|Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa|
Independent State of Samoa
|Motto: Fa'avae i le Atua Samoa|
(Samoan: "Samoa is founded on God")
|Anthem: The Banner of Freedom|
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Samoan, English|
|-||O le Ao o le Malo||Tufuga Efi|
|-||Prime Minister||Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi|
|Independence||from New Zealand|
|-||Date||01 January 1962|
|-||Total||2,831 km² (174th)|
1,093 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0. The flag of Samoa was adopted on February 24, 1949. The flag of Samoa consists of a red field with a blue rectangle in the canton The Coat of arms of Samoa takes its inspiration from the United Nations, as New Zealand administered Western Samoa first as a League of Nations A motto (from the Italian word motto, meaning witticism sentence is a phrase meant to formally describe the general motivation or intention of a social group The Sāmoan or Samoan language is the traditional language of Samoa and American Samoa and is an official language &mdash alongside English A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's The Banner of Freedom is the National anthem of Samoa. Both the words (which honour the country's flag and the music were composed by Sauni Iiga Kuresa Population Total population 176908 (July 2006 est Age structure 0–14 years 26 An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The Sāmoan or Samoan language is the traditional language of Samoa and American Samoa and is an official language &mdash alongside English English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place Samoans are a Polynesian ethnic group living in the Samoan Islands. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government O le Ao o le Malo is the Samoan Head of state, which is the title's rough translation Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi, also known as Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi He was officially sworn in as O le Ao o le Malo at Samoa's Parliament ( Fono The Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government in Samoa. Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi (born 14 April 1945 in Lepa Samoa) is the current Prime Minister of Samoa. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 3%|
|-||July 2007 estimate||214,265 (185th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2006 estimate|
|-||Total||$1. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 218 billion (166th)|
|-||Per capita||$6,344 (94th)|
|HDI (2007)||▲0. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 785 (medium) (77th)|
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa, is a country governing the western part of the Samoan Islands archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The tala is the Currency of Samoa. It is divided into 100 sene ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E The Samoan Islands or Samoa Islands (formerly referred to as Navigators' Islands) is an Archipelago covering 3030 km² in the central South Pacific An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Previous names were Samoa from 1900 to 1919, and Western Samoa from 1914 to 1997. Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area It was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Events 533 - Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The entire island group, inclusive of American Samoa, was known as Navigators Islands before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa or sm ''Sāmoa Amelika'' is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast 
Samoa was first settled around 3,000 years ago by people of the Polynesian culture, originating from South East Asia . European contact Contact with Europeans began in the early 1700s but did not intensify until the arrival of the English.  Long before the Tu'i Tonga Empire, Tu'i Manu'a from Samoa ruled most of the pacific including Tonga. During the Tu'i Manu'a reign over the pacific, Tonga and many other islands of the Pacific brought Tu'i Manu'a gifts and many other items to pay tribute. Samoa's influences in Tonga came in the form of imperial activities beginning with the Tu’i Pulotu empire in Fiji and followed by the Tu’i Manu’a empire in Samoa. In other words, Tonga was under considerable influence from the imperialism of both Fiji and Samoa. However, Tonga was able to free herself through bitter and bloody wars from the imperial domination of the Tu’i Manu’a -- which eventually led to the formation of the Tu’i Tonga empire around AD 950 in the person of ‘Aho’eitu, the first Tu’i Tonga -- whose father was a deified Samoan high chief, Tagaloa ‘Eitumâtupu’a, and mother a Tongan woman, Va’epopua, of great noble birth. Tonga dominated the majority of Samoa for a long period of time until the Tongans migrated back into the Kingdom of Tonga. This double origin entitled the Tu’i Tonga to hold both divine and secular offices. In principle, the close cultural and historical interlinkages between Fiji, Samoa and Tonga were essentially elitist, involving the intermarriage between regional aristocratic families. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. Jacob Roggeveen (baptized 1 February 1659, Middelburg - 31 January, 1729, Middelburg was a Dutch explorer who was sent This visit was followed by a French Explorer by the name of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, the man who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Louis-Antoine comte de Bougainville ( November 12 1729 Paris - August 31 1811 Paris) was a French navigator and military Contact was limited before the 1830s which is when English missionaries and traders began arriving. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Mission work in Samoa had begun in late 1830 by John Williams, of the London Missionary Society. The London Missionary Society was a non-denominational Missionary society formed in England in 1795 by evangelical Anglicans and  By that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation of being savage and warlike, as they had clashed with French, British, German and American forces, who, by the late nineteenth century, valued Samoa as a refueling station for coal-fired shipping.
As the Germans began to show more interest in the Samoan Islands, the United States laid its own claim to them. Britain also sent troops to express its interest. There followed an eight-year civil war, where each of the three powers supplied arms, training, and in some cases combat troops, to the warring Samoan parties. The Samoan Civil Wars is a Western definition of political activity in the Samoa Islands of the South Pacific in the late 19th century All three sent warships into Apia harbor, and a larger-scale war seemed imminent, until a massive storm damaged or destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict.  At the turn of the twentieth century, the Treaty of Berlin split the Samoan Islands into two parts: the eastern group became a territory of the United States (the Tutuila Islands in 1900 and officially Manu'a in 1905), and are today known as American Samoa; the western islands, by far the greater landmass, became known as German Samoa after the British gave up claims to the islands in return for Fiji and some Melanesian territories. The Treaty of Berlin, known in the Pacific as the Anglo-German Samoa Convention, was signed on 14 November, 1899 between the United States, The Samoan Islands or Samoa Islands (formerly referred to as Navigators' Islands) is an Archipelago covering 3030 km² in the central South Pacific The United States of America —commonly referred to as the American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa or sm ''Sāmoa Amelika'' is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast German Samoa ( German: Deutsch-Samoa) was a former German Protectorate from 1900 to 1914 consisting of the islands of Upolu and Fiji (Matanitu ko Viti फ़िजी officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य  The first German Governor was Wilhelm Solf who later went on to become Secretary for the Colonies of Imperial Germany. Wilhelm Heinrich Solf ( 5 October, 1862 - 6 February, 1936) was a German scholar diplomat jurist and statesman New Zealand troops landed in 'Upolu on August 29, 1914 and seized control from the German authorities, following a request by Britain that New Zealand forces take over a German radio station there. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island 
From the end of World War I until 1962, New Zealand controlled Samoa as a Class "C" Mandate under trusteeship through the League of Nations. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All In Common law legal systems a trust is an arrangement whereby Property (including real tangible and intangible is managed by one person (or persons or organizations The League of Nations was an International organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920  There followed a series of New Zealand administrators who were responsible for two major incidents. In the first incident, approximately one fifth of the Samoan population died in the Influenza epidemic of 1918-1919.  In 1919 The Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Epidemic concluded that there had been no epidemic of pneumonic influenza in Western Samoa before the arrival of the 'Tahune' from Auckland on the 7th November, 1918 [which was allowed to berth by the NZ administration in breach of quarantine]; that within seven days of this ship's arrival pneumonic influenza had become epidemic in Upolu and had then spread rapidly throughout the rest of the territory. 
The second major incident arose out of an initially peaceful protest by the Mau (literally translates as "Strongly held Opinion"), a non-violent popular movement which arose in the early 1920s to protest the mistreatment of the Samoan people by the New Zealand administration. The Mau movement was the name given to the popular nonviolent movement for Samoan independence from colonial rule The Mau was initially lead by Olaf Nelson, who was half Samoan and half Swedish. Taisi Olaf Frederick Nelson also known as Taisi Olaf was one of the founding leaders of the Mau movement for Samoan independence from colonial rule  Nelson was eventually exiled during the late 1920s and early 1930s but he continued to assist the organization financially and politically. Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return In following the Mau's non-violent philosophy, the newly elected leader, High Chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi, led his fellow uniformed Mau in a peaceful demonstration in downtown Apia on December 28, 1929. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The New Zealand police attempted to arrest one of the leaders in the demonstration. When he resisted, a struggle developed between the police and the Mau. The officers began to fire randomly into the crowd and a Lewis machine gun, mounted in preparation for this demonstration, was used to disperse the Mau. The Lewis Gun is a pre- World War I era Squad automatic weapon / Machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British  Chief Tamasese was shot from behind and killed while trying to bring calm and order to the Mau demonstrators, screaming "Peace, Samoa". Ten others died that day and approximately 50 were injured by gunshot wounds and police batons.  That day would come to be known in Samoa as Black Saturday. The Mau grew, remaining steadfastly non-violent, and expanded to include a highly influential women's branch. After repeated efforts by the Samoan people, Western Samoa gained independence in 1962 and signed a Friendship Treaty with New Zealand. Samoa was the second or third Pacific Island country to become independent, after New Zealand and arguably Tonga.
In 2002, New Zealand's prime minister Helen Clark, on a trip to Samoa, formally apologised for New Zealand's role in these two incidents. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Helen Elizabeth Clark (born 26 February 1950 is the 37th and current Prime Minister of New Zealand. 
In July 1997, the constitution was amended to change the country's name from Western Samoa to Samoa, as it had been designated by the United Nations since joining the organization in 1976. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security  The U. S. territory of American Samoa protested the move, asserting that the change diminished its own identity. American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa or sm ''Sāmoa Amelika'' is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast American Samoans still use the terms Western Samoa and Western Samoans to describe the independent State of Samoa and its inhabitants. While the two Samoas share language and ethnicity, their cultures have recently followed different paths, with American Samoans often emigrating to Hawaiʻi and the U. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the S. mainland, and adopting many U. S. customs, such as the playing of American football and baseball. American football, known in the United States and Canada simply as football, is a competitive Team sport known for mixing strategy with Baseball is a Bat-and-ball Sport played between two teams of nine players each Western Samoans have tended to emigrate instead to New Zealand, whose influence has made the sports of rugby and cricket more popular in the western islands. Rugby football (usually just " rugby " may refer to a number of sports through history descended from a common form of Football developed at Rugby School Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Travel writer Paul Theroux noted that there were marked differences between the societies in Samoa and American Samoa. Paul Edward Theroux (born April 10, 1941) is an American Travel writer and Novelist, whose best known work is perhaps In Samoa the inhabitants, although poorer in terms of material wealth, were more content and retained a keen sense of Samoan identity, while American Samoans retained only the rhetoric of ethnic identity and in reality had sublimated their culture to western norms.
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The 1960 Constitution, which formally came into force with independence, is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take account of Samoan customs. Politics of Samoa takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic state whereby the Prime Minister of Samoa is the Head of O le Ao o le Malo is the Samoan Head of state, which is the title's rough translation Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi, also known as Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi He was officially sworn in as O le Ao o le Malo at Samoa's Parliament ( Fono The Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government in Samoa. Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi (born 14 April 1945 in Lepa Samoa) is the current Prime Minister of Samoa. The Fono or Legislative Assembly is the Parliament of Samoa. "Fono" is a Samoan and Polynesian term for councils great and small Political parties in Samoa lists political parties in Samoa. As of 2007, Samoa has one officially-recognized political party the ruling Human Rights Samoa elects on national level a Legislature. The Fono or Legislative Assembly has 49 members elected for a five year term 47 members out of the General elections were held in Samoa on 4 March 2001. They were won by the Human Rights Protection Party, which took 23 of the 49 seats General elections were held in Samoa on 31 March 2006. The result was a Landslide victory for the Human Rights Protection Party, who Political Districts Samoa is made up of eleven itūmālō (political districts The Samoan Government is generally conservative and pro-Western with a strong interest in regional political and economic issues Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent Politics of Samoa takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic state whereby the Prime Minister of Samoa is the Head of A constitution is a system for government often Codified as a written document that establishes the rules and principles of an autonomous political entity A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which  Two of Samoa's four princely titles (paramount chiefs) at the time of independence were given lifetime appointments to jointly hold the office of head of state. Malietoa Tanumafili II had held this post alone since the death of his colleague (Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole) in 1963. King Malietoa Tanumafili II, GCMG, CBE, ( January 4, 1913 &ndash May 11, 2007) (also called Susuga) was Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole, CBE (1905-1963 was the Tupua Tamasese from 1929 to 1963 a Samoan Paramount chief. Malietoa Tanumafili II died 11 May 2007. King Malietoa Tanumafili II, GCMG, CBE, ( January 4, 1913 &ndash May 11, 2007) (also called Susuga) was He was the oldest living monarch at the time of his death. His successor, Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi was selected by the legislature on the 17 June 2007 for a 5-year term. Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi, also known as Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi He was officially sworn in as O le Ao o le Malo at Samoa's Parliament ( Fono 
The unicameral legislature (Fono) consists of 49 members serving 5-year terms. The Fono or Legislative Assembly is the Parliament of Samoa. "Fono" is a Samoan and Polynesian term for councils great and small Forty-seven are elected from territorial districts by ethnic Samoans; the other two are chosen by non-Samoans with no chiefly affiliation on separate electoral rolls.  Universal suffrage was extended in 1990, but only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Samoan seats. There are more than 25,000 matais in the country, about 5% of whom are women.  The prime minister is chosen by a majority in the Fono and is appointed by the head of state to form a government. The prime minister's choices for the 12 cabinet positions are appointed by the head of state, subject to the continuing confidence of the Fono.
The judicial system is based on English common law and local customs. The Supreme Court of Samoa is the court of highest jurisdiction. Its chief justice is appointed by the head of state upon the recommendation of the prime minister.
Samoa is made up of eleven itūmālō (political districts). Political Districts Samoa is made up of eleven itūmālō (political districts These are the traditional eleven districts that were established well before European arrival. Each district has its own constitutional foundation (faavae) based on the traditional order of title precedence found in each district's faalupega (traditional salutations).
The capital village of each district administers and coordinates the affairs of the district and confers each districts' paramount title, amongst other responsibilities. For example, the District of A'ana has its capital at Leulumoega. The paramount title of A'ana is the TuiA'ana. The orator group which confers this title - the Faleiva (House of Nine) - is based at Leulumoega. This is also the same for the other districts. In the district of Tuamasaga, the paramount title of the district - The Malietoa title - is conferred by the FaleTuamasaga based in Afega.
1 including islands Manono, Apolima and Nu'ulopa
2 including the Aleipata Islands and Nu'usafe'e Island
3 smaller parts also on Upolu (Salamumu (incl. In Hawaii Upolu Point is the northern cape of the Big Island of Hawai‘i Tuamasaga is a district of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 83191 Afega is a small village on the Samoan island of Upolu. It is located on the central north coast of the island to the west of the capital Apia in the countryside A'ana is a district of Samoa. It is on the western side of Upolu, with a small Exclave (Satuimalufilufi village surrounded by Aiga-i-le-Tai Leulumoega is a small village on the Samoan island of Upolu. It is located on the northwestern coast of the island Aiga-i-le-Tai is a district of Samoa. It is on the western side of Upolu and includes the three small islands in the Apolima Strait ( Manono Mulifanua is a village on the north-western tip of the island of Upolu, in Samoa. Atua is the most ancient district of Samoa, now consisting of most of the eastern half of Upolu but also traditionally incorporates Tutuila and once all of Upolu and Va'a-o-Fonoti is a district of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 1666 making it the smallest Samoan sub district by population Savai’i, the "soul of Samoa" is the larger main Island in the state of Samoa, formed by a massive Basaltic Shield volcano which rises Fa'asaleleaga is a district of Samoa. It is on the eastern side of Savai'i, and has a population (2001 Census of 12949 Gaga'emauga is a district of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 7108 Gagai'fomauga is a district of Samoa. It is on the northern side of Savai'i, and has a population (2001 Census of 4770 Itu Asau is a district and village of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 6643 Satupa'itea is a district and village of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 5556 Satupa'itea is a district and village of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 5556 Palauli is a district and village of Samoa, with a population (2001 Census of 8984 Manono is an Island of Samoa, in the Apolima Strait between the main islands of Savaii and Upolu, 3 The Aleipata Islands is a group of four uninhabited islands off the eastern end (the historical Aleipata region of Upolu Island Samoa, with an aggregate area of In Hawaii Upolu Point is the northern cape of the Big Island of Hawai‘i Salamumu-Utu) and Leauvaa villages)
The country is located east of the international date line and south of the equator, about halfway between Hawai‘i and New Zealand in the Polynesian region of the Pacific Ocean. The State of Hawaii ( or həˈwaɪʔiː Hawaiian: Mokuāina o Hawaii) is a state in the United States located on an Archipelago in the New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over The total land area is 2934 km² (slightly smaller than the U. S. state of Rhode Island), consisting of the two large islands of Upolu and Savai'i which account for 99% of the total land area, and eight small islets: the three islets in the Apolima Strait (Manono Island, Apolima and Nu'ulopa), the four Aleipata Islands off the eastern end of Upolu (Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, Namua, and Fanuatapu), and Nu'usafe'e (less than 0. Rhode Island ( officially named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States In Hawaii Upolu Point is the northern cape of the Big Island of Hawai‘i Savai’i, the "soul of Samoa" is the larger main Island in the state of Samoa, formed by a massive Basaltic Shield volcano which rises Manono is an Island of Samoa, in the Apolima Strait between the main islands of Savaii and Upolu, 3 The Aleipata Islands is a group of four uninhabited islands off the eastern end (the historical Aleipata region of Upolu Island Samoa, with an aggregate area of In Hawaii Upolu Point is the northern cape of the Big Island of Hawai‘i Nu'utele is an Island which consists of a volcanic Tuff ring, situated off the eastern end of Upolu Island Samoa. Fanuatapu is an uninhabited Island which consists of a volcanic Tuff ring, situated off the eastern tip of Upolu, Samoa. 01 km² in area and about 1. 4 km off the south coast of Upolu at the village of Vaovai). In Hawaii Upolu Point is the northern cape of the Big Island of Hawai‘i  The main island of Upolu is home to nearly three-quarters of Samoa's population, and its capital city is Apia. The climate is tropical, with an average annual temperature of 26. 5 °C, and a rainy season from November to April.  Savai'i is the largest of the Samoan islands and the third largest Polynesian Island after Tahiti and New Zealand. The population of Savali'i is 42,000 people.
The Samoan islands have been produced by volcanism, the source of which is a geologic hotspot which is the probable result of a mantle plume. HotSpot is the primary Java Virtual Machine for desktops and servers produced by Sun Microsystems. A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle.  While all of the islands have volcanic origins, only Savai'i has had recent eruptions and could be considered volcanically active. The last major eruption occurred in the 1700s, and smaller eruptions occurred between 1904 - 1906. The highest point in Samoa is Mauga Silisili, at 1858 m. The Saleaula Lava Fields were produced by Mt. Matavanu during its eruption 102 years ago leaving 52 square kilometres of solidified lava.
The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, private family remittances from overseas, and agricultural exports. Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid Remittance can also refer to the Accounting concept of a monetary payment transferred by a customer to a business Remittances are transfers Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, noni (juice of the nonu fruit, as it is known in Samoan), and copra. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion The Coconut Palm ( Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil with many applications Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as great morinda, Indian mulberry, beach mulberry, Tahitian noni, cheese fruit Copra is the dried meat or kernel of the Coconut. The name copra is derived from the Malayalam word kopra for dried coconut  Outside of a large automotive wire-harness factory (Yazaki Corporation), the manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Tourism is an expanding sector which now accounts for 25% of GDP. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Tourist arrivals have been increasing over the years with more than 100,000 tourists visiting the islands in 2005, up from 70,000 in 1996. The Samoan government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength for future economic advances. The sector has been helped enormously by major capital investment in hotel infrastructure, political instability in neighboring Pacific countries, and the 2005 launch of Polynesian Blue a joint-venture between the government and Virgin Airlines. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions Polynesian Blue is a Virgin Group Airline, which flies between Samoa, Australia and New Zealand.
Samoa is a fertile, fruitful, productive island. In the period before German colonization, it produced mostly copra. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Copra is the dried meat or kernel of the Coconut. The name copra is derived from the Malayalam word kopra for dried coconut German merchants and settlers were active in introducing large scale plantation operations and developing new industries, notably cocoa and rubber, relying on imported laborers from China and Melanesia. Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) means "islands of the black-skinned people" When the value of natural rubber fell drastically, about the end of the Great War (World War I), the New Zealand government encouraged the production of bananas, for which there is a large market in New Zealand. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island For the fruit see Banana. For other meanings see Banana (disambiguation.
Because of variations in altitude, a large range of tropical and subtropical crops can be cultivated, but land is not generally available to outside interests. The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Of the total land area of 2,934 km² (725,000 acres), about 24. 4% is in permanent crops and another 21. 2% is arable. About 4. 4% is Western Samoan Trust Estates Corporation (WSTEC).
The staple products of Samoa are copra (dried coconut meat), cocoa (for chocolate), and bananas. Copra is the dried meat or kernel of the Coconut. The name copra is derived from the Malayalam word kopra for dried coconut Cocoa is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which Chocolate is made The annual production of both bananas and copra has been in the range of 13,000 to 15,000 metric tons. If the rhinoceros beetle in Samoa were eradicated, Samoa could produce in excess of 40,000 metric tons of copra. ---- The rhinoceros beetles or rhino beetle are a subfamily ( Dynastinae) of Beetles in the family of Scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae Cocoa is of very high quality and used in fine New Zealand chocolates. Most cocoa trees are Criollo-Forastero hybrids. Coffee grows well, but production has been uneven. WSTEC is the biggest coffee producer. Rubber has been produced in Samoa for many years, but its export value has little impact on the economy.
Other agricultural industries have been less successful. Sugarcane production, originally established by Germans in the early 20th century, could be successful. Sugarcane ( Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae tribe Andropogoneae Old train tracks for transporting cane can be seen at some plantations east of Apia. Pineapples grow well in Samoa, but beyond local consumption have not been a major export. Pineapple ( Ananas comosus) is the common name for an edible Tropical Plant and also its Fruit It is native to the southern part of Brazil
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2006 was estimated at $1. The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 218 billion USD. The industrial sector is the largest component of GDP at 58. 4%, followed by the services sector at 30. 2% (2004 est. ). Agriculture represents only 11. 4% of GDP (2004 est. ). Samoan labor force is estimated at 90,000.
According to the CIA World Factbook, Samoa has a population of 214,265 of which 92. Population Total population 176908 (July 2006 est Age structure 0–14 years 26 The World Factbook ( ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the 6% are Samoans, 7% Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood) and 0. Samoans are a Polynesian ethnic group living in the Samoan Islands. Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a Subregion of Oceania, comprising a large grouping of over 4% are Europeans. The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. About three-quarters of the population live on the main island of Upolu. In Hawaii Upolu Point is the northern cape of the Big Island of Hawai‘i  Only the Māori of New Zealand outnumber Samoans among Polynesian groups, but a larger portion of Māori identify with more than one ethnic group. This article discusses the Māori people of New Zealand For their language see Māori language, and for other meanings see Māori (disambiguation. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island
Roughly 98% of Samoans are Christians, divided among many different churches, including: Congregationalist 35. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently 5%, Roman Catholic 19. 6%, Methodist 15%, Latter-Day Saints 12. Methodism is a movement within Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations A Latter 7%, Assembly of God 6. The World Assemblies of God Fellowship, or Assemblies of God for short is the world's largest Pentecostal denomination with over 283413 churches and outstations 6%, Seventh-day Adventist 3. The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated " Adventist " Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance 5%, other Christian 4. 0%, Worship Centre 1. 3%, unspecified 0. 8% (2001 census).  The Head of State until 2007, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a Bahá'í convert. King Malietoa Tanumafili II, GCMG, CBE, ( January 4, 1913 &ndash May 11, 2007) (also called Susuga) was The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Samoa hosts one of seven Bahá'í Houses of Worship in the world; completed in 1984 and dedicated by the Head of State, it is located in Tiapapata, 8 km from Apia. A Bahá'í House of Worship, sometimes referred to by its Arabic name of Mashriqu'l-Adhkár ( is the designation of a place of Worship, or Temple,
The fa'a Samoa, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. The traditional Culture of Samoa is a communal way of life In the Samoan culture all activities are done together Music is an integral part of Samoan life The most important and essential avenue has always been the voice Fa'a Samoa means literally "The Samoan Way" and in Samoa refers to an all-encompassing Traditional system of behavior and responsibilities that spell out Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and language. The Sāmoan or Samoan language is the traditional language of Samoa and American Samoa and is an official language &mdash alongside English Samoans are deeply spiritual and religious people, and have subtly adapted the dominant religion of Christianity to 'fit in' with fa'a Samoa and vice versa. As such, ancient beliefs continue to co-exist side-by-side with Christianity, particularly in regard to the traditional customs and rituals of fa'a Samoa.
Samoans had gods of their own, as their mythological story of creation tells. The Samoan culture is centered around the principle of vāfealoa'i, the relationships between people. These relationships are based on respect, or fa'aaloalo. When Christianity was introduced in Samoa, most Samoan people converted. Currently 98% of the population identify themselves as Christian. The other 2 percent either identify themselves as irreligious, or do not belong to any congregation.
The Samoans have a communal way of life with little privacy. They do almost all their activities collectively. An example of this are the traditional Samoan fales (houses) which are open with no walls, using blinds made of coconut palm fronds during the night or bad weather. A fale (pronounced fah-lay is a traditional Samoan thatched roof house
As with many Polynesian islands with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos. For males, it is called the tatau and consists of intricate and geometrical patterns tattooed that cover areas from the knees up towards the ribs. A tattoo is a permanent marking made by inserting ink into the layers of Skin to change the pigment for decorative or other reasons A male who possesses such a tatau is called a soga'imiti. A tattoo is a permanent marking made by inserting ink into the layers of Skin to change the pigment for decorative or other reasons A Samoan girl or teine is given a malu, which covers the area from just below her knees to her upper thighs. In Samoa, a malu is a female-specific Tattoo of cultural significance 
The traditional Samoan dance is the Siva. Dance (from French danser, perhaps from Frankish) is an Art form that generally refers to movement of the body usually rhythmic This dance is similar to the Hawaiian hula, with gentle movements of the hands and feet in time to music and which tells a story, although the Samoan male dances are more aggressive and snappy. Hula (ˈhuːlə is a dance form accompanied by chant or song It was developed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians who originally settled there  The "Sasa" is also a traditional Samoan dance, in which rows of dancers perform rapid synchronised movements in time to drums tins, or rolled mats. The drum is a member of the percussion group technically classified as a Membranophone. Its name originates from the Samoan word for "slap"; hence the Samoan "slap dance," which is accomplished by slapping different parts of the body. The Sāmoan or Samoan language is the traditional language of Samoa and American Samoa and is an official language &mdash alongside English A slap or "smack" is a broad stroke made with the open hand as opposed to a punch that is made with a closed fist This was originally derived from slapping insects on the body and later became a form of dance. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described
According to Katerina Martina Teaiwa, PhD from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, “Hip hop culture in particular is popular amongst Samoan youth. ”  This is not surprising considering the large amounts of migration between Samoa, Hawaii, and the United States mainland, specifically California. In addition, the integration of hip hop elements into Samoan tradition also “testifies to the transferability of the dance forms themselves,” and to the “circuits through which people and all their embodied knowledge travel. ”  Dance both in its traditional form and its more modern forms has remained a central cultural currency to Samoans, especially youths. Teaiwa ends her article saying that the popularity of hip hop “is not necessarily oppositional to Samoan culture,” and has rather been integrated into the “solid family structure that looks far from disappearing in the face of increasing modernity. ” 
The main sports played in Samoa are rugby union and Samoan cricket. The main sports played in Samoa are Rugby union and Samoan cricket. Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short Kilikiti ( syn kirikiti, Samoan cricket, pronounced ki-ree-kiss) is one of several forms of Cricket. About 30 ethnic Samoans, many from American Samoa, currently play in the National Football League. The National Football League ( NFL) is the largest professional American football league. A 2002 article from ESPN estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan, or a Samoan living in mainland United States) is 40 times more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American. 
Rugby union is very popular in Samoa and the national team nicknamed the Manu Samoa, is consistently competitive against teams from vastly more populous nations. The national Rugby union team of Samoa is called Manu Samoa (the name of a famous Samoan chief some 10 generations ago Samoa have competed at every Rugby World Cup since 1991, and have made the quarter finals in 1991 (where they beat Wales and came close to upsetting eventual world champions Australia), 1995 and the second round of the 1999 world cup. The Rugby World Cup is the premier international Rugby union competition The 1991 Rugby World Cup was jointly hosted by England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and France. The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. It was hosted by South Africa, and had the distinction of being the first Rugby World Cup in which every match The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup and the first to be held in Rugby union 's professional era.  At the 2003 world cup, Manu Samoa came close to beating eventual world champions, England. Samoa also played in the Pacific Nations Cup and the Pacific Tri-Nations The sport is governed by the Samoa Rugby Football Union, who are members of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and thus, also contribute to the international Pacific Islanders rugby union team. The Pacific Tri-Nations is the traditional rugby union series between Tonga, Fiji and Western Samoa was established in 1982 with Western Samoa The Samoa Rugby Football Union are the governing body of the sport of Rugby union in Samoa. The Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance (PIRA was set up in 2002 as a basis of co-operation between the Fiji, Samoa and Tonga Rugby Unions The Pacific Islanders rugby union team (usually known as just Pacific Islanders) are an international Rugby union team started in 2004 that represents Fiji At club level there is the National Provincial Championship and Pacific Rugby Cup Prominent Samoan players include Pat Lam and Brian Lima. The National Provincial Championship is the second highest level of Rugby union competition within Samoan rugby and is a stepping stone for local players into international IRB Pacific Rugby Cup is an Annual Rugby union club competition Patrick Richard Lam (born 29 September 1968 in Auckland) is a former New Zealand Rugby union footballer of Samoan descent Brian Lima (born 25 January 1972 in Apia, Samoa) is a Samoan Rugby union footballer In addition there are many Samoans that have played for or are playing for the All Blacks. The All Blacks are New Zealand's national team in Rugby union, the country's National sport.
Rugby league is also popular amongst Samoans, with Samoa reaching the quarter finals of the 2000 Rugby League World Cup. They also took home the cup at Wellington and the Hong Kong Rugby Sevens in 2007 - for which the Prime Minister of Samoa, also Chairman of the national rugby union, Tuila’epa Sa’ilele Malielegaoi, declared a national holiday. Many Samoans and New Zealanders or Australians of Samoan descent play in the Super League and National Leagues in Britain. Examples are Va'aiga Lealuga Tuigamala who represented the New Zealand All Blacks, then became the first million dollar player to be contract out to Rugby League to play for Wigan, then played Rugby Union for Newcastle Falcons before representing Samoa. Ta'ane Lavulavu of Workington Town, Maurie Fa'asavalu of St Helens and David Fatialofa of Whitehaven.
Samoans have been very visible in boxing, kickboxing and sumo; some Samoan sumos have reached the highest rank of Ozeki and yokozuna. Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, is a competitive Contact sport where two Wrestlers ( rikishi) attempt to force one another out of a circular ring ( Dohyo) or to touch the ground or ( is the top division of professional Sumo. Its size is fixed at 42 wrestlers ordered into five ranks according to their ability as defined by their performance in previous tournaments or ( is the top division of professional Sumo. Its size is fixed at 42 wrestlers ordered into five ranks according to their ability as defined by their performance in previous tournaments Despite the relatively small population of the islands many Samoans and people of Samoan descent have reached high ranks in many professional sports leagues.
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