|Bishop of Myra, Defender of Orthodoxy, Wonderworker, Holy Hierarch|
|Born||c. 270, Patara, Lycia|
|Died||6 December 343, Myra, Lycia|
|Venerated in||All Christianity|
|Major shrine||Basilica di San Nicola, Bari, Italy. Events By Place Roman Empire Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire and is succeeded by Aurelian. This article is about the ancient city named Patara in Lycia Turkey for the city named Patara in Cappadocia Turkey see Patara (Cappadocia, for the village named Patara "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth. Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Constans travels to Britain, possibly for a military expedition against pirates Myra is an ancient town in Lycia, where the small town of Kale ( Demre) is situated today in present day Antalya Province of Turkey Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used The Basilica di San Nicola ( Basilica of Saint Nicholas) is a church in Bari, southern Italy, that holds wide religious significance throughout Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest|
|Feast||December 6 (main feast day)|
May 9 (translation (relics)
|Attributes||Vested as a Bishop. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Christianity has used symbols from its very beginnings Each Saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions especially the Latin Rite and other Roman Catholics A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight In Eastern Christianity, wearing an omophorion and holding a Gospel Book. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) The Gospel Book, or Book of the Gospels ( Greek:, Evangélion) is a Codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels Sometimes shown with Jesus Christ over one shoulder, holding a Gospel Book, and with the Theotokos over the other shoulder, holding an omophorion. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Theotokos (Θεοτόκος translit Theotókos) is a title of Mary the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox,|
|Patronage||Children, sailors, fishermen, the falsely accused, pawnbrokers, prostitutes, repentant thieves, many cities. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members|
Saint Nicholas (Greek: Άγιος Νικόλαος , Agios Nikolaos, "victory of the people") is the common name for Nicholas of Myra, a Christian saint and Bishop of Myra in Lycia of Anatolia (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey, though at the time it was a Greek-speaking Roman Province). Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Myra is an ancient town in Lycia, where the small town of Kale ( Demre) is situated today in present day Antalya Province of Turkey "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Antalya Province is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercessions, he is also known as Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker. A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation Distinguish from "inter-session" ie "between Sessions " Intercession, in both Christianity and Islam, He had a reputation for secret gift-giving, and is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. giFT Internet File Transfer ( giFT) is a computer software daemon that allows several File sharing protocols to be used with a simple client having a Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, or simply " Santa " is the Nicholas was never officially canonised; his reputation simply evolved among the faithful, as was the custom in his time. Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints  In 1087, his relics were stolen to Bari in southern Italy. A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial In Christianity, the translation of Relics is the removal of holy objects from one locality (such as a Tomb) to another (usually a Reliquary in Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan For this reason, he is also known as Saint Nicholas of Bari.
The historical Saint Nicholas is remembered and revered among Catholic and Orthodox Christians. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world He is also honoured by various Anglican and Lutheran churches. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, children, and students in Greece, Belgium, Bulgaria, Georgia, Russia, the Republic of Macedonia, Slovakia, Serbia and Montenegro. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Archery is the practice of using a bow or Crossbow to shoot Arrows Archery has historically been used in Hunting and Combat and has Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Republic of Macedonia (Република Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! He is also the patron saint of Barranquilla (Colombia), Bari (Italy), Amsterdam (Netherlands), Beit Jala in the West Bank of Palestine and Russia. Barranquilla, an industrial portuary and special district is a city and municipality located in northern Colombia by the Caribbean sea. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Beit Jala ( Arabic: (lit Aramaic 'grass carpet' is a Arab Christian town in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. The West Bank (الضفة الغربية, הגדה המערבית Hagadah Hamaaravit) also referred to in Israel as " Judea and Samaria Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending In 1809, the New-York Historical Society convened and named Sancte Claus the patron saint of Nieuw Amsterdam, the Dutch name for New York City. The New-York Historical Society is an American organization located in New York City and dedicated to the preservation of the city's history Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The City of New York 
Nicholas was born in Asia Minor during the third century in the Greek colony of Patara in Lycia in the Roman province of Asia- modern-day Antalya in Turkey — at a time when the region was Hellenistic in its culture and outlook. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. Colonies in antiquity were City-states founded from a mother- City This article is about the ancient city named Patara in Lycia Turkey for the city named Patara in Cappadocia Turkey see Patara (Cappadocia, for the village named Patara "Sidyma" redirects here For the Moth Genus named thus see Sidyma (moth. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin provincia, pl provinciae) was the basic and until the Tetrarchy (circa The Roman province of Asia, also called Phrygia was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. He was the only son of Christian parents named Epiphanus and Johanna, and was very religious from an early age. According to legend, Nicholas was said to have rigorously observed the canonical fasts of Wednesdays and Fridays, even when an infant, by abstaining on those days from his mother's breast.  His wealthy parents died in an epidemic while Nicholas was still young and he was raised by his uncle—also named Nicholas—who was the bishop of Patara. He tonsured the young Nicholas as a reader, and later as presbyter (priest). Tonsure is the practice of some Christian churches mystics Buddhist novices and Monks and some Hindu temples of cutting the Hair from the In some Christian churches the Reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the Scripture at a Liturgy. Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations then a synonym of episkopos (which has now come to mean Bishop A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Nicholas also spent a brief period of time at a monastery named Holy Sion, which had been founded by his uncle. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.
As the patron saint also of sailors, a legend grew that Nicholas had been a sailor or fisherman himself. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members However, it is more likely that one of his family businesses involved managing a fishing fleet. When his parents died, Nicholas received his inheritance but is said to have given it away to the poor.
Nicholas' early activities as a priest are said to have occurred during the persecution of Christians under the reign of co-ruling Roman Emperors Diocletian (reigned 284–305) and Maximian (reigned 286–305). The persecution of Christians refers to the Religious persecution of Christians both historically and in the current era The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting at about 27 BC Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus ( ca. December 22 244 The modern historian Timothy Barnes takes December 22 as his birthdate Events By Place Roman Empire November 20 — Diocletian becomes Emperor. Events By Place Roman Empire May 1 — Diocletian and Maximian, Emperors of Rome retire from office Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c 250 &ndash c For the processor see Intel 80286. Events By Place Roman Empire March 1 — Diocletian Events By Place Roman Empire May 1 — Diocletian and Maximian, Emperors of Rome retire from office In the Eastern Empire Galerius (reigned 305–311) continued the persecution until 311 when he issued a general edict of toleration from his deathbed. Galerius Maximianus ( ca. 260&ndashlate April or early May 311 formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311 Events By Place Roman Empire May 1 — Diocletian and Maximian, Emperors of Rome retire from office Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 — Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration ending Persecution of Christians Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 — Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration ending Persecution of Christians An edict of toleration is a declaration made by a government or ruler and states that members of a given Religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices Nicholas survived this period, although his activities at the time are uncertain.
Following Galerius' death his surviving co-ruler Licinius (reigned 307–324) mostly tolerated Christians. For other Romans of this name see Licinius (gens. Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c Events Roman Empire March 31 — After divorcing his wife Minervina Constantine marries Fausta the daughter of the retired Emperor Events By Place Roman Empire July 3 — Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, forcing him During this period, Nicholas made a pilgrimage to Egypt and Palestine. In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance   Upon his return, he was elected bishop of the city of Myra. Myra is an ancient town in Lycia, where the small town of Kale ( Demre) is situated today in present day Antalya Province of Turkey Judging from tradition, he was probably well loved and respected in his area, mostly as a result of his charitable activities. As with other bishops of the time, Nicholas' popularity would serve to ensure his position and influence during and after his period.
The destruction of several Pagan temples is also attributed to him, among them the Temple of Artemis. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The Temple of Artemis ( Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον Because the celebration of Diana's birth is on December 6, some authors have speculated that this date was deliberately chosen for Nicholas' feast day to overshadow or replace the Pagan celebrations. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints This would be in keeping with the Christian tradition of "baptizing" certain Pagan festivals in order to gently wean newly-converted Christians away from Pagan practices.
Not only did Nicholas seek to root out paganism, he also fought against the spread of Christian heresies, especially Arianism. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. According to tradition, Nicholas was a participant in the First Council of Nicaea. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine There, he became so angry upon hearing the views of Arius that he rushed over to him and slapped him in the face, sending him to the ground. Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism  The council was so shocked at this that they immediately threw Nicholas out of the council and defrocked him. That night, the tradition says, several of the bishops of the council had the same dream: they saw Christ handing Nicholas a Gospel Book and the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) handing him an omophorion, the symbol of a bishop's office. Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed " The Gospel Book, or Book of the Gospels ( Greek:, Evangélion) is a Codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels Theotokos (Θεοτόκος translit Theotókos) is a title of Mary the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) As a result of this dream, Nicholas was restored to the episcopacy and seated again at the council. However, Methodius, while noting St Nicholas' rejection of Arianism, did not mention his involvement at Nicaea. 
Nicholas is also known for coming to the defence of the falsely accused, often preventing them from being executed, and for his intercession on behalf of sailors and other travelers. The popular veneration of Nicholas as a saint seems to have started relatively early. Justinian I, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 527–565) is reported to have built a temple (i. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus ( Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or For the political lobbying groups see 527 groups Events By Place Byzantine Empire April 1 — Byzantine Events By Place Byzantine Empire November 14 — Justin II succeeds Justinian I as Emperor e. a church building) in Nicholas' honour in Constantinople. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS
Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors and is often called upon by mariners who are in danger of drowning or being shipwrecked. In Germany survivors of shipwrecks traditionally brought patches of sailcloth to Saint Nicholas as votive offerings. A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a Sacred place for Ritual purposes According to one legend, as a young man Nicholas went to study in Alexandria and on one of his sea voyages from Myra to Alexandria he is said to have saved the life of a sailor who fell from the ship's rigging in a storm. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια In a colourful version of this legend, Nicholas saved the man on his voyage back from Alexandria to Myra and upon his arrival took the sailor to the church. At that time the previous bishop of the city had just died and the church fathers were instructed in a dream to choose for their next bishop a "man who conquers" (Greek: nikei). While the saint was praying, the loose-lipped sailor went around telling how courageously he was saved by the man Nikei-Laos, upon which the church elders had no choice but to elect Nicholas as their new bishop.
Another legend tells how a terrible famine struck the island and a malicious butcher lured three little children into his house, where he slaughtered and butchered them, placing their remains in a barrel to cure, planning to sell them off as ham. Saint Nicholas, visiting the region to care for the hungry, not only saw through the butcher's horrific crime but also resurrected the three boys from the barrel by his prayers. The boys also refered to as (The pickle boys) are played in the Musical of the life of Saint Nicholas sung in the Bascilia this year by the Southwell Minster Choir (South - Well, not Suv-ell as it is sometimes pronounced). Another version of this story, possibly formed around the eleventh century, claims that the butcher's victims were instead three clerks who wished to stay the night. The man murdered them, and was advised by his wife to dispose of them by turning them into meat pies. The Saint saw through this and brought the men back to life.
In his most famous exploit however, a poor man had three daughters but could not afford a proper dowry for them. A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher) is the money goods or estate that a woman brings to her soon to be husband in marriage This meant that they would remain unmarried and probably, in absence of any other possible employment would have to become prostitutes. Hearing of the poor man's plight, Nicholas decided to help him but being too modest to help the man in public, (or to save the man the humiliation of accepting charity), he went to his house under the cover of night and threw three purses (one for each daughter) filled with gold coins through the window opening into the man's house. One version has him throwing one purse for three consecutive nights. Another has him throw the purses over a period of three years, each time the night before one of the daughters comes "of age". Invariably, the third time the father lies in wait, trying to discover the identity of their benefactor. In one version the father confronts the saint, only to have Saint Nicholas say it is not him he should thank, but God alone. In another version, Nicholas learns of the poor man's plan and drops the third bag down the chimney instead; a variant holds that the daughter had washed her stockings that evening and hung them over the embers to dry, and that the bag of gold fell into the stocking. For his help to the poor, Nicholas is the patron saint of pawnbrokers; the three gold balls traditionally hung outside a pawnshop symbolize the three sacks of gold. A pawnbroker is an individual or business entity that offers monetary loans in exchange for an item of value to the given pawn broker People then began to suspect that he was behind a large number of other anonymous gifts to the poor, using the inheritance from his wealthy parents. After he died, people in the region continued to give to the poor anonymously, and such gifts were still often attributed to St. Nicholas.
A nearly identical story is attributed by Greek folklore to Basil of Caesarea. Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (c 330 – January 1, 379) (Άγιος Βασίλειος ο Μέγας Latin Basil's feast day on January 1 is considered the time of exchanging gifts in Greece. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC
Saint Nicholas was credited for leading the Crusaders away from Lexmarkus in 1181.
One unusual aspect of Saint Nicholas' life is that he lived to an old age and died peacefully in his own bed. At a time when most saints died for their faith in manners most unusual and cruel, this made him stand out, together with Saint Martin, who also died of old age. Saint Martin of Tours (Martinus (316/317 Savaria, Pannonia &ndash November 8, 317, Candes, Gaul; buried November
On August 26, 1071 Romanus IV, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 1068–1071), faced Sultan Alp Arslan of the Seljuk Turks (reigned 1059–1072) in the Battle of Manzikert. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Alp Arslan (1029 &ndash December 15, 1072) was the second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the Eponym of The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26 1071 near Manzikert The battle ended in humiliating defeat and capture for Romanus. As a result the Empire temporarily lost control over most of Asia Minor to the invading Seljuk Turks. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in It would regain its control over Asia Minor during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (reigned 1081–1118). Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Alexios I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek Αλέξιος Α' Κομνηνός (1048 &ndash August 15, 1118) Byzantine emperor (1081&ndash1118 But early in his reign Myra was overtaken by the Islamic invaders. Taking advantage of the confusion, sailors from Bari in Apulia seized the remains of the saint over the objections of the Orthodox monks. Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one Returning to Bari, they brought the remains with them and cared for them. The remains arrived on May 9, 1087. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of There are numerous variations of this account. In some versions those taking the relics are characterized as thieves or pirates, in others they are said to have taken them in response to a vision wherein Saint Nicholas himself appeared and commanded that his relics be moved in order to preserve them from the impending Muslim conquest. In Spirituality including Religion, visions comprise Inspirational renderings generally of a Future state and/or of a mythical
Some observers have reported seeing myrrh exude from his relics, anointing with which has been credited with numerous miracles. Myrrh is a reddish-brown Resinous material the dried sap of the tree Commiphora myrrha, native to Yemen, Somalia To anoint is to pour or smear with perfumed oil milk water melted butter or other substances a process employed ritually by many religions and races A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation Vials of myrrh from his relics have been taken all over the world for centuries, and can still be obtained from his church in Bari. Currently at Bari, there are two churches at his shrine, one Roman Catholic and one Orthodox.
According to a local legend, some of his remains were brought by three pilgrims to a church in what is now Nikolausberg in the vicinity of the city of Göttingen, Germany, giving the church and village its name. A pilgrim is one who undertakes a Pilgrimage, literally 'far afield' Nikolausberg is a north-east Borough of the University town of Göttingen, Germany. Göttingen ( ˈgœtɪŋən, Low German: Chöttingen is a College town in Lower Saxony, Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
There is also a Venetian legend (preserved in the Morosini Chronicle) that most of the relics were actually taken to Venice (where a great church to St. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Nicholas, the patron of sailors, was built on the Lido), only an arm being left at Bari. Venice 's Lido is an 11-mile (18 km long sandbar, home to about 20000 residents greatly augmented by the (mainly Italian tourists who move in every summer This tradition was overturned in the 1950s when a scientific investigation of the relics in Bari revealed a largely intact skeleton.
Local lore in Kilkenny, Ireland asserts that some of his remains were brought back from the Crusades by a local knight, and buried near Thomastown. Kilkenny, ( is a city and county town of County Kilkenny in Ireland. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages.
It is said that in Myra the relics of Saint Nicholas each year exuded a clear watery liquid, called manna (or myrrh), which is believed by the faithful to possess miraculous powers. Myra is an ancient town in Lycia, where the small town of Kale ( Demre) is situated today in present day Antalya Province of Turkey Manna (sometimes or archaically spelt mana) ( Hebrew: מָן) is the name of a Food which according to the Bible, was eaten by Myrrh is a reddish-brown Resinous material the dried sap of the tree Commiphora myrrha, native to Yemen, Somalia A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation After the relics were brought to Bari, they continued to do so, much to the joy of the new owners. Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Even up to the present day, a flask of manna is extracted from the tomb of Saint Nicholas every year on December 6th (the Saint's feast day) by the clergy of the basilica. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints It is however worth noting that the actual relics are entombed several feet below the floor, at sea level in a harbor town, so the occurrence of watery liquid may be explained by several theories. However, this does not stop many believers from holding to the presence of the liquid being a miraculous manifestation.
Whereas the devotional importance of relics and the economics associated with pilgrimages caused the remains of most saints to be divided up and spread over numerous churches in several countries, St. A relic is an object or a personal item of religious significance carefully preserved with an air of Veneration as a tangible memorial Nicholas is unique in that most of his bones have been preserved in one spot: his grave crypt in Bari. Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Even with the still-continuing miracle of the manna, the Roman Catholic Church has allowed for one scientific survey of the bones. In the late 1950s, during a restoration of the chapel, it allowed a team of hand-picked scientists to photograph and measure the contents of the crypt grave. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive
In the summer of 2005, the report of these measurements was sent to a forensic laboratory in England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The review of the data revealed that the historical St. Nicholas was barely five feet in height (while not exactly small, still shorter than average, even for his time) and had a broken nose.
Among the Greeks and Italians he is a favourite of sailors, fishermen, ships and sailing. A fisherman or fisher is someone who gathers Fish, Shellfish, or other animals from a body of water A ship /ʃɪp/ is a large vessel that floats on water Ships are generally distinguished from Boats based on size As such he has become over time the patron saint of several cities maintaining harbours. A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences) or haven, is a place where ships may shelter from the Weather or are stored In centuries of Greek folklore, Nicholas was seen as "The Lord of the Sea", often described by modern Greek scholars as a kind of Christianised version of Poseidon. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological In Greek mythology, Poseidon ( Greek:; Latin: Neptūnus) was the god of the Sea and as "Earth-Shaker" In modern Greece, he is still easily among the most recognisable saints and December 6 finds many cities celebrating their patron saint. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev He is also the patron saint of all of Greece.
In Russia, Saint Nicholas' memory is celebrated on every Thursday of the year (together with the Apostles), and special hymns to him are found in the liturgical text known as the Octoechos. The Twelve Apostles (Greek apostolos, "someone sent out" e The Octoechos ( Greek:; Slavonic: Октонхъ Oktoikh, or Осмогласникъ Osmoglasnik)&mdashliterally the book Soon after the transfer of Saint Nicholas' relics from Myra to Bari, a Russian version of his Life and an account of the transfer of his relics were written by a contemporary to this event. Hagiography ( is the study of Saints. A hagiography, from Greek (hağios (ἅγιος "holy" or "saint" and graphē (γραφή  Devotional akathists and canons have been composed in his honour, and are frequently chanted by the faithful as they ask for his intercession. The Akathist Hymn (Ἀκάθιστος Ύμνος unseated hymn) is an Eastern Orthodox Christian Hymn dedicated to a Saint, holy A canon is a structured Hymn used in a number of Eastern Orthodox services Distinguish from "inter-session" ie "between Sessions " Intercession, in both Christianity and Islam, He is mentioned in the Liturgy of Preparation during the Divine Liturgy (Eastern Orthodox Eucharist) and during the All-Night Vigil. The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis ( Greek &Pi&rho&omicron&theta&eta&sigma&iota&sigmaf a setting forth or Proskomedia (an offering The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names is a Christian Sacrament by which in a common interpretation those For the musical setting by Rachmaninoff, see All-Night Vigil (Rachmaninoff The All-night vigil is a service of the Eastern Orthodox Many Orthodox churches will have his icon, even if they are not named after him. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity.
In the Middle Ages, both Saint Nicholas and Martin of Tours were celebrated as true people's saints. Saint Martin of Tours (Martinus (316/317 Savaria, Pannonia &ndash November 8, 317, Candes, Gaul; buried November Many churches were consecrated in their honour, and later gave their names to the villages that emerged around them. Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service usually religious As described above, while most contemporary saints earned their place in heaven by dying for their faith in manners most unusual and cruel, both Nicholas and Martin lived peacefully to a ripe old age. At a time of Religious wars and Crusades the idea that one could go to heaven, even become a saint, just by the way one lived instead of the way one died must have offered a great deal of consolation for the Medieval common folk. A religious war is a War caused by religious differences It can involve one state with an established religion against another state with a different religion or a different The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Therefore, this time made Saint Nicholas a 'popular' saint in every sense of the word, more than all his miracles combined.
In late medieval England, on Saint Nicholas' Day parishes held Yuletide "boy bishop" celebrations. Yule is a winter festival historically celebrated primarily in northern Europe but now celebrated in many other countries in various forms Boy bishop was a name given to a custom very widespread in the Middle Ages, whereby a boy was chosen for example among cathedral Choristers to parody the real Bishop As part of this celebration, youths performed the functions of priests and bishops, and exercised rule over their elders. Today, Saint Nicholas is still celebrated as a great gift-giver in several Western European countries. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' According to one source, medieval nuns used the night of December 6th to anonymously deposit baskets of food and clothes at the doorsteps of the needy. A Nun is a Woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life According to another source, on December 6th every sailor or ex-sailor of the Low Countries (which at that time was virtually all of the male population) would descend to the harbour towns to participate in a church celebration for their patron saint. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt On the way back they would stop at one of the various Nicholas fairs to buy some hard-to-come-by goods, gifts for their loved ones and invariably some little presents for their children. While the real gifts would only be presented at Christmas, the little presents for the children were given right away, courtesy of Saint Nicholas. This and his miracle of him resurrecting the three butchered children, made Saint Nicholas a patron saint of children and later students as well.
Among Albanians, Saint Nicholas is known as Shen'Kollë and is venerated by most Catholic families, even those from villages that are devoted to other saints. } Albanians (Shqiptarët are an Ethnic group and a Nation, in the sense of sharing a common Albanian culture speaking the Albanian language The Feast of Saint Nicholas is celebrated on the eve of December 5th, known as Shen'Kolli i Dimnit (Saint Nicholas of Winter), as well as on the commemoration of the interring of his bones in Bari, the eve of May 8th, known as Shen'Kolli i Majit (Saint Nicholas of May). Albanian Catholics often swear by Saint Nicholas, saying "Pasha Shejnti Shen'Kollin!" ("May I see Holy Saint Nicholas!"), indicting the importance of this saint in Albanian culture, especially among the Albanians of Malësia. Malësia ( Albanian Malësia e Madhe, Serbian: Малесија is a geographical region in northern Albania and eastern Montenegro. On the eve of his feast day, Albanians will light a candle and abstain from meat, preparing a feast of roasted lamb and pork, to be served to guests after midnight. Guests will greet each other, saying, "Nata e Shen'Kollit ju nihmoftë!" ("May the Night of Saint Nicholas help you!") and other such blessings. The bones of Albania's greatest hero, Gjergj Kastrioti, were also interred in the Church of Saint Nicholas in Lezha, Albania, upon his death. Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg ( 6 May 1405 &ndash 17 January 1468) ( Albanian: Gjergj Kastriot Skënderbeu, widely known as Lezhë ( Albanian: Lezhë or Lezha) is a City in northwest Albania, in the district This article is about the country in southern Europe For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Albania topics. So strong and powerful was the mystery surrounding this figure and this holy church, that the invading Turks stole the bones and used them as amulets, so they are no longer there.
Due to the modern association with Christmas, Saint Nicholas is a patron saint of Christmas, as well as pawnbrokers (see above). He was also a patron of the Varangian Guard of the Eastern Roman Emperors, who protected his relics in Bari. The Varangians or Varyags ( Old Norse: Væringjar Greek: Βάραγγοι Βαριάγοι Váraggoi / Varyágoi, Ukrainian This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians So beloved is St. Nicholas by Russians, one commonly heard saying is "if God dies, at least we'll still have St. Nicholas. "
Saint Nicholas is a popular subject portrayed on countless Eastern Orthodox icons, particularly Russian ones. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. He is depicted as an Orthodox bishop, wearing the omophorion and holding a Gospel Book, sometimes he is depicted wearing the Eastern Orthodox mitre, sometimes he is bareheaded. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) The Gospel Book, or Book of the Gospels ( Greek:, Evangélion) is a Codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of Iconographically, Nicholas is depicted as an elderly man with a short, full white beard and balding head. In commemoration of the miracle attributed to him by tradition at the Ecumenical Council of Nicea, he is sometimes depicted with Christ over his left sholder holding out a Gospel Book to him and the Theotokos over his right sholder holding the omophorion. Because of his patronage of mariners, occasionally Saint Nicholas will be shown standing in a boat or rescuing a drowning sailor.
In Roman Catholic iconography, Saint Nicholas is depicted as a bishop, wearing the insignia of this profession: a red bishop's cloak, a red miter and a bishop's staff (crozier). Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter from the Greek μίτρα, 'headband' or 'turban' is a type of headgear now known as the traditional ceremonial head-dress of A crosier ( crozier, pastoral staff, paterissa, pósokh) is the stylized staff of office ( Pastoral staff) carried by high-ranking The episode with the three dowries is commemorated by showing him holding in his hand either three purses, three coins or three golden balls. Depending on whether he is depicted as patron saint of children or sailors, his images will be completed by a background showing ships, children or three figures climbing out of a wooden barrel (the three slaughtered children he resurrected).
In a strange twist, the three golden balls referring to the dowry affair are sometimes misinterpreted as being oranges or other fruits. As in the Low Countries oranges are generally believed to come from Spain, this led to the belief that the Saint lives in Spain and comes to visit every winter bringing oranges and other 'wintry' fruits. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Saint Nicholas Day is a festival for children in much of Europe related to surviving legends of the saint, and particularly his reputation as a bringer of gifts. The American Santa Claus, as well as the Anglo-Canadian and British Father Christmas, derive from these legends. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, or simply " Santa " is the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Father Christmas is a name used in many English speaking countries for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas. "Santa Claus" is itself derived from the Dutch Sinterklaas. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname Sinterklaas (also called Sint-Nicolaas in Dutch Nikolaas2ogg}} and Saint Nicolas in French is a traditional holiday figure in the Netherlands,
The history of the festive Saint Nicholas celebration is complex and reflects conflicts between Protestantism and Catholicism. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Since Nicholas was a canonised saint, Martin Luther replaced the festival that had become associated with the Papacy with a Christkind ("Christ child") celebration on Christmas Eve. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The Christkind ( German "Christ Child" pronounced /kristkint/ is the traditional Christmas giftbringer in regions of Austria, the Czech The Nicholas celebrations still remain a part of tradition among many Protestants, albeit on a much smaller scale than Christmas. The Protestant Netherlands, however, retain a much larger Saint Nicholas tradition. Many Catholics, on the other hand, have adopted Luther's Christkind.
St. Nicholas (San Nicola) is the patron of the city of Bari, where he is buried. Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan Its deeply felt celebration is called the Festa di San Nicola, held on the 7-8-9 of May. In particular on 8 May the relics of the saint are carried on a boat on the sea in front of the city with many boats following (Festa a mare). Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen On December 6 there is a ritual called the Rito delle nubili. The same tradition is currently observed in Sassari, where during the day of Saint Nicholas, patron of the city, gifts are given to young brides who need help before getting married. Sassari (in Italian and Sassarese, Tàthari in Sardinian) is a town in the
In Trieste St. Trieste (Trieste Slovene and Croatian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to Nicholas (San Nicolò) is celebrated with gifts given to children on the morning of the 6th of December and with a fair called Fiera di San Nicolò during the first weeks of December. Depending on the cultural background, in some families this celebration is more important than Christmas. Trieste is a city on the sea, being one of the main ports of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is influenced mainly by Italian, Slovenian and German cultures, but also Greek and Serbian. The Culture of Italy can be found in the Roman ruins remaining in much of the country the precepts of the Roman Catholic Church, the spirit of the See also List of Slovenians, Holidays in Slovenia, Slovene literature, Music of Slovenia, Slovenian cuisine Slovenia 's Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Serbian culture refers to the culture of Serbia as well as the culture of Serbs in other parts of the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere in the world
Saint Nicholas is celebrated by all the Christian communities in Lebanon: Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Armenian. Many places, churches, convents, and schools are named in honor of Saint Nicholas, such as Escalier Saint-Nicolas des Arts, Saint Nicolas Garden, and Saint Nicolas Greek Orthodox Cathedral in Achrafieh. L'Escalier de L'Art or Escalier Saint-Nicolas des Arts, the Saint Nicolas Stairs, is located between Rue Sursock and Rue Gouraud The Saint Nicolas Garden is a public garden located on Avenue Charles Malek in the Tabaris neighborhood of the Achrafieh District one of Beirut's largest Achrafieh, ( Arabic: الأشرفية spelled in English as Ashrafieh) is one of Beirut 's oldest quarters
Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of the town of Beit Jala. Beit Jala ( Arabic: (lit Aramaic 'grass carpet' is a Arab Christian town in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank. This little town, which is located only two kilometers to the west of Bethlehem, boasts of being the place where St. Bethlehem ( بيت لحم,, lit "House of Meat" Βηθλεέμ Bethleém בית לחם Beit Lehem, lit "House of Bread" is a Nicholas spent four years of his life during his pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Every year on the 19th of December according to the Gregorian Calendar—that is the 6th of December according to the Julian Calendar—a solemn Divine Liturgy is held in the Orthodox Church of St. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. Nicholas, and is usually followed by parades, exhibitions, and many activities. Arab Palestinian Christians of all denominations and churches come to Beit Jala and participate in prayers and celebrations. The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity.
In Germany, Nikolaus is usually celebrated on a small scale. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Many children put a boot, called Nikolaus-Stiefel, outside the front door on the night of December 5 to December 6. Events 63 BC - Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev St. Nicholas fills the boot with gifts, and at the same time checks up on the children to see if they were good. If they were not, they will have a tree branch (rute) in their boots instead. Sometimes, a disguised Nikolaus also visits the children at school or in their homes and asks them if they "have been good" (sometimes ostensibly checking a book for their record), handing out presents on a per-behaviour basis. This has become more lenient in recent decades.
But for many children, Nikolaus also elicited fear, as he was often accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht, who would threaten to beat, or sometimes actually eat the children for misbehaviour. The Companions of Saint Nicholas (or Father Christmas) are a group of closely related figures who accompany St Knecht Ruprecht furthermore was equipped with goatlegs. In Switzerland, where he is called Schmutzli, he would threaten to put bad children in a sack and take them back to the dark forest. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation In other accounts he would throw the sack into the river, drowning the naughty children. These traditions were implemented more rigidly in Catholic countries and regions such as Austria or Bavaria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12
In highly Catholic regions, the local priest was informed by the parents about their children's behaviour and would then personally visit the homes in the traditional Christian garment and threaten to beat them with a rod. In parts of Austria, Krampusse, who local tradition says are Nikolaus' helpers (in reality, typically children of poor families), roamed the streets during the festival. They wore masks and dragged chains behind them, even occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampusläufe (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Mikuláš is often also accompanied by an angel (anděl) who acts as a counterweight to the ominous devil or Knecht Ruprecht (čert). The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Slovakia (long form Slovak Republic; Slovak:, long form, is a Landlocked country in Central Europe with a population of over five million An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition The Devil is the The Companions of Saint Nicholas (or Father Christmas) are a group of closely related figures who accompany St
In Slovenia Saint Nikolaus (Miklavž) is accompanied by an angel and a devil (parkelj) corresponding to the Austrian Krampus. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition The central and eastern Alps of Europe are rich in traditions dating back to Pre-Christian ( pagan) times with surviving elements amalgamated from Germanic
In Luxembourg "Kleeschen" is accompanied by the "Houseker" a frightening helper wearing a brown monk's habit. Luxembourg (Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg Grand-Duché de Luxembourg Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a small Landlocked country in Western Europe, bordered by
In Croatia Nikolaus (Sveti Nikola) who visits on Saint Nicholas day (Nikolinje) brings gifts to children commending them for their good behaviour over the past year and exhorting them to continue in the same manner in the year to come. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between If they fail to do so they will receive a visit from Krampus who traditionally leaves a rod, an instrument their parents will use to discipline them. The central and eastern Alps of Europe are rich in traditions dating back to Pre-Christian ( pagan) times with surviving elements amalgamated from Germanic
In Hungary and Romania children typically leave their boots on the windowsill on the evening of December 5. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania By next morning Nikolaus (Szent Miklós traditionally but more commonly known as Mikulás) in Hungary or Moş Nicolae (Sfântul Nicolae) in Romania leaves candy and gifts if they have been good, or a rod (Hungarian: virgács, Romanian: nuieluşǎ) if they have been bad (most kids end up getting lots of candy but also a small rod). Myckula(properly Szent Miklós) is the Hungarian version of Saint Nicholas, and a similar figure to Santa Claus. In Hungary he is often accompanied by the Krampusz, the frightening helper who is out to take away the bad ones.
Similarly in Poland, children polish their winter boots on December 5th and leave them by their beds at night, and by morning of December 6th Saint Nicholas ("Święty Mikołaj") fills the boots with small presents. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland
In Serbia, Saint Nicholas is celabrated as patron saint of many families, through the feast preserved amongst the Serbs only, widely known as Serbian Slava. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Since the feast of Saint Nicholas always falls in the fasting period preceeding the Christmas, feast is celebrated according to the Eastern Orthodox Church fasting rules. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world
While feasts of Saint Nicholas are not observed nationally, cities with strong German influences like Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and St. Louis celebrate St. Nick's Day on a scale similar to the German custom.  On the previous night, children put one empty shoe (or sock) outside, and, on the following morning of December 6, the children awake to find that St. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Nick has filled their previously empty footwear with candy and small presents (if the children have been "good") or ostensibly, coal (if not). For these children, the relationship between St. Nick and Santa Claus is not clearly defined, although St. Nick is usually explained to be a helper of Santa. The tradition of St. Nick's Day is firmly established in the Milwaukee and St. Louis communities, with parents often continuing to observe the day with even their adult children.
In the Netherlands, Saint Nicholas' Eve (December 5) is the primary occasion for gift-giving, when his reputed birthday is celebrated. Birthday is the name given to the date of the anniversary of a person's birth In this case, roles are reversed, though, in that Sinterklaas is the one who gives the presents.
In recent years, Christmas (along with Santa Claus) has been pushed by shopkeepers as another gift-giving festival, with some success; although, especially for young children, Saint Nicholas' Eve is still much more important than Christmas.
In the days leading up to December 5 (starting when Saint Nicholas has arrived in The Netherlands by steamboat), young children put their shoes in front of the chimneys and sing special 'Sinterklaas-songs'. Often the shoe is filled with a carrot or some hay for the horse of St. Nicholas (called Amerigo). On the next morning they will find a small present in their shoe, ranging from a bag of chocolate coins to a bag of marbles or some other small toy. On the evening of December 5th, Sinterklaas brings presents to every child that has been good in the past year (in practice to all children). This is often done by placing a sack with presents outside the house or living room, after which a neighbour or parent bangs the door or window, pretending to be Sinterklaas' assistant. Another option is to hire or ask someone to dress up as Sinterklaas and deliver the presents personally. Sinterklaas wears a bishop's robes including a red cape and mitre, rides a white horse over the rooftops and is assisted by many mischievous helpers with black faces and colourful Moorish dress, dating back two centuries. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent These helpers are called 'Zwarte Pieten' (Black Petes). In the Folklore and Legends of the Netherlands and Flanders, Zwarte Piet ( (meaning Black Pete) is a companion of Saint Nicholas
In the past number of years, there has been a recurrent discussion about the politically incorrect nature of the Moorish helper. In particular Dutch citizens with backgrounds from Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles feel offended by the Dutch slavery history connected to this emblem and regard the Zwarte Pieten to be racist. Suriname ( Dutch: Suriname; Sranan Tongo: Sranan) officially the Republic of Suriname (traditionally spelled Surinam by The Netherlands Antilles ( Dutch:) previously known as the Netherlands West Indies or Dutch Antilles/West Indies, is part of the Lesser Antilles As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that
As in the Netherlands
Saint Nicolas is celebrated this way in the eastern part of the country (Alsace, Lorraine regions) and less strongly in the northern part of the country (Nord département). Alsace (Alsace alzas Alsatian and Elsass pre-1996 German: Elsaß; Alsatia is one of the 26 Regions of France, located on the eastern Lorraine (Lothringen is one of the 26 régions of France. It is the only administrative region with two cities of equal importance Metz and Nancy Nord (North is a department in the far north of France. It is the country's most populated department In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division He is accompanied by "Père Fouettard", carrying a bunch of sticks with which naughty children are beaten.
In Portugal, St. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Nicholas (São Nicolau) has been celebrated since the Middle Ages in Guimarães as the patron saint of high-school students, in the so called Nicolinas, a group of festivities that occur from November 29th to December 7th each year. Guimarães (gimɐˈɾɐ̃j̃ʃ is a city and municipality in northwestern Portugal in the province of Minho and in the district of Braga
Benjamin Britten wrote a Christmas cantata commissioned by three public schools. Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often This tells the story of Saint Nicholas and his Christian exploits. This is for small orchestra, three choirs, a tenor soloist (St. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice Nicholas), and a treble (young Saint Nicholas).
The metamorphosis of Saint Nicolas into the commercially more lucrative Santa Claus, which took several centuries in Europe and America, has recently been re-enacted in the saint's home town, the city of Demre. Demre is a district of Antalya Province on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. This modern Turkish town is built near the ruins of ancient Myra. As St. Nicholas is a very popular Orthodox saint, the city attracts many Russian tourists. A solemn bronze statue of the Saint by the Russian sculptor Gregory Pototsky, donated by the Russian government in 2000, was given a prominent place on the square in front of the medieval church of St. Nicholas. In 2005, mayor Suleyman Topcu had the statue replaced by a red-suited plastic Santa Claus statue, because he wanted the central statue to be more recognizable to visitors from all over the world. Protests from the Russian government against this action were successful only to the extent that the Russian statue was returned, without its original high pedestal, to a corner near the church.
Restoration on Saint Nicholas' original church in Demre is currently under way. In 2007, the Turkish Ministry of Culture finally gave permission for the Divine Liturgy to be celebrated at the site, and has even contributed the sum of forty-thousand Turkish Lira to the project. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. The Lira ( Turkish Türk lirası or TL) was the currency of Turkey until 2005