Salisbury Plain is a chalk plateau in central southern England covering 300 square miles (780 km²). Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury Chalk (ʧɔːk is a soft white porous Sedimentary rock, a form of Limestone composed of the Mineral Calcite. In Geology and Earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland  It is part of the Southern England Chalk Formation and largely lies within the county of Wiltshire, with a little in Hampshire. KentGeologyWealdenDomeSimplesvg|thumb|The Wealden Anticline]] The Chalk Formation of Southern England is a system of Chalk Downland in Etymology The county formerly 'Wiltonshire' or 'Wiltunscir' (9th century is named after the former county town of Wilton (itself named after the River Wylye Wildlife Hampshire has wildlife typical of the island of Great Britain The plain is famous for its rich archaeology, including Stonehenge, one of England's best known landmarks. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury Largely as a result of the establishment of the Army Training Estate Salisbury Plain (ATE SP), the plain is sparsely populated and is the largest remaining area of calcareous grassland in north west Europe. Calcareous grassland (or alkaline grassland) is an Ecosystem associated with thin basic Soil, such as that on Chalk and Limestone Additionally the plain has Arable land , and a few small areas of beech and coniferous woodland. In Geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to Plough) is an agricultural term meaning land that can be used for For the babyfood see Beech-Nut. Beech ( Fagus) is a genus of ten Species of Deciduous Trees in the Ecologically a woodland is an area covered in trees differentiated from a Forest. The plain, and some of the surrounding area, is an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB is an area of countryside with significant landscape value in England, Wales or Northern Ireland
The boundaries of Salisbury Plain have never been truly defined, and there is some difference of opinion as to its exact area. For a different notion of boundary related to Manifolds see that article  The river valleys surrounding it, and other downs and plains beyond them loosely define its boundaries. In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is To the north the scarp of the downs overlooks the Vale of Pewsey, and to the north east the Bristol Avon. In Geomorphology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves a sharp steep Elevation differential characterized The Vale of Pewsey is an area in the Kennet district of Wiltshire, England to the west of Devizes, centred on the town of Pewsey. The River Avon is a River in the south west of England. Because of a number of other River Avons in England this river is often also known as the Lower The River Wylye runs along the south west, and the Bourne runs to the east. The River Wylye (pronounced 'Why-lee' is a classic southern England Chalk stream; champagne clear water flowing over gravel The River Bourne is a River in the English county of Wiltshire, and a Tributary of the River Avon.  The Avon runs through the eastern half of the plain and to the south the plain peters out as the river valleys close together before meeting at Salisbury. The River Avon is a River in the counties of Wiltshire, Hampshire and Dorset in the south of England, sometimes distinguished Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the From here the Avon continues south to the English Channel at Christchurch. Christchurch (Ōtautahi The largest City in the South Island, it is also the second largest city and third largest urban area of New Zealand The Hampshire Downs and the Berkshire Downs are chalk downland to the east and north of Salisbury Plain, and the Dorset Downs and Cranborne Chase are to the south west. The Berkshire Downs are a Downland area in England lie north of the River Kennet, south of the River Thames, east of Swindon and west The Dorset Downs are an area of Chalk Downland in the centre of the county Dorset in south west England. Cranborne Chase ( is a Chalk Plateau in central southern England, straddling the counties Dorset, Hampshire and Wiltshire In the west and north west the geology is mainly of the clays and limestones of the Blackmore Vale, Avon Vale and Vale of Wardour. Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 The Blackmore Vale (less commonly spelt Blackmoor) is a Vale, or wide Valley, in North Dorset, and to a lesser extent South
Amesbury is considered the largest settlement on the plain, though there are a number of small villages, such as Tilshead, Chitterne and Shrewton in the middle of the plain, as well as various hamlets and army camps. Amesbury is a Town and Civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire, eight miles north of Salisbury. A settlement is a general term used in Archeology, Landscape history and other subjects for a permanent or temporary community in which people live which avoids being A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a Town or City. Chitterne is a village and Parish in the County of Wiltshire, in the south west of England. A hamlet is (usually&mdashsee below a Rural community — that is a small settlement — which is too small to be considered a Village. The A303 road runs along the southern area of the plain, and the A360 cuts across the centre. The A303 is a Trunk road in England. It is the main road between Basingstoke in Hampshire and Honiton in Devon. List of A roads beginning with 3 in Great Britain starting west of the A3 and south of the A4.
Salisbury Plain is famous for its history and archaeology. Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos In the Neolithic period Stone age man began to settle on the plain, most likely centred around the causewayed enclosure of Robin Hood's Ball. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos Causewayed enclosures are a type of large prehistoric earthworks common to the early Neolithic Europe. Robin Hood’s Ball is a Neolithic Causewayed enclosure located on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. Large long barrows like White Barrow and other earthworks were built across the plain. A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the early Neolithic period White Barrow is a large Neolithic Long barrow situated on a Chalk Ridge on Salisbury Plain just outside of the village of By 2500 BC areas around Durrington Walls and Stonehenge had become a focus for building, and the southern part of the plain continued to be settled into the Bronze Age. Durrington Walls is the site of a Neolithic village and later Henge enclosure located in the Stonehenge World Heritage Site. Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for
Around 600 BC Iron Age Hill Forts came to be constructed around the boundaries of the plain, including Scratchbury and Battlesbury to the south west, Bratton Camp to the north west, Casterly Camp to the north, Yarnbury and Vespasian's Camp to the south, and Sidbury Hill to the east. In Britain and Ireland the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non- Romanised A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement Yarnbury Castle ( is a 91 Hectare Biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Wiltshire, notified in 1951 Vespasian's Camp is an Iron Age Hillfort in the town of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England.
Roman roads are visible features, probably serving a settlement near Old Sarum. The Roman Roads were essential for the growth of the Roman Empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies and trade goods and to communicate news Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, in England. Villas are sparse, however, and Anglo-Saxon place names suggest that the plain was mostly a grain producing imperial estate. A villa was originally an Upper-class Country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably
In the sixth century Anglo-Saxon incomers built planned settlements in the valleys surrounded by strip lynchets, with the downland left as sheep pasture. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. A lynchet is a bank of earth that builds up on the downslope of a field Ploughed for a long period of time To the south is the city of Salisbury, whose 13th and 14th century cathedral is famous for having the tallest spire in the country, and the building was, for centuries, the tallest building in Britain. Salisbury (ˈsɒlzbri ˈsɔːlzbri ('Solzbry' or ˈzɔːwzbri ('Zawzbry' — moving from RP to local dialect) is a cathedral city in the The cathedral is evidence of the prosperity the wool and cloth trade bought to the area. Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. In the mid-19th century the wool and cloth industry began to decline, leading to a decline in the population and change in land use from sheep farming to agriculture and military use. Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of Domestic sheep, and a subcategory of Animal husbandry. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Wiltshire became one of the poorest counties in England during this period of decline.
There are a number of chalk carvings on the plain, of which the most famous is the Westbury White Horse. A hill figure is a large visual representation created by cutting into a steep hillside and revealing the underlying geology The Westbury or Bratton White Horse is a Hill figure on the escarpment of Salisbury Plain, approximately northeast of Westbury in England The Kennet and Avon Canal was constructed to the north of the plain, through the Vale of Pewsey. The Kennet and Avon Canal is a Canal in southern England The name may refer to either the route of the original Kennet and Avon Canal Company, which linked the The Vale of Pewsey is an area in the Kennet district of Wiltshire, England to the west of Devizes, centred on the town of Pewsey.
In 1896, George Kemp and Guglielmo Marconi experimented with wireless telegraphy on Salisbury Plain, and achieved good results over a distance of 1. Marchese Guglielmo Marconi mar'koni (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937 was an Italian inventor best known for his development of a Radiotelegraph system The term Wireless Telegraphy is a historic term used today as applied to early Radio Telegraph communications techniques and practices 75 miles (2. 8 km).
The exact area of Salisbury Plain is sometimes confused with the extent of the military training area that it is home to. In fact this only covers roughly half of the geological boundaries of the plain. The army first conducted exercises on the plain in 1898 and thereafter the MoD bought up large areas of land right up to WWII. Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The MoD now own 150 square miles (390 km²) of land, making it the largest military training area in the UK. The Ministry of Defence ( MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters Of this, around 39 square miles (100 km²) are permanently closed to the public, and access is greatly restricted in other areas. As military use of the plain increased, new camps and barracks were constructed, including those at Larkhill, Bulford, Tidworth and Warminster. Larkhill ( is a village in Wiltshire, England, on the edge of Salisbury Plain. Bulford ( is a village and Civil parish in the Salisbury district of Wiltshire, England, close to Salisbury Plain. Tidworth is a town in south-east Wiltshire, England with a growing Civilian population Warminster is a town in western Wiltshire, England, by-passed by the A36, and near Frome and Westbury. Several installations have been built and since removed, including a railway line and aerodrome that were constructed next to Stonehenge. Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury In 1943 the village of Imber was evacuated to allow training for Operation Overlord to be conducted. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Imber is a village in Wiltshire, situated in the middle of England 's Salisbury Plain. Operation Overlord was the code name for the invasion of northwest Europe during World War II by Allied forces The village has remained closed ever since.
The Royal School of Artillery is based at Larkhill, and live firing is conducted on the plain for approximately 340 days of each year. The Royal School of Artillery is the principal training establishment for Artillery Warfare in the British Army. Military personnel from the UK and around the world spend some 600,000 man days on the plain every year. "The world " is a proper noun for the planet Earth envisioned from an Anthropocentric or Human Worldview, as a place 
The ATE SP is located close to other military facilities including the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory at Porton Down (much of whose work is secret), Boscombe Down airfield and Middle Wallop Army Air Corps Base, where pilots train on the Westland Apache. History In July 2001, the Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA was split into two parts Porton Down is a UK government and military Science park. It is situated slightly northeast of Porton near Salisbury in Wiltshire, MoD Boscombe Down is an aircraft testing site located south of Amesbury, Wiltshire, England. Army Air Corps Middle Wallop is a British Army base near the Hampshire village of Middle Wallop. The Westland WAH-64 Apache is a licence-built version of the Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow Attack helicopter for the British Army.
Because of the large training areas inaccessible to the public, the plain is a wildlife haven, and home to two National Nature Reserves, but there is concern that the low level of grazing on the plain could allow scrub to encroach on the grassland. National Nature Reserve is a United Kingdom government Conservation designation for a Nature reserve of national significance for biological or earth science Scrubland is a Plant community characterized by scrub Vegetation. Grasslands (also called greenswards) are areas where the Vegetation is dominated by Grasses ( Poaceae) and other Herbaceous (non-woody In 2003 the Great Bustard was reintroduced into Britain on Salisbury Plain. The Great Bustard, Otis tarda, is in the Bustard family the only member of the genus Otis. 
The plain has featured in the writings of William Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, William Henry Hudson, and A. Thomas Hardy OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928 was an English novelist Short story writer and poet of the naturalist movement though he saw William Henry Hudson ( August 4, 1841 &ndash August 18, 1922) was an author naturalist and ornithologist. G. Street and in the paintings of Constable. John Constable ( 11 June 1776 &ndash 31 March 1837 It is also used in The Beatles movie HELP! as they sing The Night Before and I Need You. The Beatles were a pop and rock band from Liverpool, England formed in 1960 Help! is a 1965 film starring The Beatles and featuring Leo McKern, Eleanor Bron, Victor Spinetti, John Bluthal, Roy " The Night Before " is a song by The Beatles from the album Help!. " I Need You " is a Beatles song on the album Help! (see 1965 in music) It is also mentioned in Ayreon song And the Druids Turn to Stone. Ayreon ( is a project by Dutch composer and musician Arjen Anthony Lucassen.