackland Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force operated by the Air Education and Training Command ( AETC) While it is known for hosting the U.S. Air Force's basic military training, it also hosts follow-on technical training for many other Air Force specialties, as well as other operations. Recruit training is the initial Indoctrination and instruction given to new military personnel Randolph Air Force Base on the far northeastern outskirts is the headquarters of the Air Education and Training Command, headquarters for Air Force personnel management and also hosts pilot and navigator training. Randolph Air Force Base ( Randolph AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in Universal City, Texas, near San Antonio Air Education and Training Command ( AETC) was established July 1 1993 with the realignment of Air Training Command and Air University. Additionally, Brooks City-Base on the city's south side and Port San Antonio (formerly Kelly Air Force Base) adjoining Lackland still have significant military presences as well as defense contractor businesses. Brooks City-Base is a former United States Air Force base located 7 miles southeast of San Antonio, Texas. Kelly Field Annex (Formerly Kelly Air Force Base is a United States Air Force facility located in San Antonio Texas. The defense industry in San Antonio employs over 89,000 and provides a $5. 2 billion impact to the city's economy. 
Twenty million tourists visit the city and its attractions every year, contributing substantially to the city's economy.  The Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center alone hosts more than 300 events each year with over 750,000 convention delegates from around the world. Henry B Gonzalez Convention Center is located in downtown San Antonio along the banks of the San Antonio River Walk. Tourism employs 94,000 citizens and makes an economic impact of over $8. 7 billion in the local economy as revealed in the Economic Impact Study conducted every two years by the San Antonio Tourism Council and the research team of Dr. Richard Butler and Dr. Mary Stefl of Trinity University. Tourism also brings new annual revenues to the City of San Antonio and other governmental entities with the hotel & motel tax, sales taxes and other revenues from hospitality agreements and contracts. This number exceeded over $160 million in the 2004 study.
San Antonio's corporate profile includes: Advantage Rent A Car, AT&T, Bill Miller Bar-B-Q, Clear Channel Communications, Frost National Bank, Harte-Hanks, H-E-B, Jim's Restaurants, NewTek, Rackspace Managed Hosting, Southwest Research Institute, Tesoro Petroleum Corp, USAA, Valero Energy Corp, Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas, Taco Cabana, NuStar Energy, V. Advantage Rent A Car is a privately held rental car company headquartered in San Antonio Texas. Before proposing a merge request please see Talk and see if the merger you propose has recently been made and Clear Channel Communications is a media conglomerate company based in the United States. Frost National Bank is a nationally chartered Bank founded in 1868 and based in San Antonio Texas with more than 100 financial centers across Texas Harte-Hanks ( headquartered in San Antonio Texas, is a worldwide direct marketing company that provides a full range of marketing services HEButt Grocery Company (abbreviated H-E-B) is a privately held San Antonio Texas -based Supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Jim's Restaurants is a chain of restaurants owned by San Antonio -based Frontier Enterprises NewTek Inc is a San Antonio, Texas -based software company that produces live and post-production video tools and visual imaging software for personal computers Rackspace US Inc (dba Rackspace is an IT hosting company based in San Antonio, Texas. Southwest Research Institute ( SwRI) headquartered in San Antonio Texas, is one of the oldest and largest independent Nonprofit, applied Research Tesoro Corporation is a FORTUNE 150 company headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, with 2004 annual revenues of $12 United Services Automobile Association ( USAA) is a Fortune 500 Valero Energy Corporation ( is a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas, with 21836 employees and annual revenue of more than US$90 billion Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas ( NYSE: TMMTX is a Truck Factory based in San Antonio Texas. Taco Cabana is a US -based Fast food Restaurant chain specializing in Tex-Mex cuisine and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Carrols K. Knowlton Construction and Utilities, and Zachry Construction which are all headquartered in the city. Companies not headquartered in San Antonio but which have a strong presence in the city include: Bank of America, Boeing, Caremark Rx Inc., The Capital Group Companies, Citibank, InfoNxx, QVC, NSA, Wachovia Bank, Washington Mutual, West Corporation, Clarke American and Lowe's, while Microsoft is currently constructing a server farm on the city's northwest side. Banc of America Securities Bank of America () is the largest bank by asset and second largest commercial Bank by deposits and Market capitalization in United The Boeing Company is a major Aerospace and defense corporation originally founded by William E Caremark Pharmacy Services is a prescription benefit management subsidiary of CVS Caremark Corporation, headquartered in Nashville Tennessee. The Capital Group Companies is one of the world’s largest Investment management organizations with assets in excess of $1 Citibank is a major international Bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York. QVC is a West Chester Pennsylvania, USA, multinational corporation specializing in televised home shopping. The National Security Agency/ Central Security Service ( NSA/CSS) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States government Wachovia Corporation ( based in Charlotte North Carolina, is a diversified Financial services holding company provided via its operating subsidiaries a broad Washington Mutual Inc (abbreviated to WaMu) ( is a savings bank holding company and the former owner of Washington Mutual Savings Bank, which was the West Corporation (formerly West TeleServices) provides outsourced Customer relationship management (CRM services based in the United States Lowe's Companies Inc ( is a US -based chain of Retail Home improvement and appliance stores Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer A server farm or server cluster is a collection of Computer servers usually maintained by an enterprise to accomplish server needs far beyond the capability  Other industries are establishing plants in the area, as the city's economy continues to grow.
San Antonio is a popular tourist destination. The jewel of the city is the River Walk, which meanders through the downtown area. The San Antonio River Walk (also known as Paseo del Río) is a network of walkways along the banks of the San Antonio River, one story beneath downtown San Antonio Lined with numerous shops, bars, and restaurants, as well as the Arneson River Theater, this attraction is transformed into an impressive festival of lights during the Christmas and New Year holiday period, and is suffused with the local sounds of folklorico and flamenco music during the summer, particularly during celebrations such as the Fiesta Noche del Rio. Arneson River Theater is an outdoor performance theater located in the San Antonio River Walk in Texas. Baile folklórico, literally " Folk dance " in Spanish is a collective term for traditional Latin American dances that emphasize local folk culture Flamenco is a Spanish term that refers both to a musical genre known for its intricate rapid passages and a dance genre characterized by its audible footwork Fiesta Noche del Rio is a seasonal outdoor performance which features the songs and dances of Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Texas. Also based along the River Walk is the newly restored Aztec On The River, the only surviving exotic-themed movie palace in Texas. 104 N St Mary's Street - San Antonio Texas 78205On the Riverwalk at E Movie palace is an American English Synonym for Movie theater, but nowadays usually used within the USA for the grand cinemas of the 1910s to early
The Alamo, located nearby, is Texas' top tourist attraction, while the River Walk is the second most visited attraction. The Alamo, originally known as Mission San Antonio de Valero, is a former Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound now a museum in San Antonio, Texas
The downtown area also features Cathedral of San Fernando, The Majestic Theatre, HemisFair Park (home of the Tower of the Americas and the Institute of Texan Cultures), La Villita, El Mercado, the Spanish Governor's Palace, and the historic Menger Hotel. The Cathedral of San Fernando is a Cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church located in San Antonio Texas, in the United States. The Majestic Theatre is San Antonio's oldest and largest atmospheric theatre HemisFair '68 was the first officially designated World's fair (or international exposition held in the Southwestern United States. Tower of the Americas is a 750- foot (229 m observation tower with a restaurant in San Antonio Texas. UTSA 's Institute of Texan Cultures is a Museum and Library located in HemisFair Park in downtown San Antonio, Texas. The Spanish Governor's Palace is a National Historic Landmark in the city of San Antonio Texas. The Menger Hotel, located in downtown San Antonio, Texas, was built in 1859 (23 years after the fall of the adjacent Alamo) by William Menger On the northern side of the Alamo complex, beside the Emily Morgan Hotel, is the San Antonio Cavalry Museum, which features cavalry artifacts and exhibits and is frequented by local re-enactors.
The Fairmont Hotel, built in 1906, is in the Guinness Book of World Records as one of the heaviest buildings ever moved intact. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U It was placed in its new location, three blocks south of the Alamo, over four days in 1985, and cost $650,000 to move.
The Alamo, San Antonio's most famous attraction
The holiday season on the River Walk
The Torch of Friendship sculpture
San Antonio's historic River Walk extends some 2½ miles, attracting several million visitors every year. The San Antonio River Walk (also known as Paseo del Río) is a network of walkways along the banks of the San Antonio River, one story beneath downtown San Antonio
Another view of the city's downtown area
Central Library of The San Antonio Public Library
The Tower of the Americas characterizes the city's skyline
The historic Bexar County Courthouse
Aztec On The River Theater
Other places of interest include the The Woodlawn Theatre ,San Antonio Zoo, Japanese Tea Gardens, Kumamoto En, Brackenridge Park, the missions of the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, the San Antonio Museum of Art, the Witte Museum, the Marion Koogler McNay Art Museum, SeaWorld San Antonio, Six Flags Fiesta Texas,The Texas Transportation Museum,and Splashtown San Antonio. The San Antonio Public Library is a collection of a Central Library and 24 branch libraries (as of the fall of 2008 that serve the City of San Antonio. Tower of the Americas is a 750- foot (229 m observation tower with a restaurant in San Antonio Texas. The Bexar County Courthouse is an historical building in downtown San Antonio, Texas Henry B Gonzalez Convention Center is located in downtown San Antonio along the banks of the San Antonio River Walk. The San Antonio Botanical Garden is a 33 acre non-profit Botanical garden in San Antonio Texas. San Antonio Missions National Historical Park preserves four of the five Spanish SeaWorld San Antonio is a marine-life theme park located in the Westover Hills area of San Antonio, Texas. 104 N St Mary's Street - San Antonio Texas 78205On the Riverwalk at E The San Antonio Zoological Gardens and Aquarium is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums -accredited Zoo in San Antonio Texas, United States The San Antonio Japanese Tea Gardens (also known as the Sunken Gardens) is a registered Texas historical landmark in San Antonio Texas. San Antonio Missions National Historical Park preserves four of the five Spanish SeaWorld San Antonio is a marine-life theme park located in the Westover Hills area of San Antonio, Texas. Six Flags Fiesta Texas is a seasonally operated theme park located on approximately of land within an old quarry near the northwest intersection of Loop 1604 and Interstate 10 in Texas Transportation Museum (TTM is a Transportation museum located near San Antonio, Texas. Splashtown San Antonio is a Water park located in San Antonio Texas. Visitors can also experience something of the cowboy culture year round, they can see the 40-foot (12 m) tall cowboy boots at North Star Mall. North Star Mall is a premier shopping mall in San Antonio Texas with anchor tenants Dillard's, J
Beyond taking in the sights and sounds of San Antonio, tourists can sample some of its world famous Tex-Mex cuisine at the many fine restaurants located throughout the city. Tex-Mex is a term used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional American cuisine that blends Food products Mexican restaurants are abundant in virtually all parts of town, and most — except for those in the Far North and some of the Uptown enclaves like Alamo Heights — are relatively inexpensive. Some outstanding examples of Tex-Mex eateries include Jacala, on West Avenue on the near Northwest side, Karam's, in the middle of the West Side, and Los Barrios, on the near North side of town.
The city's only top-level professional sports team, and consequently the team most San Antonians follow, is the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association. The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional Basketball team based in San Antonio Texas. The Spurs have been playing in San Antonio since 1973 and have won four NBA Championships (1999, 2003, 2005, and 2007). The NBA Finals is the championship series of the National Basketball Association and the conclusion of the sport's postseason each June Previously, the Spurs played at the Alamodome, which was built for football, and before that the HemisFair Arena, but the Spurs built and moved into the SBC Center in 2002, since renamed the AT&T Center, following the merger of SBC and AT&T. The Alamodome is a 65000 seat multi-purpose facility that is primarily used as a football /basketball stadium and convention center in San Antonio, Texas American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with The HemisFair Arena was an Indoor arena located in San Antonio Texas, United States. The AT&T Center is an indoor arena located in San Antonio Texas, USA
The AT&T Center is also home to the San Antonio Rampage of the American Hockey League and the San Antonio Silver Stars of the WNBA, both owned by the Spurs. The San Antonio Rampage is an Ice hockey team in the American Hockey League based in San Antonio Texas. American Hockey Association (1926–1942The American Hockey League (AHL is a Professional Ice hockey league in North America that serves as the primary The San Antonio Silver Stars are a team in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA based in San Antonio Texas. San Antonio is also home to the Double-A Minor League affiliate of the San Diego Padres, the San Antonio Missions who play at Nelson Wolff Stadium on the west side of the city. The San Diego Padres are a Major League Baseball team based in San Diego California since their founding in 1969 For the historic churches see San Antonio Missions National Historical Park The San Antonio Missions are a Minor league baseball Nelson W Wolff Municipal Stadium (also known as Wolff Stadium) is a Stadium in San Antonio Texas. San Antonio also hosts the NCAA football Alamo Bowl each December. The Alamo Bowl is a major American College football Bowl game played annually since 1993 in the 65000-seat Alamodome in San Antonio San Antonio also has two rugby union teams, the Alamo City Rugby Football Club, and San Antonio Rugby Football Club. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short The Alamo City Rugby Football Club (also known as just Alamo City RFC or Alamo City Rugby is a Texas Rugby union club that is based in the city of San Antonio TX
The city is also home of the U. S. Army All-American Bowl , played annually in the Alamodome and televised live on NBC. The Bowl is an East versus West showdown featuring the nation's top 90 high school senior football players. The game has featured NFL stars Reggie Bush, Vince Young, Adrian Peterson, and many other college and NFL stars. The U. S. Army All-American Bowl also includes the U. S. Army All-American Marching Band, the U. S. Army National Combine, and the U. S. Army Coaches Academy, all of which take place in San Antonio during the week leading up to the game itself.
The U. S. Army All-American Marching Band features 91 of the nation's top high school senior marching musicians who perform during halftime of the U. S. Army All-American Bowl. The U. S. Army National Combine features 500 of the nation's top high school underclassman football players. The U. S. Army Coaches Academy features 100 of the nation's top high school football coaches, including the coaches of each U. S. Army All-American. The Bowl and its related events are owned and produced by SportsLink, a New Jersey-based sports marketing and event management company.
The city was also a temporary home for the New Orleans Saints for the 2005 NFL season due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina. The New Orleans Saints are a professional American football team based in New Orleans Louisiana. The 2005 season of the National Football League (NFL was the 86th season played by the major professional American football league in the United States Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest hurricane, as well as one of the five deadliest in the history of the United States The Saints set up practice facilities in San Antonio for the season, and played a split home schedule between the Alamodome and Baton Rouge, Louisiana's Tiger Stadium during the 2005 season. Baton Rouge (French Bâton-Rouge ˌbætən ˈruːdʒ in English, and in French) is the capital city of Louisiana. Tiger Stadium is the home field of Louisiana State University American football team. After the final game in San Antonio, the Saints committed to moving back to New Orleans for the 2006 season. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana City officials are said to be attempting to lure the National Football League permanently to San Antonio and have also said that a strong showing at the Alamodome for the three local Saints games was vital to showing that San Antonio can support an NFL franchise. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue stated San Antonio was successful in hosting the team, and that the city would be on the short list for any future NFL expansions. Paul John Tagliabue (born November 24 1940 in Jersey City New Jersey) was the Commissioner of the National Football League The city has also hosted the Dallas Cowboys and Houston Oilers preseason camps in the past, and they have signed a contract with the Cowboys in which the Cowboys will practice in San Antonio through 2011. The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference (NFC in the National The Tennessee Titans are a professional American football team based in Nashville Tennessee.  Cowboys owner Jerry Jones has acknowledged his support for the city's efforts to become home to an NFL franchise.  Although it is the second largest city in the United States without an NFL team (after Los Angeles), San Antonio's smaller metropolitan population has so far contributed to its lack of landing an NFL, MLB, or NHL team. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The National Hockey League ( NHL) is a professional Ice hockey league composed of 30 teams in North America It should also be noted that the city of Toronto, Canada is over twice as large as San Antonio, and any plans for an expansion team in San Antonio could potentially be interrupted by the NFL expanding to Toronto instead. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The National Football League, the dominant professional competition in American football and the leading U Recently, the University of Texas at San Antonio voted on adding a football team.
In March 2006, the city also made an offer to build a stadium for the struggling Florida Marlins baseball franchise. The Florida Marlins are a professional baseball team based in Miami Gardens Florida. However, the Marlins and Major League Baseball, while indicating San Antonio would be a viable relocation option if things did not work out in Florida, have declined the offer and appear to be focused on keeping the franchise in South Florida.
In 2005 the city approached Major League Soccer with an interest in placing a soccer franchise in the vacant Alamodome. Major League Soccer ( MLS) is the top-flight professional Soccer league in the United States and Canada with 14 teams 13 in the U Both the city and the league seemed to be in harmony with the council voting 9-2 in favor of a the new San Antonio team, citing that it would reduce the financial burden of the stadium on the city by providing it with a permanent tenant without an extra financial costs as the necessary upgrading of facilities at the dome would have to take place regardless of a team moving in or not. The following week an 8-3 vote carried the second part of the plan, which would see a major new youth soccer complex being built in the city to compete for what was described as the lucrative Texas youth soccer event market. At the time it was stated that San Antonio had only a fraction of the youth soccer facilities available in other Texan cities of Dallas, Houston and Austin. All seemed to be in place and plans on course until a media campaign against the soccer proposals exposing that the team would only be leased with the Alamodome for three years. After three years the team would have to vacate to a soccer specific stadium. Afer Hurricane Katrina the city set their goal of earning an NFL franchise. The prospects for the franchise were further hindered when it became a political football during the election for Mayor, which was won by Phil Hardberger who instantly distanced the city from any deal with MLS. Phil Hardberger (born July 27, 1934) is the Mayor of San Antonio, Texas. MLS meanwhile released a statement claiming that they had planned to withdraw before the election but did not wish to comment until afterwards in order to "respect the electoral process in San Antonio. " The deal died with both sides blaming each other for its demise.
Some current names in professional sports from the city of San Antonio's high school sports programs include WWE wrestler Shawn Michaels, Dallas Cowboys wide receiver Sam Hurd, New York Giants defensive back Aaron Ross, Cleveland Cavaliers guard Devin Brown, Minnesota Vikings 2006 second-round draft pick Cedric Griffin, Kansas City Chiefs running back Priest Holmes, Houston Texans defensive end N.D. Kalu, Florida Marlins pitcher Logan Kensing, Phoenix Suns center Shaquille O'Neal, and Olympic gold medalist Darold Williamson. World Wrestling Entertainment Inc ( WWE) is a publicly traded privately controlled integrated media (focusing in Television, Internet, Professional wrestling, or pro wrestling, is a non-competitive professional Sport, where all matches are scripted by the promotion's booking staff Michael Shawn Hickenbottom (born July 22 1965 better known by his Ring name Shawn Michaels, is an American professional wrestler. The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team in the Eastern Division of the National Football Conference (NFC in the National Sam Hurd (born April 24, 1985 in San Antonio Texas) is an American football Wide receiver in the NFL for the The New York Giants are a professional American football team based in the New York City suburb of East Rutherford New Jersey. Aaron Jermaine Ross (born September 15, 1982 in San Antonio Texas) is an American football Defensive back for the New York Giants The Cleveland Cavaliers (also known as the Cavs) are a professional Basketball team based in Cleveland Ohio. Devin Brown (born December 30, 1978 in Salt Lake City Utah) is an American National Basketball Association player currently playing The Minnesota Vikings are a professional American football team based out of Minneapolis Minnesota. Cedric Leonard Griffin (born November 11, 1982) is an American football cornerback for the Minnesota Vikings. The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City Missouri. Priest Anthony Holmes (born October 7, 1973 in Fort Smith Arkansas) is a former American football Running back of the National The Houston Texans is a professional American football team based in Houston, Texas. Ndukwe Dike "N D" Kalu (born August 3, 1975 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American football Defensive end for Logan French Kensing (born July 3, 1982 in San Antonio Texas) is a Major League Baseball Right-handed Pitcher, with The Phoenix Suns are a professional Basketball team based in Phoenix Arizona. Shaquille Rashaun O'Neal (born March 6 1972 frequently referred to simply as " Shaq " is an African American Professional basketball The Olympic Games is an international Multi-sport event established for both summer and winter games Darold Williamson (born February 19, 1983 in San Antonio Texas) is an American track athlete.
The City of San Antonio runs under a Council-Manager form of government. The following is a list of mayors of San Antonio, Texas The city is divided into 10 council districts designed to ensure equal population distribution between all districts. Each district elects one person to sit on the City Council with the mayor elected on a city-wide basis. All members of the City Council, which includes the mayor, are elected to two-year terms and are limited to two total terms. All positions are elected on non-partisan ballots as required by Texas law. Council members are paid $20 a meeting, while the Mayor earns $4,000 a year. Most council members maintain full-time employment in addition to their positions on the council.
The council hires the City Manager to handle day to day operations. A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a City, in a council-manager form of city government The council effectively functions as the city's legislative body with the City Manager acting as its Chief Executive, responsible for the management of day to day operations and execution of council legislation.
The current mayor is Phil Hardberger (an active supporter of the U.S. Democratic Party, but officially elected on a non-partisan basis). Phil Hardberger (born July 27, 1934) is the Mayor of San Antonio, Texas. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Before he took office as San Antonio's mayor, he served as Chief Justice on the Fourth Court of Appeals of Texas. The current City Manager is Sheryl Sculley.
Unlike most large cities in the U. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Kathryn Ann Bailey Hutchison usually known as Kay Bailey Hutchison (born July 22 1943) is the senior United States Senator from John Cornyn III (born February 2 1952) is the junior United States Senator from Texas. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Charles A "Charlie" Gonzalez (born May 5, 1945) is a Democratic politician from Texas. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Lamar Seeligson Smith (born November 19 1947) is a Politician from the state of Texas, currently representing the state's Ciro Davis Rodriguez (born December 9 1946) is a Democratic Congressman who represents Texas's 23rd congressional district. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Henry Roberto Cuellar (born September 19, 1955) is a Democratic Politician from Laredo, Texas, who represents his The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. S. , San Antonio is not completely surrounded by independent suburban cities and under Texas law it exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) over much of the surrounding unincorporated land, including directing growth and zoning.  It pursues an aggressive annexation policy and opposes the creation of other municipalities within its ETJ.  Nearly three-fourths of its current land area has been annexed since 1960.  In recent years, the city has annexed several long narrow corridors along major thoroughfares in outlying areas to facilitate eventual annexation of growth developing along the routes. The city plans to annex nearly forty additional square miles by 2009. 
Involuntary annexation is a controversial issue in those parts of unincorporated Bexar County affected by it. Residents, attracted to the outlying areas by lower taxes and affordable real estate values, often see annexation as a mechanism to increase property tax rates without a corresponding improvement in services such as police and fire protection, while the city regards its annexation policy as essential to its overall prosperity. Property tax, or millage tax, is an Ad valorem tax that an owner pays on the value of the property being taxed 
San Antonio hosts over 100,000 students across its 31 higher-education facilities which include The University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas A&M University-San Antonio, and the Alamo Community College District's five colleges. See also San Antonio Texas San Antonio hosts over 100000 students across its 31 higher-education facilities which include The University of Texas at San Antonio The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA is San Antonio ’s largest public University and currently the second largest university in the University of Texas Texas A&M University–San Antonio is a Public university in San Antonio, Texas, USA that is expected to break ground by the end of 2009 The Alamo Community College District (ACCD is a Community college system serving the greater San Antonio Texas area Other schools include St. Mary's University, University of the Incarnate Word, Trinity University, and Wayland Baptist University. St Mary’s University is a Catholic and Marianist liberal arts institution located on 135 acres northwest of historic downtown San Antonio The University of the Incarnate Word (UIW is located in the Alamo Heights neighborhood of San Antonio Texas. Trinity University is an independent primarily Undergraduate, university in San Antonio, Texas. Wayland Baptist University is private coeducational Baptist university based in Plainview, Texas, U The San Antonio Public Library serves all of these institutions along with the 17 school districts within San Antonio. The San Antonio Public Library is a collection of a Central Library and 24 branch libraries (as of the fall of 2008 that serve the City of San Antonio.
The city is also home to more than 30 private schools and charter schools. These schools include San Antonio Academy, Holy Cross High School, Incarnate Word High School, and St. Anthony Catholic High School. The San Antonio Academy is a private military school for boys located in San Antonio Texas, offering instruction from prekindergarten through the eighth grade for day students Incarnate Word High School is a private, Roman Catholic, all-girls High school in San Antonio Texas. St Anthony Catholic High School is a private, Roman Catholic High school located several miles north of downtown San Antonio, Texas
The San Antonio International Airport is located in north central San Antonio, approximately eight miles from downtown. San Antonio International Airport is a commercial airport in San Antonio Texas. It has two terminals and is served by 21 airlines serving 43 destinations including three in Mexico. An extensive bus and trolley system (vehicular not rail) is provided by the city's metropolitan transit system, VIA Metropolitan Transit. VIA Metropolitan Transit (or simply VIA) is the Mass transit agency serving San Antonio Texas. VIA offers 78 regular bus routes and four trolley routes, including express routes from downtown to the theme parks. VIA also offers a special service to city events, including Spurs games and city parades, from its Park and Ride locations. The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional Basketball team based in San Antonio Texas. 
Amtrak, the national passenger rail service, provides service to San Antonio at San Antonio Amtrak Station, operating its Texas Eagle daily between San Antonio and Chicago's Union Station. The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Doing business as Amtrak, is a Government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971 San Antonio Station serves as the Amtrak train station in San Antonio, Texas. The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile (2102 km Passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Union Station is a Chicago Train station that opened in 1925 replacing an earlier 1881 station and is now the only Intercity rail terminal in Chicago  Amtrak also operates its Sunset Limited three times a week in each direction through San Antonio between Los Angeles and Orlando, Florida (currently truncated to New Orleans due to the effects of Hurricane Katrina). The Sunset Limited is a Passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans and Los Angeles California, and that from early Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West Orlando is a major City in central Florida, USA and is the County seat of Orange County Florida. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana  The Texas Eagle section travels between San Antonio and Los Angeles as part of the Sunset Limited. The old Sunset Station is now an entertainment venue owned by VIA and neighbored by the current station and the Alamodome. The Alamodome is a 65000 seat multi-purpose facility that is primarily used as a football /basketball stadium and convention center in San Antonio, Texas 
San Antonio is served by these major freeways:
Other highways include:
San Antonio has one major newspaper, the San Antonio Express-News, which has served the area since 1865. Below follows a comprehensive list of notables of San Antonio Texas. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. The San Antonio Express-News is the daily newspaper of San Antonio Texas. Robert Rivard, who currently serves as the paper's executive vice president and editor, was named Managing Editor in 1994 and then Editor in 1997. The Express-News currently circulates as the largest newspaper service in South Texas. South Texas is a region of the US state of Texas that lies roughly south of or beginning at San Antonio. The Hearst Corporation, which owned a second newspaper, the San Antonio Light, purchased the Express-News from News Corp. in 1992 and shut down the Light after failing to find a buyer. Hearst, using the Express-News brand, also produces Conexion, a weekly magazine written by an entirely Hispanic staff with a Hispanic spin on weekly events. The San Antonio Current is the free "alternative" paper published weekly with local political issues, art and music news, restaurant listings and reviews, and listings of events and nightlife around town. In addition, the San Antonio Business Journal covers general business news. La Prensa, a bilingual publication, also has a long history in San Antonio. The San Antonio River Walk Current covers general San Antonio news.
While the city is one of the ten largest in the United States, its television market is only the 37th in the United States, according to the marketing research firm ACNielsen. Marketing research or market research is a form of business research and is generally divided into two categories consumer market research and business-to-business (B2B market research which ACNielsen is a global Marketing research firm with worldwide headquarters in New York City.  This is primarily due to the lack of suburbs; most of the population has been or is being annexed into San Antonio proper. The San Antonio market has 65% cable TV penetration.
FM: 28 AM: 20
About 50 radio stations can be heard in the San Antonio area — 30 of them are actually located in San Antonio. Current Info Broadcast Media was approved by the FCC to purchase the Univision group of Television stations The first radio station to broadcast in South Texas was KTSA AM-550 in 1922. Some of KTSA AM-550's better known local talk show hosts include Jack Riccardi, Trey Ware, and Ricci Ware. Another significant station is WOAI AM-1200 (the flagship of Clear Channel Worldwide), which is the radio home of the San Antonio Spurs.
There are two National Public Radio stations in San Antonio, both belong to Texas Public Radio (www. TPR. org); KSTX 89. 1 FM is NPR news/talk and KPAC 88. 3 is a 24-hour classical music station. KSTX also broadcasts "Riverwalk Jazz", featuring Jim Cullum Jazz Band at The Landing, a fixture on the River Walk since 1963. KRTU 91. 7 is a non-commercial radio station based out of Trinity University. Unlike other college radio stations throughout the U. S. the station plays jazz 17 hours a day and college rock/indie rock at night. College Alternative station KSYM, 90. 1 FM, is owned by the Alamo Community College District and operated by San Antonio College students and like KRTU it plays the Third Coast music network during the day and alternative music at night.
Most Latin stations in the area play Regional Mexican, Tejano or Contemporary Pop. Regional styles of Mexican music vary greatly vary from state to state Tejano music (Spanish-Texan music is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic populations of Central and Southern Texas But on January 12, 2006, Univision-owned KCOR FM "La Kalle 95. Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States and Puerto Rico. 1" changed its format from Hispanic-Rhythmic Contemporary Hits to Spanish Oldies, now named "Recuerdo 95. 1". However, Univision announced on November 10, 2006, that it flipped KLTO Tejano 97. 7's format to Reggaeton in an attempt to reintroduce the format to San Antonio again. KLTO was acquired earlier in the year and operated as a simulcast of KXTN Tejano 107. KXTN-FM (1075 FM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Tejano format 5. San Antonio has quickly diversified in recent years, with the influx of non-Tejano Latinos, mostly from the East Coast, who are serving in the city's various military bases, as well as immigrants from Mexico. Tejano or Tex-Mex music is also a kind of music originating in Texas The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Therefore, just like in the rest of the country, radio station conglomerates have been changing formats in San Antonio to reflect shifting demographics. Demographics or demographic data refers to selected population characteristics as used in government Marketing or opinion research or the Demographic profiles