In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. This is typically done with a sampler, which can be a piece of hardware or a computer program on a digital computer. A sampler is an electronic musical instrument closely related to a Synthesizer. Sampling is also possible with tape loops or with vinyl records on a phonograph. Tape loops are loops of prerecorded Magnetic tape used to create repetitive rhythmic musical patterns or dense layers of sound A gramophone The phonograph, or gramophone, was the most common device for playing recorded Sound from the 1870s through the 1980s It can aslo just be a sample that you play as an example of the piece instead of playing the whole track.
Often "samples" consist of one part of a song, such as a break, used in another, for instance the use of the drum introduction from Led Zeppelin's "When the Levee Breaks" in songs by the Beastie Boys, Dr. Dre, Eminem, Mike Oldfield, Rob Dougan and Erasure, and the guitar riffs from Foreigner's "Hot Blooded" in Tone-Loc's "Funky Cold Medina". In Popular music a break is an Instrumental or percussion section or interlude during a song derived from or related to Stop-time &ndash being Led Zeppelin were " When the Levee Breaks " is a Blues song written and first recorded by husband and wife Kansas Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie in 1929 Andre Romelle Young (born February 18 1965 primarily known by his stage name Dr Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17 1972 known as Slim Shady and his primary Stage name Eminem, is an Academy Award -winning Michael Gordon Oldfield (born 15 May 1953 in Reading, Berkshire) is an English Multi-instrumentalist Musician Rob Dougan, also known as Rob D (born 1969 Sydney, Australia) is a genre-blending Music composer. Erasure are an English Synth pop duo formed by Songwriter and Keyboardist Vince Clarke and Singer Foreigner is a rock band formed in New York City in 1976 by veteran musicians Mick Jones and ex- King Crimson member Ian McDonald, " Hot Blooded " is a 1978 song released by the British - American rock band Foreigner, from their album Double Vision Tone Lōc (sometimes alternatively spelled Tone Loc or Tone-Lōc, with the second part of the name regardless of spelling pronounced like the "loc" in " Funky Cold Medina " is a hip hop song written by Young MC and performed by Tone Lōc. "Samples" in this sense occur often in industrial music, often using spoken words from movies and TV shows, as well as electronic music (which developed out of the musique concrète style, based almost entirely on samples and sample-like parts), hip hop, developed from DJs repeating the breaks from songs (Schloss 2004, p. Industrial music is a loose term for a number of different styles of Experimental music, especially but not necessarily Electronic music. Electronic music is music that employs Electronic musical instruments and Electronic Music technology in its production Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Hip hop music, also referred to as rap music, is a Music genre typically consisting of a rhythmic vocal style called rap which is accompanied with 36), and Contemporary R&B, but are becoming more common in other music as well.
In 2005, music blog Library of Vinyl Experience compiled sample frequency data obtained from the sample database The Sample FAQ. The goal was to determine what year was “The Funkiest Year Ever” by counting the number of times samples from a particular year were used in hip hop songs. The bulk of the samples used in hip hop were from the years 1970-1975, the most being 872 different songs from 1973, making it “The Funkiest Year Ever”. Some of 1973s most sampled songs include: The Incredible Bongo Band’s “Apache”, which was sampled 45 times, Barry White’s “I’m Gonna Love You Just a Little More, Babe”, which was sampled 33 times, Kool and the Gang’s “Jungle Boogie”, which was sampled 45 times, and The Honey Drippers' “Impeach the President”, which was sampled 115 times. The Incredible Bongo Band, also known as Michael Viner's Incredible Bongo Band, was a project started in 1972 by Michael Viner, a record artist manager and executive Barry Eugene White (born Barrence Eugene Carter, &ndash) was an American Record producer, Songwriter and Singer. Kool & the Gang are a highly successful American Jazz / R&B / soul / Funk / Disco group 
Sampling has been an area of contention from a legal perspective. A sampler is an electronic musical instrument closely related to a Synthesizer. Early sampling artists simply used portions of other artists' recordings, without permission; once rap and other music incorporating samples began to make significant money, the original artists began to take legal action, claiming copyright infringement. Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for Some sampling artists fought back, claiming their samples were fair use (a legal doctrine in the USA that is not universal). Fair use is a doctrine in United States copyright law that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the rights holders such as use for International sampling is governed by agreements such as the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and the WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing Copyright The WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, is a part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Sampling existing (copyrighted) recordings using manipulation with tape recorders goes back at least as far as 1961, when James Tenney created Collage #1 ("Blue Suede") from samples of Elvis Presley's recording of the song "Blue Suede Shoes. James Tenney ( August 10, 1934 - August 24, 2006) was an American Composer and influential music theorist. " Blue Suede Shoes " is a Rock and roll standard written and first recorded by Carl Perkins in 1955. " The Beatles also used the technique on a number of popular recordings in the mid' '60s, including "Yellow Submarine" and "I am the Walrus. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 " Yellow Submarine " is a 1966 song by The Beatles (credited to Lennon/McCartney) which was recorded by John Lennon, Paul McCartney " I Am the Walrus " is a 1967 song by The Beatles, written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon/McCartney. " In the late 70's and early 80's, DJ Kool Herc, who is often credited as the inventor of hip-hop, often looped hard funk break beats at block parties in The Bronx. Clive Campbell (born April 16 1955 AKA Kool Herc, DJ Kool Herc and Kool DJ Herc, is a Jamaican-born DJ who is credited as originating Hip hop However, sampling did not truly take off in popular music until the early eighties when pioneering hip hop producers, such as Marley Marl, started to produce Rap records using sampled breaks rather than drum machines or live studio bands, which had until then been the norm. Hip hop is a cultural movement which developed in New York City in the 1970s primarily among African Americans and Latinos. Marlon Williams (born 1962 in Queens, New York City) better known as Marley Marl, is considered one of the most important and influential hip-hop Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the Rhythmic spoken delivery of Rhymes wordplay and The first popular rap single to feature sampling was "Rapper's Delight" by Sugar Hill Gang on their own independent Sugar Hill Label in 1979. The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop and Funk group known mostly for their biggest hit " Rapper's Delight " the first hip hop They used the guitar riff from the song "Good Times" by the disco group Chic. Chic ( pron. ˈʃiːk ("sheek" sometimes fully capitalized as CHIC is an American Disco and R&B band that was formed in 1976
Early examples of this practice include the West Street Mob's - Break Dance (Electric Boogie) (1983) (which used the "Apache" break by the Incredible Bongo Bong Band), Brother D and the Collective Effort's "How We Gonna Make The Black Nation Rise" (1984) (which sampled the beat and bass line from Cheryl Lynn's 1978 hit "Got to be Real") and UTFO's "Roxanne Roxanne" (1984). Cheryl Lynn (born Lynda Cheryl Smith, 11 March 1957, Los Angeles, California) is a Disco, R&B and soul Bill Holt's Dreamies (1974) is often cited as one of the earliest examples of sampling in popular music. In the early 1970s Bill Holt produced a recording called " Dreamies " - a collage of songs performed on guitar and synthesizer (a Moog Sonic 6) combined with Another early example of sampling was Big Audio Dynamite and their 1985 album This Is Big Audio Dynamite and the single E=MC² which Mick Jones (the band's main creative force, formerly of The Clash) sampled snippets of audio from various films including works by Nicolas Roeg which make up the Roeg homage E=MC². Big Audio Dynamite (later known as Big Audio Dynamite II and Big Audio, and often abbreviated BAD) were a British musical group formed in 1984 by the This Is Big Audio Dynamite was the debut album by Big Audio Dynamite, led by former Clash band member Mick Jones. "E=MC2" is a song written by Mick Jones, the guitarist and singer of The Clash and performed by his post-Clash band Big Audio Dynamite Michael Geoffrey "Mick" Jones (born 26 June 1955 was the lead Guitarist and a vocalist of the British Punk rock band The For the debut album by The Clash see The Clash (album The Clash were Nicolas Jack Roeg, BSC (born August 15, 1928 in London) is an English Cinematographer and Film director. "E=MC2" is a song written by Mick Jones, the guitarist and singer of The Clash and performed by his post-Clash band Big Audio Dynamite The 1981 album by David Byrne and Brian Eno, My Life in the Bush of Ghosts, used sampling extensively for the songs' vocals. Brian Peter George St John le Baptiste de la Salle Eno (born 15 May 1948 commonly known as Brian Eno (ˈiːnoʊ is an English Musician, producer My Life in the Bush of Ghosts is a 1981 album by Brian Eno and David Byrne, titled after Amos Tutuola 's 1954 novel of the same
One of the first major legal cases regarding sampling was with UK dance act M/A/R/R/S "Pump Up the Volume". " Pump Up the Volume " ( 1987) was the only single released by British recording act M/A/R/R/S. As the record reached the UK top ten, producers Stock Aitken Waterman obtained an injunction against the record due to the unauthorized use of a sample from their hit single "Roadblock". Stock Aitken Waterman, sometimes known as SAW, were a UK songwriting and record producing trio who had great success during the mid-late 1980s The dispute was settled out of court, with the injunction being lifted in return for an undertaking that overseas releases would not contain the "Roadblock" sample, and the disc went on to top the UK singles chart. Ironically, the sample in question had been so distorted as to be virtually unrecognizable, and SAW didn't realize their record had been used until they heard co-producer Dave Dorrell mention it in a radio interview.
2 Live Crew, a hip-hop group not unfamiliar with controversy, was often in the spotlight for their ‘obscene’ and sexually explicit lyrics. 2 Live Crew is a hip hop group from Miami Florida. They caused considerable controversy with the Sexual themes in their work particularly on their They sparked many debates about censorship in the music industry. However, it was their 1989 album As Clean as They Wanna Be (a re-tooling of As Nasty As They Wanna Be) that began the prolonged legal debate over sampling. The album contained a track entitled “Pretty Woman,” based on the well known Roy Orbison song of the same name. Roy Kelton Orbison ( April 23 1936 &ndash December 6 1988) nicknamed "The Big O" was an influential Grammy Award -winning 2 Live Crew’s version sampled the guitar, bass, and drums from the original, without permission. While the opening lines are the same, the two songs split ways immediately following. 
Roy Orbison’s version – “Pretty woman, walking down the street/ Pretty woman, the kind I’d like to meet. ”
2 Live Crew’s version – “Big hairy woman, all that hair ain’t legit,/ Cause you look like Cousin Itt. Cousin Itt is a member of the fictional Addams Family in the 1964 Television series. ”
In addition to this, while the music is identifiable as the Orbison song, there were changes implemented by the group. The new version contained interposed scraper notes, overlays of solos in different keys, and an altered drum beat. 
The group was sued by the song’s copyright owners Acuff-Rose. The company claimed that 2 Live Crew’s unauthorized use of the samples devalued the original, and was thus a case of copyright infringement. The group claimed they were protected under the fair use doctrine. The case of Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music came to the Supreme Court in 1994.
In reviewing the case, the Supreme Court didn’t consider previous ruling in which any commercial use (and economic gain) was considered copyright infringement. Instead they re-evaluated the original frame of copyright as set forth in the Constitution. The opinion that resulted from Emerson v. Davies played a major role in the decision. 
"[In] truth, in literature, in science and in art, there are, and can be, few, if any, things, which in an abstract sense, are strictly new and original throughout. Every book in literature, science and art, borrows, and must necessarily borrow, and use much which was well known and used before. " Emerson v. Davies,8 F. Cas. 615, 619 (No. 4,436) (CCD Mass. 1845)
Perhaps what played a larger role was the result from the Folsom v. Marsh case:
"look to the nature and objects of the selections made, the quantity and value of the materials used, and the degree in which the use may prejudice the sale, or diminish the profits, or supersede the objects, of the original work. " Folsom v. Marsh, 9 F. Cas. 342, 348 (No. 4,901) (CCD Mass. 1841)
The court ruled that any financial gain 2 Live Crew received from their version did not infringe upon Acuff-Rose because the two songs were targeted at very different audiences. 2 Live Crew’s use of copyrighted material was protected under the fair use doctrine, as a parody, even though it was released commercially. 
In the early 1990s, Vanilla Ice came under criticism for the unauthorised use of a sample from the Queen/David Bowie hit "Under Pressure". Robert Matthew Van Winkle (born October 31, 1967) best known as Vanilla Ice, is an American Rap artist known for the 1990 smash hit Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. This article refers to the Queen & David Bowie song For other uses of the name see Under Pressure (disambiguation " Under Vanilla Ice's case rested on the addition of one short note, a repetition of a note from the original. No lawsuit was filed, but it is conjectured that Vanilla Ice agreed to pay Queen and Bowie if they agreed not to sue.
More dramatically, Biz Markie's album I Need a Haircut was withdrawn in 1992 following a US federal court ruling, that his use of a sample from Gilbert O'Sullivan's "Alone Again (Naturally)" was willful infringement. Marcel Theo Hall (born April 8 1964 in Harlem New York) better known by his Stage name Biz Markie, is a Rapper, DJ, and Comedian Raymond Edward O'Sullivan (born 1 December 1946, Waterford, County Waterford, Ireland) known professionally as Gilbert O'Sullivan " Alone Again (Naturally " is a Song by the Irish Singer-songwriter Gilbert O'Sullivan. This case had a powerful effect on the record industry, with record companies becoming very much concerned with the legalities of sampling, and demanding that artists make full declarations of all samples used in their work. On the other hand, the ruling also made it more attractive to artists and record labels to allow others to sample their work, knowing that they would be paid—often handsomely—for their contribution.
A notable case in the early 1990s involved the dispute between the group Negativland and Casey Kasem over the band's use of un-aired vocal snippets from Kasem's radio program America's Top 40 on the Negativland single "U2". Negativland is an Experimental music and Sound collage band which originated in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1970s Kemal Amin "Casey" Kasem, (born on April 27 1932, in Detroit Michigan) is an American Radio personality and Voice Negativland is an Experimental music and Sound collage band which originated in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1970s
Cases have still emerged since then involving uncleared samples. In the late 1990s, The Verve was forced to pay 100% of their royalties from their hit "Bitter Sweet Symphony" for the use of an unlicensed sample from an orchestral cover version of The Rolling Stones' hit "The Last Time". The Verve (originally Verve) are an English rock band formed in Wigan, Greater Manchester in 1989 at Winstanley Sixth " Bitter Sweet Symphony " is a song by English Alternative rock band The Verve, and is the lead track on their third album Urban Hymns The Rolling Stones' catalogue is one of the most litigiously protected in the world of popular music—to some extent the case mirrored the legal difficulties encountered by Carter the Unstoppable Sex Machine when they quoted from the song "Ruby Tuesday" in their song "After the Watershed" some years earlier. Carter The Unstoppable Sex Machine (frequently shortened to Carter USM) were a British indie band formed in 1987 by singer Jim " Jim Bob " Ruby Tuesday " is a song recorded by The Rolling Stones in 1966 released in January 1967 In both cases, the issue at stake was not the use of the recording, but the use of the song itself—the section from "The Last Time" used by the Verve was not even part of the original composition, but because it derived from a cover version of it, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards were still entitled to royalties and credit on the derivative work. Sir Michael Philip "Mick" Jagger, Kt (born 26 July 1943 is a Golden Globe -winning and two-time Grammy -winning English rock Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943 is an English Guitarist, Songwriter, Singer, producer and a founding member of The Rolling This illustrates an important legal point: even if a sample is used legally, it may open the artist up to other problems.
In the summer of 2001, Mariah Carey released her first single from Glitter entitled "Loverboy" which featured a sample of "Mary Jane" by Rick James. " Mary Jane " is a song by late American Funk Singer Rick James released in 1978 on Come Get It!, his Rick James (born James Ambrose Johnson Jr) ( February 1 1948 &ndash August 6 2004) was an American musician No less than a month afterwards, Jennifer Lopez released "I'm Real" with the same "Mary Jane" sample, Mariah quickly discarded it and replaced it with "Candy" by Cameo. Jennifer Lynn Lopez (born July " I'm Real " is the name of two songs by Jennifer Lopez. Cameo is a Funk -influenced R&B group that was formed in the early 1970's The controversy here is that it is rumoured that Tommy Matolla, Carey's ex-husband, gave specific instruction to Lopez's producer to make the two songs as identical as possible. No one is sure if this is true, or why, possibly after Carey's departure from Columbia to Virgin, but only the parties involved know for sure.
In 2001, Armen Boladian and his company Bridgeport Music Inc. Armen Boladian is a former record producer founder of Detroit -based Westbound Records in 1970 filed over 500 copyright infringement suits against 800 artists using samples from George Clinton's catalogue.
Public Enemy recorded a track entitled "Psycho of Greed" (2002) for their album Revolverlution that contained a continuous looping sample from The Beatles' track "Tomorrow Never Knows". Public Enemy, also known as PE, is an influential hip hop group from Long Island New York, known for its politically charged Lyrics, criticism Revolverlution is a rap Album by Public Enemy. It was released in the U The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 " Tomorrow Never Knows " is the final track of The Beatles ' 1966 studio album Revolver. However, the clearance fee demanded by Capitol Records and the surviving Beatles was so high that the group decided to pull the track from the album. Capitol Records is a major United States -based Record label owned by EMI and located in Hollywood California and New York City as
Danger Mouse with the release of The Grey Album in 2004, which is a remix of The Beatles' 'White Album' and rapper Jay-Z's The Black Album has been embroiled in a similar situation with the record label EMI issuing cease and desist orders over uncleared Beatles samples. Brian Joseph Burton, better known by his Stage name Danger Mouse, is an American artist and producer. The Grey Album is an album by Danger Mouse, released in 2004. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Shawn Corey Carter (born December 4 1969 better known as Jay-Z, is an American Rapper and former CEO of Def Jam Recordings and Roc-A-Fella The Black Album is a 2003 Hip hop album by rapper Jay-Z. It was promoted as his final studio album although Jay-Z subsequently announced a return In the Music industry, a record label can be a Brand and a Trademark associated with the Marketing of music recordings and Music The EMI Group is a British music company comprising the major record company EMI Music – which operates several labels and is based in Kensington in A cease and desist (also called C & D) is an order or request to halt an activity or else face legal action
On March 19, 2006, a judge ordered that sales of The Notorious B.I.G.'s album Ready to Die be halted because the title track sampled a 1992 song by the Ohio Players, "Singing in the Morning", without permission. Events 1279 - A Mongolian victory in the Battle of Yamen ends the Song Dynasty in China. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Christopher George Latore Wallace (May 21 1972 – March 9 1997 popularly known as Biggie Smalls (after a Gangster in the 1975 film Let's Do It Again Ready to Die is the Grammy Nominated and Billboard Award Winning debut Studio album by East Coast Rapper The Notorious B The Ohio Players are a funk /soul band best known for their 1970's hits " Fire " and " Love Rollercoaster.
The most recent significant copyright case involving sampling held that even sampling three notes could constitute copyright infringement. Bridgeport Music Inc. v. Dimension Films, 410 F. Bridgeport Music Inc v Dimension Films, 410 F3d 792 (6th Cir 2005 is a court case that has proved important in defining American copyright law for recorded music 3d 792 (6th Cir. 2005). This case was roundly criticised by many in the music industry, including the RIAA.
There has been a second important US case on music sampling involving the Beastie Boys who sampled the sound recording of a flute track by James Newton in their song "Pass the Mic. James W Newton (b Los Angeles, California, May 1, 1953) is a prominent American Jazz flautist, composer and " The Beastie Boys properly obtained a license to use the sound recording but did not clear the use of the song (the composition on which the recording is based including any music and lyrics). In Newton v. Diamond and Others 349 F. 3d 591 (9th Cir. 2003) the US Appeals Court held that the use of the looped sample of a flute did not constitute copyright infringement as the core of the song itself had not been used. It seems that the position in law now is that with use of the sound recording any use without permission will constitute an infringement; however with the composition there must be some substantial use—the 'heart' of the song itself must be at least recognizable. This extends to both the music and the lyrics; a June 2006 case involving Ludacris and Kanye West held that their use of the phrases "like that" and "straight like that" which had been used on an earlier hip-hop track by another artist was not infringing use. Kanye Omari West (ˈkɑnjɛj born June 8 1977 is a ten-time Grammy Award -winning American Rapper, Record producer and Singer.
The New Orleans–based company Cash Money Records and former rapper Juvenile were taken to court by local performer DJ Jubilee (signed to Take Fo' Record Label) for using chants from his song titled Back That Ass Up. Cash Money Records is an Record label founded in 1991 by brothers Bryan "Baby" Williams and Ronald "Slim" Williams in New Terius Gray, known by his Stage name Juvenile, is an American rapper. Both artist had used the same chant in each song, but Juvenile won the case because of the title's name change to Back That Azz Up, which sold 2 million copies. Because of the name change, Jubilee lacked evidence that Juvenile had stolen from him, and Jubilee could not earn Juvenile's income from his song.
Today, most mainstream acts obtain prior authorization to use samples, a process known as "clearing" (gaining permission to use the sample and, usually, paying an up-front fee and/or a cut of the royalties to the original artist). Independent bands, lacking the funds and legal assistance to clear samples, are at a disadvantage.
Recently, a movement — started mainly by Lawrence Lessig — of free culture has prompted many audio works to be licensed under a Creative Commons license that allows for legal sampling of the work provided the resulting work(s) are licensed under the same terms. Lawrence Lessig (born June 3 1961) is an American academic and political activist The free culture movement is a Social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify Creative works, using the Internet as well as other Creative Commons (CC is a Non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share
Once recorded, samples can be edited, played back, or looped (i. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3 e. played back continuously). Types of samples include:
The drums and percussion parts of many modern recordings are really a variety of short samples of beats strung together. Many libraries of such beats exist and are licensed so that the user incorporating the samples can distribute their recording without paying royalties. Such libraries can be loaded into samplers. Though percussion is a typical application of looping, many kinds of samples can be looped. A piece of music may have an ostinato which is created by sampling a phrase played on any kind of instrument. In Music, an Ostinato (derived from Italian: "stubborn" see also Oscillation) is a motif or phrase which is persistently There is software which specializes in creating loops.
Whereas loops are usually a phrase played on a musical instrument, this type of sample is usually a single note. Music workstations and samplers use samples of musical instruments as the basis of their own sounds, and are capable of playing a sample back at any pitch. A music workstation is piece of electronic musical equipment providing the facilities of a Sound module, a Music sequencer Many modern synthesizers and drum machines also use samples as the basis of their sounds. For the early "drum machine" computers that used a rotating cylinder as their main memory see Drum memory A drum machine is an (See sample-based synthesis for more information. Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be contrasted to either Subtractive synthesis or Additive synthesis. ) Most such samples are created in professional recording studios using world-class instruments played by accomplished musicians. These are usually developed by the manufacturer of the instrument or by a subcontractor who specializes in creating such samples. There are businesses and individuals who create libraries of samples of musical instruments. Of course, a sampler allows anyone to create such samples.
Possibly the earliest equipment used to sample recorded instrument sounds are the Chamberlin, which was developed in the 1940s, and its more well-known cousin, the Mellotron, marketed in England in the 1960s. The Chamberlin is an electro-mechanical Keyboard instrument related to the Mellotron. The Mellotron is an electro-mechanical polyphonic keyboard originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s Both are tape replay keyboards, in which each key pressed triggers a prerecorded tape loop of a single note.
Musicians can reproduce the same samples of break beats like the "Amen" break which was composed, produced and mastered by the Winston Brothers in 1960s. The "Amen break" (usually ɑːˈmɛn was a drum solo performed by Gregory Sylvester "G The Winstons is a Funk and Soul music outfit based in Washington D Producers in the early 90's have used the whole 5. 66 second sample; but music workstations like the Korg Electribe Series (EM-1, ES-1; EMX-1 and the ESX-1) have used the "Amen" kick, hi hat and snare in their sound wave libraries for free use. is a Japanese Multinational corporation that manufactures electronic Musical instruments and Electronic tuners The company is one of the Companies like Korg have managed to use these samples for pitch, attack and decay and DSP effects to each drum part.
Most sample sets consist of multiple samples at different pitches. These are combined into keymaps, that associate each sample with a particular pitch or pitch range. QWERTY keyboardjpg|thumb|right|300px|QWERTY keyboard on a Laptop of 2007]]A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional Often, these sample maps may have different layers as well, so that different velocities can trigger a different sample.
Samples used in musical instruments sometimes have a looped component. An instrument with indefinite sustain, such as a pipe organ, does not need to be represented by a very long sample because the sustained portion of the timbre is looped. The sampler (or other sample playback instrument) plays the attack and decay portion of the sample followed by the looped sustain portion for as long as the note is held, then plays the release portion of the sample.
A common standard format for generating such sample sets is the soundfont protocol. SoundFont is a Brand name that collectively refers to a File format and associated technology designed to bridge the gap between recorded and synthesized
To conserve polyphony, a workstation may allow the user to sample a layer of sounds (piano, strings, and voices, for example) so they can be played together as one sound instead of three. In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony This leaves more of the instruments' resources available to generate additional sounds.
There are several genres of music in which it is commonplace for an artist to sample a phrase of a well-known recording and use it as an element in a new composition. Two well-known examples include the sample of Rick James' "Super Freak" in MC Hammer's "U Can't Touch This" and the sample of Queen/David Bowie's "Under Pressure" in Vanilla Ice's "Ice Ice Baby". Rick James (born James Ambrose Johnson Jr) ( February 1 1948 &ndash August 6 2004) was an American musician " Super Freak " is a 1981 hit single produced and performed by Rick James for the Motown label MC Hammer (born Stanley Kirk Burrell; March 30, 1962) is an American MC most popular during the late 1980s and early 1990s known for his " U Can't Touch This " was MC Hammer 's most widely-known single, propelling sales of its album Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em, which Queen were an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist David Bowie (ˈboʊiː born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947 is an English Musician, actor producer, and arranger. This article refers to the Queen & David Bowie song For other uses of the name see Under Pressure (disambiguation " Under Robert Matthew Van Winkle (born October 31, 1967) best known as Vanilla Ice, is an American Rap artist known for the 1990 smash hit
Usually taken from movies, television, or other non-musical media, often used for humorous or atmospheric effect. For example, Goa trance often employs samples of people talking about drugs, spirituality, or science fiction themes. Industrial is known for samples from horror/sci-fi movies, news broadcasts, propaganda reels, and speeches by political figures (the band Ministry is notorious for sampling both the younger and elder George Bush). Ministry was an American Industrial metal band founded by Frontman Al Jourgensen in 1981 The band Negativland samples from practically every form of popular media, ranging from infomercials to children's records. Negativland is an Experimental music and Sound collage band which originated in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1970s A good example of this is "Civil War" by Guns N' Roses on their album Use Your Illusion II. Guns N' Roses is an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1985 Use Your Illusion II is the fourth studio album by Hard rock band Guns N' Roses. Other bands that frequently used samples in their work are noise rockers Steel Pole Bath Tub and death metal band Skinless. Noise rock (also known as noise punk) describes one variety of Post-punk Rock music that became prominent in the 1980s Steel Pole Bath Tub was a Hardcore punk / Noise rock band formed in 1986 in Bozeman, Montana by Mike Morasky (guitar/vocalsand Dale Flattum (bass/vocals Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal. It typically employs fast tempos heavily distorted guitars deep growling vocals morbid lyrics Skinless is a Brutal death metal band from Troy New York. The band was formed in founded in 1992 by Ryan Wade and Noah Carpenter
These are not musical in the conventional sense - that is, neither percussive nor melodic - but which are musically useful for their interesting timbres or emotional associations, in the spirit of musique concrete. Musique concrète ( French; literally "concrete music" is a style of Avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds including natural Some common examples include sirens and klaxons, locomotive whistles, gunshots, natural sounds such as whale song, and cooing babies. It is common in theatrical sound design to use this type of sampling to store sound effects that can then be triggered from a musical keyboard or other software. Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field It covers all non-compositional elements of a film a play a music performance This is very useful for high precision or nonlinear requirements.