|Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)|
Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod
| Russian Empire|
| Mikhail Skobelev|
Carol I of Romania
| Ahmed Muhtar Pasha|
Muhammad Ali Pasha
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in a rise in nationalism in the Balkans as well as in the Russian goal of recovering territorial losses it had suffered during the Crimean War, reestablishing itself in the Black Sea and following the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire. Kitai-gorod (Китай-город is a business district within Moscow, Russia encircled by mostly-reconstructed medieval walls Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1878 ( MDCCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin ( June 13 - July 13, 1878) by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Serbian Principality (Serbian Кнежевина Србија Kneževina Srbija) was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the Opalchentsi (опълченци literally "those who oppose Ottoman rule" were Bulgarian voluntary army units who took part in the Serbo-Turkish War The Principality or Princedom of Montenegro was a principality in Southeastern Europe. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Mikhail Dmitrievich Skobelev (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Ско́белев (– was a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during Count Mikhail Tarielovich Loris-Melikov (կոմս Միքայել Տարիելի Լորիս-Մելիքով граф Михаил Тариелович Лорис-Меликов ( &ndash Count Joseph Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gourko (the first name is also sometimes transliterated "Ossip" (Иосиф Владимирович Ромейко-Гурко (16&ndash28 Ivan Davidovich Lazarev (Hovhannes Davti Lazaryan (Иван Давыдович Лазарев (1820&ndash1878 was a Russian general of Armeniann origin Carol I of Romania, original name Prince Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, later simply of Hohenzollern (April 20th 1839 - Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (or Ahmed Muhtar Pasha) was a Turkish Ottoman Grand vizier and general Osman Nuri Paşa also Gazi Osman Pasha ( 1832 - April 5 1900) was an Ottoman Turkish Field marshal and the hero of the For other uses see Suleiman Pasha (disambiguation Suleiman Pasha (c This article is about the leader of Egypt For other people named Muhammad Ali or Mehmet Ali see Muhammad Ali (disambiguation and Mehemet Ali (disambiguation The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish As a result of the war, the principalities of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, each of which had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396-1878), the Bulgarian state was reestablished as the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania) and the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital. The Principality of Bulgaria (Княжество България was a state created as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878 The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj The Balkan Mountain range ( Bulgarian and Стара планина Stara planina, "Old Mountain" Sofia (София ˈsɔfija is the Capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1395568 in the Capital Municipality The Congress of Berlin also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and Great Britain to take over Cyprus, while the Russian Empire annexed Southern Bessarabia and the Kars region. See also Berlin Conference (1884-85 re Africa and Berlin Conference of 1954 (Cold War Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Cyprus (Κύπρος transliterated: Kýpros,; Kıbrıs officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province
Article 9 of the Paris Peace Treaty, concluded at the end of the Crimean War, obliged the Ottoman Empire to grant Christians equal rights with Muslims. The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, France The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought An edict, Hatt-ı Hümayun,was issued that proclaimed the principle of the equality of Muslims and non-Muslims, and produced some specific reforms to this end. The Hatt-ı Hümayun ( Imperial Edict, Imperial Reform Edict or Rescript of Reform) was a February 18, 1856 edict of the For example, the jizya tax was abolished and non-Muslims were allowed to join the army. Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (جزْية ʤɪzjæh Ottoman Turkish: cizye both derived from Pahlavi and ultimately from Aramaic 
However, some key aspects of Dhimmi status was retained, for example the testimony of Christians against Muslims was not accepted in courts, which granted Muslims effective immunity for offenses conducted against Christians. A dhimmi ( ذمي, collectively أهل الذمة, ahl al-dhimma, the people of the dhimma or pact of protection Ottoman Turkish Although on a local level, relations between communities were often good, this practice encouraged the worst elements of Muslim society to exploit the situation. The abuses were at their worst in regions with a predominantly Christian population, mainly located in the European part of the empire, where local authorities often openly supported them as a means to keep Christians subjugated.
The financial strain on the treasury caused by the Crimean War forced the Ottoman government to take a series of foreign loans at such steep interest rates that, despite all the fiscal reforms that followed, pushed it into insoluble debts and economic difficulties. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought This was further aggravated by the need to accommodate more than 600,000 Muslim Circassians, expelled by the Russians from the Caucasus, to the Black Sea ports of north Anatolia and the Balkan ports of Constanţa and Varna, which cost a great deal in money and in civil disorder to the Ottoman authorities. Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess ( Çerkes) and is not the self-designation of any people Constanţa (pronunciation in Romanian: /kon'stanʦa/ historical names Tomis, Κωνστάντια or Constantia, Köstence Varna (Варна is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv 
In 1858 the Maronite peasants, stirred by the clergy, revolted against their Maronite feudal overlords and established a peasant republic. Maronites ( الموارنة,, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Syriac In southern Lebanon, where Maronite peasants worked for Druze overlords, Druze peasants sided with their overlords against the Maronites, transforming the conflict into the civil war. Although both sides suffered, about 10,000 Maronites were massacred at the hands of the Druzes.
In Syria, events in Lebanon stirred the Muslim population of Damascus to attack the Christian minority with between 5,000 to over 25,000 of the latter being killed, including the American and Dutch consuls, giving the event an international dimension. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria.
Under the threat of European intervention, Ottoman authorities restored order. Nevertheless French and British intervention followed. Under further European pressure, the Sultan agreed to appoint a Christian governor in Lebanon, whose candidacy was to be submitted by the Sultan and approved by the European powers.
The Cretan revolt was the result of two things: the failure of the Ottoman Empire to apply reforms for improving the life of the population and the Cretans' desire for Enosis — union with Greece. The Arkadi Monastery (Μονή Αρκαδίου Moni Arkadiou) is a 16th century Monastery located 23 km south-east of Rethymno on the Crete ( Greek: Κρήτη transliteration: Krētē, modern transliteration Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Enosis (butterfly. Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία  The insurgents gained control over the whole island, except for five cities where the Muslims were fortified. The Greek press claimed that Muslims had massacred Greeks and the word was spread throughout Europe. Thousands of Greek volunteers were mobilized and sent to the island.
By early 1869 the insurrection was suppressed, but the Porte offered some concessions, introducing island self-rule and increased Christian rights on the island. The siege of Moni Arkadiou monastery, when about 150 Cretan combatants accompanied by about 600 woman and children were besieged by about 23,000 Turkish troops, became widely known in Europe after several hundred women and children who sheltered in the monastery's gunpowder room chose to blow themselves up rather than surrender to the Turks. The Arkadi Monastery (Μονή Αρκαδίου Moni Arkadiou) is a 16th century Monastery located 23 km south-east of Rethymno on the 
An important effect of the Cretan Insurrection, and especially the brutality with which it was suppressed by the Turks, was the growth of public attention in Europe, and in Great Britain in particular, to the issue of the oppressed state of the Christians in the Ottoman Empire. See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands
"Small as the amount of attention is which can be given by the people of England to the affairs of Turkey … enough was transpiring from time to time to produce a vague but a settled and general impression that the Sultans were not fulfilling the “solemn promises” they had made to Europe; that the vices of the Turkish government were ineradicable; and that whenever another crisis might arise affecting the “independence” of the Ottoman Empire, it would be wholly impossible to afford to it again the support we had afforded in the Crimean war. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought "
The crisis came to an end, with the Ottomans more victorious than they had been or would be in almost any other diplomatic confrontation during the century.
The concert of Europe established in 1856 was shaken in 1859 when France and Austria fought over Italy. It came apart completely as a result of Bismarck's wars to create a united Germany, with Prussia defeating Austria in 1866 and France in 1870, thus establishing itself in place of Austria-Hungary as the dominant power in Central Europe as well as the rest of the continent. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Britain, worn out by its participation in the Crimean War and diverted by the Irish question and the whole complex of problems created by the Industrial Revolution, chose not to intervene again to restore the European balance. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Bismarck did not wish the breakup of the Ottoman Empire to create rivalries that might lead to war. So he took up the Tsar's earlier suggestion that arrangements be made in case the Ottoman Empire fell apart, creating the Three Emperors' League with Austria and Russia to keep France isolated on the continent. The League of the Three Emperors, also known as the Three Emperors' League (Dreikaiserbund was an 1873 alliance among the Emperors of Germany France under Napoleon III responded by supporting self-determination movements, particularly if they concerned the three emperors and the Sultan. Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President Thus revolts in Poland against Russia and national aspirations in the Balkans were encouraged by France. Russia worked to regain its right to maintain a fleet on the Black Sea and vied with the French in gaining influence in the Balkans by using the new Pan-Slavic idea that all Slavs should be united under Russian leadership. Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been This could be done only by destroying the two empires where most of the non-Russian Slavs lived, the Habsburg and the Ottoman. The ambitions and the rivalries of the Russians and French in the Balkans surfaced in Serbia, which was experiencing its own national revival and had ambitions that partly conflicted with those of the great powers. 
Russia ended the Crimean War with minimal territorial losses, but was forced to destroy its Black Sea Fleet and Sevastopol fortifications. Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (16 July 1798 11 March 1883 was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea Sevastopol ( see pronunciation below) is a port city in Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of the Crimea Peninsula Russian international prestige was damaged, and for many years revenge for the Crimean war became the main goal of Russian foreign policy.
This was not easy however — the Paris Peace Treaty included guarantees of Ottoman territorial integrity by Great Britain, France and Austria; only Prussia remained friendly to Russia. The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, France The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state
It was on alliance with Prussia and her chancellor Bismarck that the newly appointed Russian chancellor, Alexander Gorchakov, depended. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (16 July 1798 11 March 1883 was a Russian statesman from the Gorchakov princely family Russia consistently supported Prussia in her wars with Denmark (1864), Austria (1866) and France (1870). The First Schleswig War occurred in 1848–1851. The Second Schleswig War (2 The Austro-Prussian The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 In March 1871, using the crushing French defeat and the support of a grateful Germany, Russia achieved international recognition of her earlier denouncement of Article XI of the Paris Peace Treaty, thus enabling her to revive her Black Sea Fleet. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, France The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea
Other clauses of the Paris Peace Treaty, however, remained in force, specifically Article 8 with guarantees of Ottoman territorial integrity by Great Britain, France and Austria. The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between Russia and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia, France This made Russia use extreme caution in its relations with the Ottoman empire and coordinate all its actions with other European powers. War with Turkey tête-à-tête was possible only after getting a carte blanche from other European powers, and Russian diplomacy was waiting for a convenient moment. A blank cheque ( blank check, carte blanche) in the literal sense is a Cheque that has no numerical value written in but is already signed
The balance of power in Europe directly reflected the situation on the Balkan peninsula. The state of Ottoman administration continued to deteriorate throughout the course of 19th century, with the central government occasionally losing actual control over whole provinces. Reforms imposed by European powers did little to improve the conditions of the Christian population, while managing to dissatisfy a sizable portion of the Muslim population. Bosnia and Herzegovina suffered at least two waves of rebellion by the local Muslim population, the most recent in 1850.
Austria consolidated after the turmoil of the first half of the century and sought to reinvigorate its longstanding policy of expansion at the expense of the Ottoman empire.
The nominally autonomous, de facto independent principalities of Serbia and Montenegro sought the opportunity to expand into regions inhabited by their Serbian compatriots. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) The Serbian Principality (Serbian Кнежевина Србија Kneževina Srbija) was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the The Principality or Princedom of Montenegro was a principality in Southeastern Europe. The situation in Serbia was especially complicated. The principality made expansion to neighboring Serbian inhabited areas, south Serbia, Kosovo, and Bosnia its priority. Historically and geographically the Region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna; Cyrillic: Босна lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging The ruling House of Obrenović enjoyed good connections with Vienna, and was at first reluctant to risk a military adventure against the Ottoman empire. The House of Obrenović ( Serbian: Обреновићи / Obrenovići, often spelled in English as Obrenovich or Obrenovitch ruled Serbia from However public opinion was heavily pro war, encouraged by the diplomatic victory of 1862 and the expulsion of Ottoman troops from their last garrisons on the territory of the principality. The presence of Russian agents was also very strong.
Montenegro, ruled by the ambitious Prince Nikola, was in a position to advocate a much more adventurous policy. The Principality or Princedom of Montenegro was a principality in Southeastern Europe. Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-Njegoš ( Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош ( – March 1, 1921) was the When an uprising of orthodox Christians erupted in Herzegovina in 1875, Montenegrins promptly intervened to help their fellow tribesmen, declaring war on the Ottoman empire. Soon an uprising in Bulgaria erupted. Compelled by these events and by overwhelming pressure from the public, Prince Milan of Serbia declared war on the Ottoman empire in 1876. Milan Obrenović was name of rulers of Serbia from the House of Obrenović: Milan Obrenović II Milan Obrenović
From 1873 onward the Ottoman government was faced with a period of drought and famine in Anatolia, leading to widespread misery and discontent. Agricultural shortages became such as to preclude the collection of necessary taxes. This reached the point at which the Imperial Treasury was left without adequate funds for the business of government. The result was a major financial collapse which forced the Ottoman government to declare bankruptcy in October, 1875.
An anti-Ottoman uprising occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1875. The main reason for this revolt was the heavy tax burden imposed by the cash-starved Ottoman administration. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Both Montenegro and Serbia intervened with armed bands. Despite some relaxation of taxes, the uprising continued well after the end of 1875 and eventually triggered the Bulgarian April uprising of 1876. The April Uprising (Априлско въстание Aprilsko vastanie) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April
Most middle-class Bulgarians were not anxious to overthrow the Ottomans by force. The small band of revolutionary nationalists who rose from their ranks was a minority from the start. They sought swift and complete independence through armed rebellion and terrorist methods modeled after the uprising of the Serbs and Greeks, and they looked to Orthodox Russia and Serbia for support.  The revolt of Bosnia and Hercegovina spurred the Bucharest-based Bulgarian revolutionaries into action. A Bulgarian uprising was hastily prepared to take advantage of Ottoman preoccupation, but it fizzled before it started. In the spring of 1876 another uprising erupted in the south-central Bulgarian lands. That event was even more haphazardly planned than the previous one. The rebels were ill-armed and disorganized. More than a thousand mostly pacific Muslims were killed during the rebellion. .
The Ottomans, lacking adequate regular troops because of the problems in the northwest, were compelled to use irregular Bashi-bazouks to quell the Bulgarians. A bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk ( Turkish başıbozuk, "damaged head" meaning "leaderless" "disorderly" was an Those irregulars mostly were drawn from Muslim inhabitants of the Bulgarian regions, many of whom were Circassian or Tatar refugees expelled from the Caucasus during the Crimean War by the Russians or had suffered at the rebels' hands. Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups Bashi-bazouks, true to their reputation, brutally suppressed the uprising, massacring up to 12,000 people in the process.
Word of the bashi-bazouks' atrocities filtered to the outside world by way of American-run Robert College located in Constantinople. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS The majority of the students were Bulgarian, and many received news of the events from their families back home. Soon the Western diplomatic community in Constantinople was abuzz with rumours, which eventually found their way into newspapers in the West. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey News stories about Ottoman Muslim atrocities against Christians that ignored the sufferings of the Muslims were particularly unwelcome in Britain, where Disraeli's government was committed to supporting the Ottomans in a situation already tense because of the ongoing Balkan crisis. A renowned American journalist from Ohio, Januarius A. MacGahan, who happened to be in London at the time, was hired by the Liberal opposition's newspaper Daily News to report on the massacre stories firsthand.
MacGahan toured the stricken regions of the Bulgarian uprising, accompanied unofficially by Eugene Schuyler, a member of the American legation in Constantinople, and officially by Walter Baring of the British legation, who was sent along by his superiors to whitewash any unpleasantness that might be uncovered. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey While the reports of both Americans confirmed the savagery of the Ottoman retribution, MacGahan's purple descriptive prose, splashed across the Daily News's front pages, galvanized British public opinion against Disraeli's pro-Ottoman policy. Most public support for the Ottomans melted when Gladstone published his The Bulgarian Horrors. Hands tied by public pressure, Disraeli was forced to stand aside when Russia (where MacGahan's emotionally charged report had been circulated in translation) declared war on the Ottoman Empire in 1877 with the publicly avowed goal of winning independence for the Bulgarians. 
When the details became known in Europe, many dignitaries, including Charles Darwin, Oscar Wilde, Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi publicly condemned the Ottoman abuses in Bulgaria. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Victor-Marie Hugo ( ( February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French Poet, Playwright, Novelist Garibaldi redirects here for other meanings see Garibaldi (disambiguation.  In the United Kingdom, the opposition leader, William Gladstone, wrote a booklet denouncing what he called "the Bulgarian Horrors," and calling upon Britain to withdraw its support for Turkey. 
The strongest reaction came from Russia. Widespread sympathy for the Bulgarian cause led to a nationwide surge in patriotism on a scale comparable with the one during the Patriotic War of 1812. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. From autumn 1875, the movement to support the Bulgarian uprising involved all classes of Russian society. This was accompanied by sharp public discussions about Russian goals in this conflict: Slavophiles, led by Dostoevsky, saw in the impending war the chance to unite all Orthodox nations under Russia's helm, thus fulfilling what they believed was the historic mission of Russia, while their opponents, westerners, led by Turgenev, denied the importance of religion and believed that Russian goals should not be defense of Orthodoxy but liberation of Bulgaria. A Slavophile is an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev ( ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈgʲeɪvʲɪtɕ turˈgʲenʲɪf ( &ndash) was a Russian novelist and playwright 
A number of works by Russian painters and writers were dedicated to the Bulgarian uprising:
These terms meant that in case of war Russia would do the fighting and Austria would derive most of the advantage. Russia therefore made a final effort for a peaceful settlement.
Finally, on April 24, 1877, after nearly two years of futile negotiations, Russia declared war upon Turkey. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Russia declared war on the Ottomans on 24 April 1877. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ( Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922 beginning with Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Prussian Emperor Frederick II once predicted a war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia would be "a war between the one-eyed and the blind". Frederick II (Friedrich II January 24 1712 August 17 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740&ndash1786 from the  This, however, was all too common a problem for contemporaneous warfare, from the Crimean War to the Boer Wars. The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought Two Boer Wars were fought between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics the Orange Free State and the South African Republic
On April 12, 1877, Romania gave permission to the Russian troops to pass through its territory to attack the Turks, resulting in Turkish bombardments of Romanian towns on the Danube. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common On May 10, 1877, the Principality of Romania, which was under formal Turkish rule, declared its independence. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Romanian Principalities is a historical term designating the pre-modern principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, which alongside Transylvania form 
At the beginning of the war, the outcome was far from obvious. The Russians could send into the Balkans a larger army: about 300,000 troops were within reach. The Ottomans had about 200,000 troops on the Balkan peninsula, of which about 100,000 were assigned to fortified garrisons, leaving about 100,000 for the army of operation. The Ottomans had the advantage of being fortified, complete command of the Black Sea, and patrol boats along the Danube river. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj  They also possessed superior arms, including new British and American-made rifles and German-made artillery.
In the event, however, the Ottomans usually resorted to passive defense, leaving the strategic initiative to the Russians who, after making some mistakes, found a winning strategy for the war.
The Ottoman military command in Constantinople made poor assumptions of Russian intentions. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey They decided that Russians would be too lazy to march along the Danube and cross it away from the delta, and would prefer the short way along the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey This would be ignoring the fact that the coast had the strongest, best supplied and garrisoned Turkish fortresses. There was only one well manned fortress along the inner part of the river Danube, Vidin. Vidin (Видин is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. It was garrisoned only because the troops, led by Osman Pasha, had just taken part in crushing the Serbs in their recent war against the Ottoman Empire.
The Russian campaign was better planned, but it relied heavily on Turkish passivity; if the Turks had been more aggressive, the outcome of the campaign would have been very uncertain. A crucial Russian mistake was sending too few troops initially; the Danube was crossed in June by an expeditionary force of about 185,000, which was slightly less than the combined Turkish forces in the Balkans (about 200,000). After setbacks in July (at Pleven and Stara Zagora), the Russian military command realized it did not have the reserves to keep the offensive going and switched to a defensive posture. Stara Zagora (Стара Загора is the sixth largest city in Bulgaria, and one of the nationally important economic centres The Russians did not even have enough forces to blockade Plevna properly until late August, which effectively delayed the whole campaign for about two months.
At the start of the war, Russia and Romania destroyed all vessels along the Danube and mined the river, thus ensuring it could cross the Danube at any point it wanted. A naval mine is a self-contained Explosive device placed in water to destroy Ships or Submarines Unlike Depth charges mines are deposited This did not mean anything to the Turkish command. In June, a small Russian unit passed the Danube close to the delta, at Galaţi and marched towards Ruse. Galaţi (gaˈlaʦʲ Kalas Galatz Gałacz is a city in eastern Romania ( Moldavia) the capital city of Galaţi County on the banks of the Danube Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Русе) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria with a population of near 175600 This made the Ottomans even more confident that the big Russian force would come right through the middle of the Ottoman stronghold.
Then in July, the Russians, unobstructed, constructed a bridge across the Danube at Svishtov, and began crossing. The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj Svishtov (Свищов known as Ziştovi during Ottoman rule is a town in northern Bulgaria located in Veliko Tarnovo Province on the right bank of the There were no significant Ottoman troops in the area. The command in Constantinople ordered Osman Pasha to march in that direction and fortify the nearby fortress of Nikopol. Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey Nikopol (Никопол historically Νικόπολις Nicopolis is a town in northern Bulgaria, part of Pleven Province, on the right bank of the Danube On his way to Nikopol, Osman Pasha learned that the Russians had already secured it, and so moved to Plevna, now Pleven. Pleven (Плевен; historically known as Plevne in Turkish and Plevna in English) is the seventh most populous city in Bulgaria
Less than 24 hours after Osman Pasha fortified Plevna, numerous Russian forces under the charismatic "White General" Mikhail Skobelev attacked the city. Mikhail Dmitrievich Skobelev (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Ско́белев (– was a Russian general famous for his conquest of Central Asia and heroism during Osman Pasha organized a brilliant defence and repelled two Russian attacks with huge casualties on the Russian side. At that point, the sides were almost equal in numbers and the Russian army was very discouraged. Most analysts agree that a counter-attack would have allowed the Turks to gain control of and destroy the passing bridge. However, Osman Pasha had orders to stay fortified in Pleven, and so did not leave that fortress. Osman Nuri Paşa also Gazi Osman Pasha ( 1832 - April 5 1900) was an Ottoman Turkish Field marshal and the hero of the
Russia had no more troops to throw against Plevna, so they besieged it, and subsequently asked the Romanians to provide extra troops. Soon afterwards, Romanian forces crossed the Danube and joined the siege. On August 16, at Gorni-Studen, the armies around Pleven — renamed the West Armies — were placed under the command of the Romanian Prince Carol, aided by the Russian general Pavel Dmitrievich Zotov and the Romanian general Alexandru Cernat. Events 1384 - The Hongwu Emperor of Ming China, Emperor Dong hears a case of a couple who tore paper money bills while fighting Carol I of Romania, original name Prince Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, later simply of Hohenzollern (April 20th 1839 -
The Russians fought bravely to capture the Grivitza redoubts around Pleven , and kept them under their control until the very end of the siege. The siege of Pleven (July–December 1877) turned to victory only after Russian and Romanian forces cut off all supply routes to the fortified Turks. The Siege of Pleven (or Plevna) during the Russo-Turkish War 1877–78, saw a major struggle between the joint army of Romania and Russia With supplies running low Osman Pasha made an attempt to break the Russian siege in the direction of Opanets. On December 9, the Turks silently emerged, at dead of night, threw bridges over and crossed the Vit River, attacked on a 2-mile (3. Events 536 - Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city 2 km) front and broke through the first line of Russian trenches. Here they fought hand to hand and bayonet to bayonet, with little advantage to either side. Outnumbering the Turks almost 5 to 1, the Russians drove the Turks back across the Vit. Osman Pasha was wounded in the leg by a stray bullet, which killed his horse beneath him. Rumours of his death created panic. Making a brief stand, the Turks eventually found themselves driven back into the city, losing 5,000 men to the Russians' 2,000. The next day, Osman surrendered the city, the garrison and his sword to the Romanian colonel Mihail Cerchez. He was treated honorably, but his troops perished in the snows by the thousand as they straggled off into captivity. The more seriously wounded were left behind in their camp hospitals, only to be atrociously murdered by the Bulgarians. The Bulgarians (българи balgari) are a South Slavic people generally associated with the Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian language 
Russians under Field Marshal Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko succeeded in capturing the passes at the Stara Planina mountain which were crucial for maneuvering. For other meanings see Field Marshal (disambiguation Field marshal is a military officer rank Count Joseph Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gourko (the first name is also sometimes transliterated "Ossip" (Иосиф Владимирович Ромейко-Гурко (16&ndash28 The Balkan Mountain range ( Bulgarian and Стара планина Stara planina, "Old Mountain" Next, both sides fought a series of battles for Shipka Pass. Four battles were fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire for control over the crucial Shipka Pass during the Russo-Turkish War 1877-78. Gourko made several attacks on the Pass and eventually secured it. Shipka (Шипка " Rosa canina ") is a town in central Bulgaria, part of Kazanlak municipality Stara Zagora Province Ottoman troops spent much effort to recapture this important route, to use it to reinforce Osman Pasha in Pleven, but failed. Eventually Gourko led a final offensive which crushed the Ottomans around Shipka Pass. The Ottoman offensive against Shipka Pass is considered one of the major mistakes of the war, as other passes were virtually unguarded. At this time a huge number of Turkish troops stayed fortified along the Black Sea coast and engaged in very few operations.
Besides the Romanian Army (which mobilized 130,000 men, losing 10,000 of them to this war), a strong Finnish contingent and more than 12,000 volunteer Bulgarian troops (Opalchenie) from the local Bulgarian population as well as many hajduk detachments fought in the war on the side of the Russians. The Land Forces, Air Force and Naval Forces are collectively known as the Romanian Armed Forces ( Romanian: Forţele Armate Române The Grand Duchy of Finland (Magnus Ducatus Finlandiæ Великое княжество Финляндское ' Velikoe knjažestvo finljandskoe) was the Predecessor The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian Hajduk (or haiduk, haiduc, hayduck, hayduk) is a term most commonly referring to Outlaws highwaymen or Freedom fighters To express his gratitude to the Finnish battalion, the Tsar elevated the regiment on their return home to the name Old Guard Battalion, which they still hold. Leib Guard (Ле́йб-гва́рдия from German Leib, meaning body; cf Life Guards) were military units serving as personal guards
Stationed in the Caucasus in Georgia and Armenia was a Russian force composed of approximately 75,000 men under the command of Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov; his force stood against a Turkish army of 20,000 men led by General Ahmed Muhtar Pasha. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The history of Georgia began with the rise of the early Georgian states of Colchis and Iberia, which in c Russian Armenia ( Armenian: Ռուսական Հայաստան is the period of Armenia's history under Russian rule beginning from 1829 when Eastern Armenia A count is a Nobleman in European countries The word count comes from French comte, itself from Latin Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov ( Михаил Николаевич Муравьёв in Russian) ( April 19, 1845 - June 21 Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha (or Ahmed Muhtar Pasha) was a Turkish Ottoman Grand vizier and general  While the Russian army was better prepared for the fighting in the region, it lagged behind technologically in certain areas such as heavy artillery and was bested, for example, by the superior British artillery Muhtar Pasha had in his possession. Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927
Many of the commanders under Muravyov were of Armenian descent including generals Beybut Shelkovnikov, Mikhail Loris-Melikov, Ivan Lazarev and Arshak Ter-Ghukasov. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Shelkovnikov Beybut Martirosovich (Шелковников Бейбут Мартиросович (1837-1878 was a Russian general Count Mikhail Tarielovich Loris-Melikov (կոմս Միքայել Տարիելի Լորիս-Մելիքով граф Михаил Тариелович Лорис-Меликов ( &ndash It was the forces under Lieutenant-general Ter-Ghukasov, stationed near Yerevan, who began the first assault into Ottoman territory by capturing the town of Bayazid on April 27, 1877. Lieutenant General is a Military rank used in many countries The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan Doğubeyazıt ( Kurdish: Bazîd; Armenian: Դարոյնք Դարենից or Պակովան ( Latin transliteration: Daroynk‘ Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1877 ( MDCCCLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common  Capitalizing on Ter-Ghukasov's victory in Bayazid, Russian forces advanced further, taking the region of Ardahan on May 17; Russian units also besieged the region of Kars in the final week of May although Turkish reinforcements lifted the siege and repulsed them. Ardahan (Արդահան Ардаган არტაანი is a city in northeastern Turkey on the Georgian border Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province
In October 1877, the Turkish army launched a massive counteroffensive against Russian forces near Ajaria. By July 19 Muhtar Pasha's forces were holding the mountainous heights around Ajaria. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic.  In the following months, the Russian forces under General Lazarev attempted to take the region back but failed to do so at each turn. His forces were able to stave off another Turkish offensive in October and then advance forward to take the region on October 15. Events 533 - Byzantine General Belisarius makes his formal entry into Carthage, having conquered it from the Turkish casualties in the battle for Ajaria amounted to 5-6,000 dead or injured while over 8,500 became prisoners of war; the number of Russian dead was close to 15,500. 
Under pressure from the British and having suffered enormous losses (by some estimates about 200,000 men) Russia accepted the truce offered by Ottoman Empire on January 31, 1878, but continued to move towards Constantinople. Events 1504 - France cedes Naples to Aragon. 1606 - Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fawkes Year 1878 ( MDCCCLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Istanbul (historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see the other Names of Istanbul) is the largest city of Turkey
The British sent a fleet of battleships to intimidate Russia from entering the city, and Russian forces stopped at San Stefano. Yeşilköy (prior to 1926 known as San Stefano or Santo Stefano, Greek: Άγιος Στέφανος pronounced Ayios Stefanos Eventually Russia entered into a settlement under the Treaty of San Stefano on March 3, by which the Ottoman Empire would recognize the independence of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and the autonomy of Bulgaria. The Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at the end of the Russo-Turkish War 1877–78. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country Montenegro ( British English) Montenegrin / Serbian: PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE THE LANGUAGES WITHOUT CONSENSUS ON THE TALK PAGE! The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian
Alarmed by the extension of Russian power into the Balkans, the Great Powers later forced modifications of the treaty in the Congress of Berlin. A great power is a Nation or State that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale See also Berlin Conference (1884-85 re Africa and Berlin Conference of 1954 (Cold War The main change here was that Bulgaria would be split, according to earlier agreements among the Great Powers that precluded the creation of a large new Slavic state: the northern and eastern parts to become principalities as before (Principality of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia), though with different governors; and the Macedonian region, originally part of Bulgaria under San Stefano, would return to direct Ottoman administration. The Principality of Bulgaria (Княжество България was a state created as a vassal of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878 Eastern Rumelia or Eastern Roumelia (Източна Румелия Iztochna Rumeliya; Ottoman Turkish: Rumeli-i Şarkî; Modern Turkish 
Few of the cities and only a small part of the countryside in Bulgaria were scenes of protracted battle, so civilian losses due to battle were relatively few. Following the San Stefano treaty, the Russians set up their own governmental system in the new Bulgaria. Russians as well as Bulgarian nationalists conducted massacres of Muslims and Jews on the scale of the Ottoman massacre of Bulgarians in 1876. The April Uprising (Априлско въстание Aprilsko vastanie) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April  By the conclusion of the war, some 515,000 surviving Muslims, almost all Turkish, were forced from Bulgaria into other areas of the Ottoman Empire, never to return home.  These demographic changes which occurred then can still be seen today in the modern state of Bulgaria.
This war caused a division in the emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement which continues to this very day. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on Humanitarian and medical vehicles The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated Both Russia and the Ottoman Empire had signed the First Geneva Convention (1864), which made the Red Cross, a color reversal of the flag of neutral Switzerland, the sole emblem of protection for military medical personnel and facilities. The First Geneva Convention is one of several Geneva Conventions. The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on Humanitarian and medical vehicles The Flag of Switzerland consists of a red square with a bold equilateral white cross in the center Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation However, during this war the cross instead reminded the Ottomans of the Crusades; so they elected to replace the cross with the Red Crescent instead. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on Humanitarian and medical vehicles This ultimately became the symbol of the Movement's national societies in most Muslim countries, and was ratified as an emblem of protection by later Geneva Conventions in 1929 and again in 1949 (the current version). A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Geneva Conventions consist of four Treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland, that set the standards for International law for humanitarian
Iran, which neighbors both countries, considered them to be rivals, and probably considered the Red Crescent in particular to be an Ottoman symbol; except for the Red Crescent being centered and without a star, it is a color reversal of the Ottoman flag (and the modern Turkish flag). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The term Ottoman flag refers to any of the flags used by the ruling Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty. The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a Star on a Red background This appears to have led to their national society in the Movement being initially known as the Red Lion and Sun Society, using a red version of The Lion and Sun, a traditional Iranian symbol. The Red Lion and Sun Society of Iran was established in 1922 and admitted to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in 1923 The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on Humanitarian and medical vehicles The Lion and Sun motif ( shir o khorshid, fa شیر و خورشید is one of the better known emblems of Iran, and between 1964 and 1979 was an element in After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, Iran switched to the Red Crescent, but the Geneva Conventions continue to recognize the Red Lion and Sun as an emblem of protection. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed
The impact of this division later led to the Magen David Adom controversy, which was resolved partly through the addition of yet another emblem of protection, the Red Crystal, by Protocol III. The Magen David Adom (מגן דוד אדום abbr MDA or Mada) is Israel 's national emergency medical, disaster, Ambulance The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on Humanitarian and medical vehicles Protocol III is an amendment to the Geneva Conventions relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem
130 years Liberation of Pleven (Plevna)