The Russian Church or The Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: Русская Православная Церковь; or Московский Патриархат (the latter designation being another official name) since 1943; Поместная Российская Православная Церковь before the reinstitution in 1943), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who constitute an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Moscow, in communion with the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great ( Old Russian: Володимеръ Святославичь, c History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor Church Slavonic (also Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian) is the Liturgical language of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Metropolitans Maximus ( 1283 - 1305) St Peter ( 1308 - 1326) vacant Full communion is a term used in Christian Ecclesiology to describe the relationship of communion, with mutually recognized sharing of the same essential
The Russian Orthodox Temple is organized in a hierarchical structure. Every temple building and its attendees constitute a parish (приход). There are almost 28,000 parishes in the Temple, mostly in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. The Russian Temple numbers over 145 million members world wide, thus making it the second largest local temple after Rome.
All parishes in a geographical region belong to an eparchy (эпархия —equivalent to a Western diocese). Eparchies are governed by bishops (episkope or archierey). There are around 130 Russian Orthodox eparchies worldwide.
Further, some eparchies are organized into exarchates, or autonomous churches. Currently these include the Orthodox Temples of Belarusian exarchate; the Latvian, the Moldovan, and the Estonian Orthodox Temple of Moscow Patriarchate. The Latvian Orthodox Church (Latvijas Pareizticīgā Baznīca Латвийская Православная Церковь is a semi-autonomous Eastern Orthodox Relation with the Metropolis of Bessarabia In the lead up to the independence of Moldova the Romanian society and by the Romanian Orthodox Church encouraged unification with The Chinese and Japanese Orthodox Temples were granted full autonomy by Moscow Patriarchate, but this autonomy is not universally recognized. The Chinese Orthodox Church is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox church in China, which prior to the Chinese Cultural Revolution in 1966 was estimated
Smaller eparchies are usually governed by a single bishop. Larger eparchies, exarchates, and autonomous temples are governed by Metropolitan archbishop and sometimes also have one or more bishops assigned to them. In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or
The highest level of authority in the Temple is represented by the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, head of the Moscow Patriarchate. Russian Easter
It should be noted that although the Patriarch of Moscow does have extensive powers, unlike the pope, he is not considered infallible and does not have the direct authority over matters pertaining to faith. This authority is instead given to a council of bishops (pomestny sobor). Some of the most fundamental issues (such as the ones responsible for the Catholic-Orthodox split cannot be decided even on this level and have to be dealt with by a Ecumenical Council|council of representatives from all Eastern Orthodox temples. The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the The last time such a council was held was in 787.
Russian Orthodox Church buildings differ in design from many western-type churches. Firstly, their interiors are enriched with many sacramental objects including holy icons, which are hung on the walls. In addition, murals often cover most of the interior. Some of these images represent the Theotokos (who is particularly revered in the Russian Orthodox Church), saints, and scenes from their lives. Theotokos (Θεοτόκος translit Theotókos) is a title of Mary the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox,
Gold is the color which resembles the Heavenly Kingdom. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 It is also used to add a sense of indefinite depth to icons, which would otherwise be perceived as flat. Painted icons are intentionally composed in a two-dimensional, non-perspective fashion to allow equal viewing regardless of the placement, position, and/or angle of the observing person, as well as to emphasize that the depiction is primarily of a spiritual truth rather than of visible reality (which emphasis is also achieved through other iconographic techniques and traditions).
Most Russian Orthodox churches have an iconostasis, which separates the nave from the holy altar, and signifies the Heavenly Kingdom. In Eastern Christianity an iconostasis (the plural is iconostases) also called the Templon, is a wall of Icons and religious paintings For the Spanish town see Cella Spain Naos redirects here For other meanings see Naos (disambiguation. Covered with icons, the iconostasis is intended to stop physical sight, and allow the worshipers to achieve spiritual sight. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity.
Another remarkable feature of many Russian Orthodox Church is, the icon screen may reach all the way up into the dome (or domes). On the ceiling of many churches (inside the main dome) is the iconography of Christ as Pantokrator ("Ruler of All"). Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Such images emphasize Christ's humanity and divinity, signifying that Christ is a man and yet is also God without beginning or end.
There are no pews. Most churches are lit with candles rather than electric light. Virtually all churches have multiple votive candle stands in front of the icons. A votive candle is a small typically white or beeswax yellow Candle, originally intended to be burnt as a Votive offering in a religious Ceremony It is customary for worshippers to purchase candles in church stores, light them up, and place them on the stands. This ritual signifies a person's prayer to God, the Holy Mother, or to the saints or angels asking for help on the difficult path to salvation and to freedom from sin.
Sometimes the bottoms of crosses found in Russian Orthodox churches will be adorned with a crescent. The common misconception attributes these to the fact that in 1552, Tsar Ivan the Terrible conquered the city of Kazan which had been under the rule of Muslim Tatars, and in remembrance of this, he decreed that from henceforth the Islamic crescent be placed at the bottom of the crosses to signify the victory of the cross (Christianity) over the crescent (Islam). The Russo-Kazan Wars was a series of wars fought between the Khanate of Kazan and Muscovite Russia in the 15th and 16th centuries until Kazan was finally In fact, crescents on crosses were widespread during the pre-Mongolian period of Russian history and have no relation to the Islamic symbol. The crescent symbol actually is meant to resemble an anchor, which symbolizes the hope for salvation.
The Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, who is thought to have visited Scythia and Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Foundation by St Andrew The Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the Apostle Andrew, who is thought to have visited Scythia and In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey According to one of the legends, Andrew reached the future location of Kiev and foretold the foundation of a great Christian city. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular Event will occur in the Future in more certain terms than a forecast.  The spot where he reportedly erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral. The Saint Andrew's Church or sometimes the Cathedral of Saint Andrew (Андрiївська церква Андреевская церковь is a major Baroque
By the end of the first millennium AD, eastern Slavic lands started to come under the cultural influence of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 863-869, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius translated parts of the Bible into Old Church Slavonic language for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs. Events By Place Europe Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland (or 862 Events By Place Asia The Zanj (Black slaves from East Africa) provoked by mercilessly harsh labor conditions in the salt flats Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Saints Cyril and Methodius (Κύριλλος και Μεθόδιος Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two Byzantine Greek brothers born Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin to make sure old Cyrillic letters are displayed properly (For example instead of just Ѣ write Ѣ There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, circa 866-867 AD. The Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate is supposed to have happened in the 860s and was the first stage in the process of Christianization of the St Ignatius or Ignatios (Ιγνάτιος (c 797&ndash877 Patriarch of Constantinople from July 4, 847 to October 23, 858 Events By Place Asia Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes regent of Japan, starting the Fujiwara regentship Events By Place Byzantine Empire September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire.
By the mid-10th century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Greek and Byzantine priests, although paganism remained the dominant religion. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Princess Olga of Kiev was the first ruler of Kievan Rus to convert to Christianity, either in 945 or 957. Saint Olga (Ольга also called Olga Prekrasa (Ольга Прекраса or Olga the Beauty, Old Norse: Helga; born c Events By Place Asia The Buwayhid Dynasty takes control of Baghdad (it does not supplant the local caliphate) Events By Place Asia The Chandra Hindu Dynasty ends thus beginning a time of chaos in areas belonging to modern-day Mongolia. Her grandson, Vladimir the Great, made Kievan Rus' a Christian state.
As a result of the Christianization of Kievan Rus' in 988, Prince Vladimir I of Kiev officially adopted Byzantine Rite Christianity — the religion of the Eastern Roman Empire — as the state religion of Kievan Rus'. The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages Events By Place Africa Al-Azhar University is founded in Cairo, Egypt (the second oldest university in the world Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great ( Old Russian: Володимеръ Святославичь, c Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Русь romanised: Kievskaya Rus', rusʲ also written as Kyivan Rus′ (Ки́ївська Русь or Kievan This date is often considered the official birthday of the Russian Orthodox Church. Thus, in 1988, the Church celebrated its millennial anniversary. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) It therefore traces its apostolic succession through the Patriarch of Constantinople. "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.
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The Kievan church was originally a Metropolitanate of the Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Byzantine patriarch appointed the metropolitan who governed the Church of Rus'. Families of churches Eastern Christians have a shared tradition but they became divided ( Schism) during the early centuries of Christianity in disputes about The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents This is a general introduction to ecumenical councils For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages The East-West Schism, or the Great Schism, divided medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek and Western (Latin branches which later became known as the See also Christianity in Asia Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church during the first few centuries of Christianity the Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their roots back to the Apostles and Jesus Christ. Christianity in ancient and feudal Georgia According to tradition when the Apostles were sent out to preach the Gospel to the nations of the world the Apostle This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate, Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate, Ukrainian Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental The Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܩܕܝܫܬܐ ܘܫܠܝܚܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܪ̈ܝܐ ‘Ittā Qaddishtā wa-Shlikhāitā Qattoliqi The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world This article refers to Eastern Churches in full communion with the Holy See The Sign of the Cross, or Signum crucis in Latin is a ritual hand motion made by members of many but not all branches of Christianity. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) Hesychasm ( Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, "stillness rest quiet silence" is an Eremitic tradition of Prayer in An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa ( Latin for "Negative Way" and Apophatic theology - is a Theology that Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the Christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern In Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic theology theosis (written also theiosis, theopoiesis, theōsis Theoria (Greek) is Greek for Contemplation or 'the perception of Beauty regarded as a Moral faculty' ( OED) Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox Theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. The Philokalia ( Gk φιλοκαλείν "Love of the Beautiful" is a collection of texts by masters of the Eastern Orthodox, hesychast Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills distinct from theoretical knowledge Theotokos (Θεοτόκος translit Theotókos) is a title of Mary the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle Historical context The Energies of God are a central principle of Theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers Metousiosis is a Greek term () that means literally a change of (essence inner reality In Hierarchical Christian churches the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the Diocesan bishop or A patriarchate is the Office or jurisdiction of a Patriarch. A patriarch as the term is used here is either one of the highest-ranking "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Metropolitan's residence was originally located in Kiev. Kiev, also known as Kyiv ( Ukrainian:, Kyiv, ˈkɪjiw Russian:, Kiyev; see also Cities' alternative names) is the As Kiev was losing its political, cultural, and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimir in 1299; his successor, Metropolitan Peter moved the residence to Moscow in 1325. Maximus ( Максим in Russian) (? - 1305 was the Metropolitan of Kiev (1283-1305 who moved the see of Russian metropolitans to Vladimir Vladimir (Влади́мир) is a city in Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway Saint Peter Metropolitan of Moscow and all Russia ( Пётр in Russian) (? &mdash December 20, 1326) was the Russian metropolitan Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of
Following the tribulations of the Mongol invasion, the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Despite the politically motivated murders of Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of Tver, the Mongols were generally tolerant and even granted tax exemption to the Church. Mikhail Vsevolodovich (Михаил Всеволодович (1179? &ndash September 20, 1246) was the last prominent ruler of Kiev from the bloodline Mikhail Yaroslavich (Михаил Ярославич (1271 &ndash November 22 1318) also known as Michael of Tver, was a Prince of Tver (from Such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and Metropolitan Alexis helped the country to withstand years of Tatar oppression, and to expand both economically and spiritually. Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Сергий Радонежский Sergii Radonezhsky)—also translated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh was Saint Alexius ( Алексий or Aleksij in Russian) (before 1296 &ndash 1378 was Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia Tatars ( Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар sometimes spelled Tartars, are a Turkic -speaking ethnic group or multiple ethnic groups
The monastic reform of St. Sergius,which culminated in the foundation of the monastery known as Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra near Moscow, was one of the defining events of medieval Russian history. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. The Trinity Lavra of St Sergius (Тро́ице-Се́ргиева Ла́вра is the most important Russian Monastery and the spiritual The monastery became the setting for the unprecedented flourishing of transcendent, spiritual art, exemplified by the work of Andrey Rublev, among others. Andrei Rublev (Andrew Rublev Andrey Rublev Andrey Roublyov Russian: Андре́й Рублёв (c The followers of Sergius founded four hundred monasteries, thus greatly extending the geographical extent of his influence and authority.
The spiritual resurgence of the late 14th century, associated with the names of St. Sergius, the missionary Stephen of Perm and the writer Epiphanius the Wise, contributed to the consolidation of the Russian nation. Saint Stephen of Perm ( Russian: Стефан Пермский / Stefan Perms also spelled "Stephan" (1340 &ndash 1396 was a fourteenth century Missionary Epiphanius the Wise (d1420 was a Monk from Rostov, hagiographer and disciple of Saint Sergius of Radonezh. Lev Gumilev has observed that, having received the blessing of St. Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov (Лев Никола́евич Гумилёв ( October 1, 1912, St Sergius to make a stand against the Tatars, "the Suzdalians, Vladimirians, Rostovians, Pskovians went to the Kulikovo Field as representatives of their principalities but returned after the victory as Russians, although living in different towns", a dictum which has been endorsed by modern church functionaries. Kulikovo Field (Куликово поле or Kulikovo Pole lit The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries 
At the Council of Florence (1439), a group of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church leaders agreed upon terms of reunification of the two branches of Christianity. The Council of Florence (originally Council of Basel) was an Ecumenical Council of Bishops and other ecclesiastics of the Roman Catholic Church The Russian Prince Basil II of Moscow, however, rejected the concessions to the Catholic Church and forbade the proclamation of the acts of the Council in Russia in 1452, after a short-lived East-West reunion. Vasily II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) ( March 10, 1415 – March 27, 1462 Metropolitan Isidore was in the same year expelled from his position as an apostate. Isidore of Kiev, also known as Isidore of Thessalonica ( Russian: Исидор Ukrainian: Ісидор (b
In 1448, the Russian Church became independent from the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Metropolitan Jonas, installed by the Council of Russian bishops in 1448, was given the title of Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia. JOnAS is an open-source implementation of the Java EE Application server specification developed and hosted by the ObjectWeb consortium (ObjectWeb is a Metropolitans Maximus ( 1283 - 1305) St Peter ( 1308 - 1326) vacant This was just five years before the fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday May 29, 1453 (Julian Calendar From this point onward the Russian Orthodox Church saw Moscow as the Third Rome, legitimate successor to Constantinople, and the Patriarch of Moscow as head of the Russian Orthodox Church. The term Third Rome describes the idea that some European city or state is the successor to the legacy of the Roman Empire, with Byzantium being the "second
The reign of Ivan III and his successor was plagued by numerous heresies and controversies. Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич ( 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow also known as Ivan the Great One party, led by Nil Sorsky and Vassian Kosoy, called for secularisation of monastic properties. Nil Sorsky ( Russian: Нил Сорский, also Nilus of Sora and Nil Sorski; birth name Николай Майков or Nikolai Vassian Patrikeyev, also known as Vassian Kosoy ( Вассиан Патрикеев, Вассиан Косой in Russian; real name - They were oppugned by the influential Joseph of Volotsk, who defended ecclesiastical ownership of land and property. Joseph Volotsky, also known as Joseph of Volotsk, or Joseph of Volokolamsk ( Russian: Иосиф Волоцкий; secular name - Иван The sovereign's position fluctuated, but eventually he threw his support to Joseph. New sects sprang up, some of which showed a tendency to revert to Mosaic law: for instance, the archpriest Aleksei converted to Judaism after meeting a certain Zechariah the Jew. Halakha ( הלכה; alternative transliterations include Halocho and Halacha) is the collective body of Jewish Religious law "Forane" redirects here For the veterinary anesthetic see Isoflurane. Aleksei was a Russian Archpriest who became known for converting to Judaism. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Skariya the Jew is also the name used by Ivan III of Muscovy to refer to Zacharias de Ghisolfi.
Monastic life flourished in Russia, focusing on prayer and spiritual growth. The disciples of St. Sergius left the Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra to found hundreds of monasteries across Russia. Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Сергий Радонежский Sergii Radonezhsky)—also translated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh was The Trinity Lavra of St Sergius (Тро́ице-Се́ргиева Ла́вра is the most important Russian Monastery and the spiritual Some of the most famous monasteries were located in the Russian North, even as far north as Pechenga, in order to demonstrate how faith could flourish in the most inhospitable lands. The Extreme North or Far North (Крайний Север Дальний Север is a huge part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle The Pechenga Monastery (Печенгский монастырь and Petsamon luostari was for many centuries the northernmost Monastery in the world The richest landowners of medieval Russia included Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery, Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery and the Solovetsky Monastery. Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery (Иосифо-Волоколамский монастырь Волоцкий Успенский Иосифов монастырь in Russian Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery (Кирилло-Белозерский монастырь loosely translated in English as the St Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь was the greatest Citadel of Christianity in the Russian North before being turned into a special In the 18th century, the three greatest monasteries were recognized as lavras, while those subordinated directly to the Synod were labelled stauropegic. In Orthodox Christianity and certain other Eastern Christian communities Lavra or Laura (Λαύρα Cyrillic: Ла́вра originally meant Stauropegic, also rendered stavropegic, stauropegial, or stavropegial (from stauros, "cross" and pegio, "to affirm"
In the 1540s, Metropolitan Macarius codified Russian hagiography and convened a number of church synods, which culminated in the Hundred Chapter Synod of 1551. Macarius ( Макарий in Russian) ( 1482 - January 12, 1563) was a notable Russian cleric writer and Iconographer Hagiography ( is the study of Saints. A hagiography, from Greek (hağios (ἅγιος "holy" or "saint" and graphē (γραφή The Stoglavy Sobor (Стоглавый Собор (translated variously as Hundred Chapter Synod, Council of a Hundred Chapters, etc This assembly unified Church ceremonies and duties in the whole territory of Russia. At the demand of the Church hierarchy the government canceled the tsar's jurisdiction over ecclesiastics. Reinforced by these reforms, the Church felt strong enough to challenge the policies of the tsar. Philip of Moscow, in particular, decried many abuses of Ivan the Terrible, who eventually engineered his defrocking and murder. Saint Philip II of Moscow ( 1507 - December 12, 1569) was a Russian Orthodox Monk, who became Metropolitan of Moscow
During the reign of tsar Theodor I his brother-in-law Boris Godunov contacted the Ecumenical Patriarch, who "was much embarrassed for want of funds," with a view to establishing a patriarch see in Moscow. Fyodor I Ivanovich (Фёдор I Иванович (31 May 1557 - 16/17 January (NS 1598 was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584 - 1598 son Boris Fyodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в (c As a result of Godunov's efforts, Metropolitan Job of Moscow became in 1589 the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus', making the Russian Church autocephalous. Job ( Иов, Iov) also known as Job of Moscow (2nd quarter of the 16th century - June 19, 1607) was the first Patriarch Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose The four other patriarchs have recognized the Moscow Patriarchate as one of the five honourable Patriarchates. During the next half a century, when the tsardom was weak, the patriarchs (notably Germogen and Philaret) would help run the state along with (and sometimes instead of) the tsars. Hermogenes, or Germogen (before 1530 - February 17, 1612) was the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia from 1606 Fyodor Nikitich Romanov (Фёдор Никитич Романов (1553 — October 1, 1633) was a Russian Boyar who after temporary disgrace
At the urging of the Zealots of Piety, Patriarch Nikon resolved in 1652 to centralize power that had been distributed locally, while conforming Russian Orthodox rites and rituals to those of the Greek Orthodox Church, as interpreted by pundits from the Kiev Ecclesiastical Academy. The Zealots of Piety ( Russian Кружок ревнителей благочестия) was a circle of Ecclesiastical and Secular individuals Nikon ( Russian: Ни́кон, Old Russian Нїконъ) born Nikita Minin ( Никита Минин; May 7, 1605 The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy ( NaUKMA) (Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська академія» (НаУКМА For instance he insisted that Russian Christians cross themselves with three fingers, rather than the then-traditional two. This aroused antipathy among a substantial section of the believers who saw the changed rites as heresy, although the extent to which these changes can be regarded as minor or major ritual significance remains open to debate. After the implementation of these innovations at the church counsil of 1666-1667, the Church anathematized and suppressed those who acted contrary to them with the support of Muscovite state power. Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods later with evolving meanings it came to mean to be formally These traditionalists became known as "Old Believers" or "Old Ritualists". Introductory summary of origins In 1652 Nikon (1605 – 1681 Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658 introduced a number of ritual and textual Introductory summary of origins In 1652 Nikon (1605 – 1681 Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church from 1652 to 1658 introduced a number of ritual and textual
Although Nikon's far-flung ambitions of steering the country to a theocratic form of government precipitated his defrocking and exile, Tsar Aleksey deemed it prudent to uphold many of his innovations. Vasily Grigor'evich Perov (Василий Григорьевич Перов ( January 2 1834 (December 21 1833 Old Style - June 10 (May 29 Old Style 1882 Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (Алексей Михайлович ( March 9, 1629 (O During the Schism of the Russian Church, the Old Ritualists were separated from the main body of the Orthodox Church. Raskol (раско́л, meaning 'split' or ' schism ' was the event of splitting of the Russian Orthodox Church into an official church and the Old Believers Archpriest Avvakum Petrov and many other opponents of the church reforms were burned at the stake, either forcibly or voluntarily. Avvakum Petrov (Kondratiev (Аввакум Петров (Кондратьев ( November 20, 1620 or 1621 - April 14, 1682) was a Another prominent figure within the Old Ritualists' movement, Boyarynya Morozova, was starved to death in 1675. Feodosia Prokopiyevna Morozova (Феодосия Прокофьевна Морозова in Russian) (1632-1675 was one of the most well-known partisans of the Old Others escaped from the government persecutions to Siberia and other inhospitable lands, where they would live in semi-seclusion until the modern times. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving
With the ascension of Emperor Peter the Great to the throne of Russia (1682-1725), with his radical modernization of Russian government, army, dress, and manners, Russia became a formidable political power. Previously the Russian Tsars had exerted some influence on church operations however until Peter's reforms the church had been relatively free in its internal governance </ref>
In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the Russian Orthodox Church experienced phenomenal geographic expansion. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar, in accordance with the Anno Domini / Common Era numbering system In the following two centuries, missionary efforts stretched out across Siberia into Alaska, then into the United States at California. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. Eminent people on that missionary effort included St. Innocent of Irkutsk and St. Saint Innocent of Alaska ( August 26, 1797 - March 31, 1879) also known as Saint Innocent of Moscow was a Russian Orthodox Herman of Alaska. Saint Herman of Alaska (born 1756 or 1760 in Serpukhov, Russia – died December 13 or November 15, 1837 on Spruce Island In emulation of Stephen of Perm, they learned local languages and translated the gospels and the hymns. Saint Stephen of Perm ( Russian: Стефан Пермский / Stefan Perms also spelled "Stephan" (1340 &ndash 1396 was a fourteenth century Missionary Sometimes those translations required the invention of new systems of transcription.
In the aftermath of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, the Ottomans (supposedly acting on behalf of the Russian regent Sophia Alekseyevna) pressured the Patriarch of Constantinople into transferring the Metropoly of Kiev from the jurisdiction of Constantinople to that of Moscow. The Treaty of Pereyaslav (Pereiaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi (Pereyaslav The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Sophia Alekseyevna ( Anglicization of Russian Царевна Софья Алексеевна Sofia Alekseyevna) ( September 17 (27 1657 &ndash "Patriarch of Constantinople" redirects here For the institutional church itself see Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The controversial transfer brought millions of faithful and half a dozen dioceses under the pastoral and administrative care of the Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', leading to the significant Ukrainian domination of the Russian Orthodox Church, which continued well into the 18th century, with Feofan Prokopovich, Epifany Slavinetsky, Stephen Yavorsky and Demetrius of Rostov being among the most notable representatives of this trend. Feofan/Theophan Prokopovich ( June 18, 1681, Kiev &ndash September 19, 1736, St Epifany Slavinetsky (Епифаний Славинецкий (? - November 19, 1675, Moscow) was an ecclesiastical expert of the Russian Orthodox Stephen Yavorsky (1658-1722 was an Archbishop and statesman in the Russian Empire, of Ukrainian descent, one of the ablest coadjutors of Peter the Saint Dimitry of Rostov (sometimes Latinized as Demetrius) was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by 
In 1700, after Patriarch Adrian's death, Peter the Great prevented a successor from being named, and in 1721, following the advice of Feofan Prokopovich, Archbishop of Pskov, the Holy and Supreme Synod was established under Archbishop Stephen Yavorsky to govern the church instead of a single primate. Patriarch Adrian ( Адриан in Russian; real name - Андрей, or Andrey ( October 2, 1627 - October 16, 1700 Year 1721 ( MDCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called Stephen Yavorsky (1658-1722 was an Archbishop and statesman in the Russian Empire, of Ukrainian descent, one of the ablest coadjutors of Peter the This was the situation until shortly after the Russian Revolution of 1917, at which time the Local Council (more than half of its members being lay persons) adopted the decision to restore the Patriarchy. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them On November 5 (according to the Julian calendar) a new patriarch, Tikhon, was named through casting lots. Saint Tikhon of Moscow ( January 19, 1865 &ndash April 7, 1925) born Vasily Ivanovich Bellavin (Василий Иванович
The late 18th century saw the rise of starchestvo under Paisiy Velichkovsky and his disciples at the Optina Monastery. A starets (стáрец fem стáреца is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher Saint Paisius Velichkovsky or Wieliczkowski ( Paisie de la Neamţ in Romanian; Паисий Величковский in Russian; Паїсій The Optina Hermitage ( Russian: Оптина пустынь Optina Pustyn) is an Eastern Orthodox Monastery for men near Kozelsk This marked a beginning of a significant spiritual revival in the Russian Church after a lengthy period of westernization, personified by such figures as Demetrius of Rostov and Platon of Moscow. Saint Dimitry of Rostov (sometimes Latinized as Demetrius) was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Plato II or Platon II ( 29 June 1737 &ndash 11 November, 1812) was the Metropolitan of Moscow from 1775 Aleksey Khomyakov, Ivan Kireevsky, and other lay theologians with Slavophile leanings elaborated some key concepts of the renovated Orthodox doctrine, including that of sobornost. Aleksey Stepanovich Khomyakov ( Алексей Степанович Хомяков) ( May 1, 1804 – September 23/25 1860 was a Russian religious Ivan Vasilievich Kireevsky ( 3 April, 1806 — 23 June, 1856) was a Russian literary critic and philosopher who together with A Slavophile is an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history Sobornost (Russian definition Spiritual community of many jointly living people The resurgence of Eastern Orthodoxy was reflected in Russian literature, e. g. , the figure of Starets Zosima in Dostoevsky's Brothers Karamazov. A starets (стáрец fem стáреца is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, The Brothers Karamazov (Братья Карамазовы /'bratʲjə karə'mazəvɨ/ is the final Novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky
During the final decades of the imperial order in Russia many educated Russians sought to return to the Church and revitalize their faith. Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Drježdźany is the Capital city of the German No less evident were non-conformist paths of spiritual searching known as "God-Seeking". Writers, artists, and intellectuals in large numbers were drawn to private prayer, mysticism, spiritualism, theosophy, and Eastern religions. Spiritualism is a Religion founded in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772 This article is about the philosophy introduced by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky A fascination with elemental feeling, with the unconscious and the mythic, proliferated along with visions of coming catastrophe and redemption.
The visible forms of God-Seeking were extensive. A series of 'Religious-Philosophical Meetings' were held in St. Petersburg in 1901-1903, bringing together prominent intellectuals and clergy to explore together ways to reconcile the Church with the growing of undogmatic desire among the educated for spiritual meaning in life. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Especially after 1905, various religious societies arose, though much of this religious upheaval was informal: circles and salons, séances, private prayer. Some clergy also sought to revitalize Orthodox faith, most famously the charismatic Father John of Kronstadt, who, until his death in 1908 (though his followers remained active long after), emphasized Christian living and sought to restore fervency and the presence of the miraculous in liturgical celebration. Saint John of Kronstadt (Иоанн Кронштадтский ( October 19, 1829, Sura Arkhangelsk &ndash December 20, 1908, In 1909, a sensation-creating volume of essays appeared under the title Vekhi ("Landmarks" or "Signposts"), authored by a group of leading left-wing intellectuals, including Sergei Bulgakov, Peter Struve, and former Marxists, who bluntly repudiated the materialism and atheism that had dominated the thought of the intelligentsia for generations as leading inevitably to failure and moral disaster. Vekhi ("Landmarks" or "Signposts" is a collection of seven essays published in Russia in 1909 Fr Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov (Сергей Николаевич Булгаков ( Livny - July 12, 1944, Paris) was a Russian Peter (or Pyotr) Berngardovich Struve ( January 26, 1870, Perm - February 22, 1944, Paris) was a Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
One sees a similarly renewed vigor and variety in religious life and spirituality among the lower classes, especially after the upheavals of 1905. Among the peasantry we see widespread interest in spiritual-ethical literature and non-conformist moral-spiritual movements; an upsurge in pilgrimage and other devotions to sacred spaces and objects (especially icons); persistent beliefs in the presence and power of the supernatural (apparitions, possession, walking-dead, demons, spirits, miracles, and magic); the renewed vitality of local "ecclesial communities" actively shaping their own ritual and spiritual lives, sometimes in the absence of clergy, and defining their own sacred places and forms of piety; and the proliferation of what the Orthodox establishment branded as 'sectarianism', including both non-Orthodox Christian denominations, notably Baptists, and various forms of deviant popular Orthodoxy and mysticism. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. 
In 1914 in Russia, there were 55,173 Russian Orthodox churches and 29,593 chapels, 112,629 priests and deacons, 550 monasteries and 475 convents with a total of 95,259 monks and nuns. Year 1914 ( MCMXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year A church building is a Building or Structure whose primary purpose is to facilitate the meeting of a church. A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Deacon is a role in the Christian Church that is generally associated with service of some kind but which varies among theological and denominational traditions This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism. An abbey (from Latin abbatia derived from Syriac abba "father" is a Christian Monastery or
The year 1917 was a major turning point for the history of Russia, and also the Russian Orthodox Church. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (Алексей Михайлович ( March 9, 1629 (O Saint Philip II of Moscow ( 1507 - December 12, 1569) was a Russian Orthodox Monk, who became Metropolitan of Moscow Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Russian empire was dissolved and the Tsarist government - which had granted the Church numerous privileges - was overthrown. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya After a few months of political turmoil, the Bolsheviks took power in October 1917 and declared a separation of church and state. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Separation of church and state is a Political and Legal Doctrine that Government and religious institutions are to be kept separate Thus the Russian Orthodox Church found itself without official state backing for the first time in its history. One of the first decrees of the new Communist government (issued in January 1918) declared freedom of "religious and anti-religious propaganda". Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This led to a marked decline in the power and influence of the Church. The Church was also caught in the crossfire of the Russian Civil War that began later the same year, and many leaders of the Church supported what would ultimately turn out to be the losing side (the White movement). The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard
The Russian Orthodox Church supported the White Army in the Russian Civil War (see White movement) after the October Revolution. The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard The Russian Civil War (1917–1923 was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed The White movement (Beloie Dvijenie Белое движение whose military arm is known as the White Army (Belaia Armia Белая Армия or White Guard This may have further strengthened the Bolshevik animus against the church.
Even before the end of the civil war and the establishment of the Soviet Union, the Russian Orthodox Church came under pressure from the secular Communist government. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Secularity ( adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from Religion. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Soviet government stood on a platform of antireligion, viewing the church as a "counter-revolutionary" organization and an independent voice with a great influence in society. Antireligion is opposition to Religion. Antireligion is distinct from Atheism, although many antireligionists are also atheists While the Soviet Union officially claimed religious tolerance, in practice the government discouraged organized religion and did much to remove religious influence from Soviet society. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Before and after the October Revolution of November 7, 1917 (October 25 Old Calendar) there was a movement within the Soviet Union to unite all of the people of the world under Communist rule (see Communist International). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Comintern ( Com munist Intern ational also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organisation founded in Moscow This included the Eastern European bloc countries as well as the Balkan States. Since some of these Slavic states tied their ethnic heritage to their ethnic churches, both the peoples and their church were targeted by the Soviets. 
The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in the schools. Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organized religions were never outlawed. Some actions against Orthodox priests and believers along with execution included torture being sent to prison camps, labour camps or mental hospitals. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally The Gulag was the government agency that administered the penal labor camps of the Soviet Union. Sharashka (sometimes Sharaga or Sharazhka, шара́шка) was an informal name for secret Research and development In the Soviet Union, Psychiatry was used for punitive purposes  Many Orthodox (along with peoples of other faiths) were also subjected to psychological punishment or torture and mind control experimentation in order to force them give up their religious convictions. A psychological punishment is a type of punishment that relies not or only in secondary order on the actual harm inflicted (such as Corporal punishments or fines but on psychological Mind control is a broad range of psychological tactics able to subvert an individual's control of his own thinking, behavior emotions or decisions 
Thousands of churches and monasteries were taken over by the government and either destroyed or converted to secular use. It was impossible to build new churches. Practising Orthodox Christians were restricted from prominent careers and membership in communist organizations (the party, the Komsomol). Komsomol (Комсомол is a Syllabic abbreviation word from the Russian Kom munisticheskiy So yuz Mol odiozhi (Коммунистический Anti-religious propaganda was openly sponsored and encouraged by the government, which the Church was not given an opportunity to publicly respond to. The government youth organization, the Komsomol, encouraged its members to vandalize Orthodox Churches and harass worshippers. Komsomol (Комсомол is a Syllabic abbreviation word from the Russian Kom munisticheskiy So yuz Mol odiozhi (Коммунистический Seminaries were closed down, and the church was restricted from using the press.
The history of Orthodoxy (and other religions) under Communism was not limited to this story of repression and secularization. Bolshevik policies toward religious belief and practice tended to vacillate over time between, on the one hand, a utopian determination to substitute secular rationalism for what they considered to be an unmodern, "superstitious" worldview and, on the other, pragmatic acceptance of the tenaciousness of religious faith and institutions. In any case, religious beliefs and practices did persist, in the domestic and private spheres but also in the scattered public spaces allowed by a state that recognized its failure to eradicate religion and the political dangers of an unrelenting culture war. 
In November 1917, following the collapse of the tsarist government, a council of the Russian Orthodox church reestablished the patriarchate and elected the metropolitan Tikhon as patriarch. But the new Soviet government soon declared the separation of church and state and nationalized all church-held lands. These administrative measures were followed by brutal state-sanctioned persecutions that included the wholesale destruction of churches and the arrest and execution of many clerics. The Russian Orthodox church was further weakened in 1922, when the Renovated Church, a reform movement supported by the Soviet government, seceded from Patriarch Tikhon's church (also see the Josephites and the Russian True Orthodox Church), restored a Holy Synod to power, and brought division among clergy and faithful. "Josephites" (Иосифляне so-called after the name of the Metropolitan Joseph (Ivan Petrovykh of Petrograd – leader of resistance of the True The Russian True Orthodox Church is a denomination that separated from the Russian Orthodox Church during the early years of Communist rule in the Soviet Union
In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed. 
The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the Russian Orthodox Church, which had the largest number of faithful. Nearly all of its clergy, and many of its believers, were shot or sent to labor camps. Theological schools were closed, and church publications were prohibited.
The sixth sector of the OGPU, led by Eugene Tuchkov, began aggressively arresting and executing bishops, priests, and devout worshippers, such as Metropolitan Veniamin in Petrograd in 1922 for refusing to accede to the demand to hand in church valuables (including sacred relics). The State Political Directorate was the Secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ( RSFSR) and the Soviet Union from 1922 until Eugene Tuchkov, or Evgeniy Aleksandrovich Tuchkov (in Russian Евгегний Александрович Тучков was the head of the anti-religious arm of the Soviet OGPU Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. In the period between 1927 and 1940, the number of Orthodox Churches in the Russian Republic fell from 29,584 to less than 500. Between 1917 and 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. Of these, 95,000 were put to death, executed by firing squad. Many thousands of victims of persecution became recognized in a special canon of saints known as the "new martyrs and confessors of Russia". The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr ( Greek: νεο, neo, the prefix for "new" and μάρτυς, martys, "witness"
Patriarch Tikhon anathematized the communist government, which further antagonized relations. Saint Tikhon of Moscow ( January 19, 1865 &ndash April 7, 1925) born Vasily Ivanovich Bellavin (Василий Иванович When Tikhon died in 1925, the Soviet authorities forbade patriarchal elections to be held. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Patriarchal locum tenens (acting Patriarch) Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky, 1887-1944), going against the opinion of a major part of the church's parishes, in 1927 issued a declaration accepting the Soviet authority over the church as legitimate, pledging the church's cooperation with the government and condemning political dissent within the church. Patriarch Sergius I ( Сергий I; born Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky (Иван Николаевич Страгородский January 11, 1867 Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. By this he granted himself with the power that he, being a deputy of imprisoned Metropolitan Peter and acting against his will, had no right to assume according to the XXXIV Apostolic canon, which led to a split with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia abroad and the Russian True Orthodox Church (Russian Catacomb Church) within the Soviet Union, as they remained faithful to the Canons of the Apostles, declaring the part of the church led by Metropolitan Sergius schism, sometimes coined as sergianism. St Hieromartyr Peter of Krutitsy (Священномученик Петр Крутицкий born Petr Fyodorovich Polyansky (Петр Федорович Полянский The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей ru Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey The Russian True Orthodox Church is a denomination that separated from the Russian Orthodox Church during the early years of Communist rule in the Soviet Union Due to this canonical disagreement it is disputed which church has been the legitimate successor to the Russian Orthodox Church that had existed before 1925. Year 1925 ( MCMXXV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  In 1927, in order to secure the survival of the church, Metropolitan Sergius formally expressed his "loyalty" to the Soviet government and henceforth refrained from criticizing the state in any way. This attitude of loyalty, however, provoked more divisions in the church itself: inside Russia, a number of faithful opposed Sergius, and abroad, the Russian metropolitans of America and Western Europe severed their relations with Moscow.
After Nazi Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, Joseph Stalin revived the Russian Orthodox Church to intensify patriotic support for the war effortcite. A citation is a reference to a source (not always the original source published or unpublished(citation needed On September 4, 1943, Metropolitans Sergius (Stragorodsky), Alexius (Simansky) and Nikolay (Yarushevich) received a permission to convene a council on September 8, 1943, that elected Sergius Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Metropolitans Maximus ( 1283 - 1305) St Peter ( 1308 - 1326) vacant This is considered by some violation of the XXX Apostolic canon, as no church hierarch could be consecrated by secular authorities. The Apostolic Canons or Ecclesiastical Canons of the Same Holy Apostles is a collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees (eighty-five in the Eastern, fifty in  A new patriarch was elected, theological schools were opened, and thousands of churches began to function. The Moscow Theological Academy Seminary, which had been closed since 1918, was re-opened. Slavic Greek Latin Academy ( Славяно-греко-латинская академия in Russian) was the first Higher education establishment in Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
Between 1945 and 1959 the official organization of the church was greatly expanded, although individual members of the clergy were occasionally arrested and exiled. The number of open churches reached 25,000. By 1957 about 22,000 Russian Orthodox churches had become active. But in 1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. By 1985 fewer than 7,000 churches remained active. Members of the church hierarchy were jailed or forced out, their places taken by docile clergy, many of whom had ties with the KGB.
A new and widespread persecution of the church was subsequently instituted under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev. A second round of repression, harassment and church closures took place between 1959 and 1964 during the rule of Nikita Khrushchev. The year 1959 ( MCMLIX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (April 17 1894 – September 11 1971 served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 following
The Church and the government remained on unfriendly terms until 1988. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) In practice, the most important aspect of this conflict was that openly religious people could not join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which meant that they could not hold any political office. However, among the general population, large numbers remained religious.
Some Orthodox believers and even priests took part in the dissident movement and became prisoners of conscience. A dissident, broadly defined is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine policy or institution Prisoner of conscience (POC is a term coined by the human rights group Amnesty International in the early 1960s The Orthodox priests Gleb Yakunin, Sergiy Zheludkov and others spent years in Soviet prisons and exile for their efforts in defending freedom of worship. Gleb Palych Yakunin (Глеб Павлович Якунин born March 4 1934) is Russian priest and Dissident who fought for the Freedom  Among the prominent figures of that time was Father Aleksandr Men. Father Alexander Vladimirovich Men (Александр Владимирович Мень 20 January Although he tried to keep away from practical work of the dissident movement intending to better fulfil his calling as a priest, there was a spiritual link between Fr Aleksander and many of the dissidents. For some of them he was a friend, for others - a godfather, for many (including Yakunin) - spiritual father. Gleb Palych Yakunin (Глеб Павлович Якунин born March 4 1934) is Russian priest and Dissident who fought for the Freedom
By 1987 the number of functioning churches in the Soviet Union had fallen to 6893 and the number of functioning monasteries to just 18. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 In 1987 in the Russian SFSR, between 40% and 50% of newborn babies (depending on the region) were baptized and over 60% of all deceased received Christian funeral services. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar)
Beginning in the late 1980s, under Mikhail Gorbachev, the new political and social freedoms resulted in many church buildings being returned to the church, to be restored by local parishioners. (Гла́сность)is literally defined as publicity and sometimes figuratively interpreted as "tipping a vase to let someone see into the vase but not the bottom of the vase" A pivotal point in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church came in 1988 - the millennial anniversary of the Baptism of Kievan Rus'. Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages Throughout the summer of that year, major government-supported celebrations took place in Moscow and other cities; many older churches and some monasteries were reopened. An implicit ban on religious propaganda on state TV was finally lifted. For the first time in the history of Soviet Union, people could see live transmissions of church services on television.
In the words of those who were allowed to view the KGB archives in the early 1990s, the church was "practically a subsidiary, a sister company of the KGB". KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty 
The Russian Orthodox Church is the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world and has seen a resurgence in activity and vitality since the end of Soviet rule. Up to 90% of ethnic Russians and a significant number of Belarusians and Ukrainians identify themselves as Russian Orthodox, although the identification is sometimes more of a cultural rather than a religious one. The Russian people (Русские— Russkie) are an East Slavic Ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries Belarusians or Belorussians (Беларусы Biełarusy previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorusians, also Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Weekly church attendance, however, remains relatively low, though it has increased since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 In December 2007, the Church had 142 dioceses including 27,942 parishes served by 26,540 priests and 3,301 deacons. December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year It began on a Saturday and 31 days later ended on a Monday There were 193 bishops, 732 monasteries, two universities, five theological academies, and 75 theological schools in the territory of the former Soviet Union and has an established presence in other countries, too. Recently, the government returned many church buildings to the Church, often in a deteriorated condition.
There have been difficulties in the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Vatican, especially since 2002, when Pope John Paul II created a Catholic diocesan structure for Russian territory. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Pope Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". The leadership of the Russian Church saw this action as a throwback to prior attempts by the Vatican to proselytize the Russian Orthodox faithful to become Roman Catholic. Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion and particularly another religion This point of view is based upon the stance of the Russian Orthodox Church (and the Eastern Orthodox Church) that the Church of Rome is in schism, after breaking off from the Orthodox Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The Catholic Church, on the other hand, while acknowledging the primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia, believes that the small Catholic minority in Russia, in continuous existence since at least the 18th century, should be served by a fully developed church hierarchy with a presence and status in Russia, just as the Russian Orthodox Church is present in other countries (including constructing a cathedral in Rome, near the Vatican). Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory
The issue of encroachment by other Christian denominations into Russia is a particularly sensitive one to many members of the Russian Orthodox Church. They argue that the Orthodox Church now finds itself in a weakened position as a result of decades of secular Communist rule, and is therefore unable to compete on an equal footing with Western Churches. Thus, proselytizing by mostly foreign-based Catholics, Protestant denominations, and by many non-traditional sects can be seen as taking unfair advantage of the still-recovering condition of the Russian Church. Catholic is an Adjective derived from the Greek adjective '' / 'katholikos' meaning "whole" or "complete". Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. On the other hand, many of these groups have argued that the position of Russian Orthodoxy is today no weaker than that of most Western European Churches. Smaller religious movements, particularly Baptists and members of other Protestant denominations, that have become active in Russia in the past decade claim that the state provides unfair support to the Orthodox Church and suppresses others, referring to the 1997 Russian law, under which those religious organizations that could not provide official proof of their existence for the preceding 15 years were seriously restricted in their rights and ability to worship. Baptist is a term describing individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations is a Russian Law passed in 1997, signed by Boris Yeltsin. The law was formally presented as a way to combat destructive cults, but was condemned by representatives of other religions and human rights organizations as being written in a manner that explicitly favored the Russian Orthodox Church, as the Soviet Union had prohibited the establishment of other religions. " Destructive cult " is a term used to refer to religions and other groups which have caused harm to their own members or to others Consequently, this law gave full rights only to a small number of "traditional" religions, such as Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism.
Due to its deep cultural roots, many members of the Russian government are keen to display their respect for the Church. It is common for the President of Russia to publicly meet with the Patriarch on Church holidays such as Easter (Paskha or Пасха in Russian). Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Meetings with representatives of Islam and Buddhism also occur, though less frequently.
The Russian Orthodox Church should not be confused with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (also known as the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad, or ROCOR), based in New York. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей ru Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad was formed by Russian communities outside then-Communist Russia who refused to recognize the authority of the Russian Orthodox Church, as they believed it had fallen under the influence of the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction The two churches have reconciled as of May 17, 2007, and the ROCOR is now a self-governing part of the Russian Orthodox Church. The reconciliation was not without controversy, with about 20 ROCOR parishes and one bishop refusing to accept the reunion with the Moscow Patriarchate, and forming a schismatic jurisdiction.
There has been increasing friction between the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church. A recent example of such friction was seen at the meeting in Ravenna in early October 2007 of participants in the Orthodox-Catholic Dialogue. The representative of the Russian Orthodox Church, Bishop Hilarion Alfeyev, walked out of the meeting due to the presence of representatives from the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church which is in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Hilarion (Alfeyev Bishop of Vienna and Austria, is a hierarch of the Moscow Patriarchate, Theologian, church historian composer The Church of Estonia or Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church ( Eesti Apostlik-Õigeusu Kirik) is an autonomous Orthodox church whose primate At the meeting, prior to the departure of the Russian delegation, there were also substantive disagreements about the wording of a proposed joint statement among the Orthodox representatives.  After the departure of the Russian delegation, the remaining Orthodox delegates approved the form which had been advocated by the representatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.  The disagreement occurred because Moscow insists that Estonia is its canonical territory for historical reasons, and has incorporated Orthodox parishes in Estonia into the Orthodox Church of Estonia, a self-governing part of the Church of Russia. The Estonian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate ( Moskva Patriarhaadi Eesti Őigeusu Kirik) is a semi-autonomous diocese of the Patriarchate of Moscow whose primate The Ecumenical Patriarchate, however, has set-up its own jurisdiction in Estonia, called the Estonian Apostolic Orthodox Church, an action that prompted the Holy Synod of the Church of Russia to announce, in 2000, that it will not take part in any pan-Orthodox meeting where members of the EAOC are present. The Ecumenical See's representative in Ravenna said that Hilarion's position "should be seen as an expression of authoritarianism whose goal is to exhibit the influence of the Moscow Church. But like last year in Belgrade, all Moscow achieved was to isolate itself once more since no other Orthodox Church followed its lead, remaining instead faithful to Constantinople. "
Russian Orthodox theologians, point out that since more that 80% of Russians affiliate with the Church to some degree, it has a right to enjoy a special place in Russia's society, both as the majority religion and because of its historical role in Russia's development as a nation.
Russian traders settled in Alaska during the 1700s. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей ru Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey In 1740, a Divine Liturgy was celebrated on board a Russian ship off the Alaskan coast. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. In 1794, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries -- among them Saint Herman of Alaska -- to establish a formal mission in Alaska. Saint Herman of Alaska (born 1756 or 1760 in Serpukhov, Russia – died December 13 or November 15, 1837 on Spruce Island Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Their missionary endeavors contributed to the conversion of many Alaskan natives to the Orthodox faith. A diocese was established, whose first bishop was Saint Innocent of Alaska. Saint Innocent of Alaska ( August 26, 1797 - March 31, 1879) also known as Saint Innocent of Moscow was a Russian Orthodox The headquarters of this North American Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church was moved from Alaska to California around the mid-19th century.
It was moved again in the last part of the same century, this time to New York. This transfer coincided with a great movement of Greek-Catholics to the Orthodox Church in the eastern United States. This movement, which increased the numbers of Orthodox Christians in America, resulted from a conflict between John Ireland, the politically powerful Roman Catholic Archbishop of Saint Paul, Minnesota; and Alexis Toth, an influential Ruthenian Catholic priest. John Ireland ( September 11, 1838 &ndash September 25, 1918) was the third bishop and first archbishop of Saint Paul Minnesota In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated Bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and others this means that they lead The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis (Latin Archidioecesis Pauloplitana et Minneapolitana) is an ecclesiastical territory or Diocese Saint Alexis Toth (or Alexis of Wilkes-Barre) (1853-1909 was a Russian Orthodox church leader in the American Mid-West The Ruthenian Catholic Church is a Sui iuris (ie self-governing Catholic Church (see Particular Church) which uses the Divine Liturgy of Archbishop Ireland's refusal to accept Fr. Toth's credentials as a priest induced Fr. Toth to convert to the Orthodox Church, and further resulted in the conversion of tens of thousands of other Greek-Catholics in North America to the Orthodox Church, under his guidance and inspiration. For this reason, Ireland is sometimes ironically remembered as the "Father of the Orthodox Church in America. " These Greek-Catholics were received into Orthodoxy into the existing North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time large numbers of Greeks and other Orthodox Christians were also immigrating to America. At this time all Orthodox Christians in North America were united under the omophorion (Church authority and protection) of the Patriarch of Moscow, through the Russian Church's North American diocese. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic liturgical tradition the omophorion ( Greek:; Slavonic: омофоръ omofor) The unity was not merely theoretical, but was a reality, since there was then no other diocese on the continent. Under the aegis of this diocese, which at the turn of the century was ruled by Bishop (and future Patriarch) Tikhon, Orthodox Christians of various ethnic backgrounds were ministered to, both non-Russian and Russian; a Syro-Arab mission was established in the episcopal leadership of Saint Raphael of Brooklyn, who was the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America. Saint Tikhon of Moscow ( January 19, 1865 &ndash April 7, 1925) born Vasily Ivanovich Bellavin (Василий Иванович Saint Raphael of Brooklyn ( November 20, 1860 – February 27, 1915) also known as Father Raphael, was born as Raphael Hawaweeny (
On December 28, 2006, it was officially announced that the Act of Canonical Communion would finally be signed between the ROC and ROCOR. Events 1065 - Westminster Abbey is Consecrated. 1308 - The reign of Emperor Hanazono, Emperor of Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow Patriarchate reunited the two branches of the Russian Orthodox Church: the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR The signing took place on the May 17, 2007, followed immediately by a full restoration of communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, celebrated by a Divine Liturgy at the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, at which the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexius II and the First Hierarch of ROCOR concelebrated for the first time. Events 1521 - Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham, is executed for Treason. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Full communion is a term used in Christian Ecclesiology to describe the relationship of communion, with mutually recognized sharing of the same essential The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Хра́м Христа́ Спаси́теля is the tallest Eastern Orthodox Church in the world Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of
Under the Act, the ROCOR remains a self-governing entity within the Church of Russia. It is independent in its administrative, pastoral, and property matters. It continues to be governed by its Council of Bishops and its Synod, the Council's permanent executive body. The First-Hierarch and bishops of the ROCOR are elected by its Council and confirmed by the Patriarch of Moscow. ROCOR bishops participate in the Council of Bishops of the entire Russian Church.
In response to the signing of the act of canonical communion, Bishop Agafangel, and some parishes and clergy broke communion with ROCOR, and established a separate jurisdiction. Some others opposed to the Act have joined themselves to other Greek Old Calendarist groups. Greek Old Calendarists ( Greek: Παλαιοημερολογίτες Paleoimerologites) are groups that separated from the Orthodox Church of Greece 
The Russian Orthodox Church was devastated by the Bolshevik Revolution. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution One of its effects was a flood of refugees from Russia to the United States, Canada, and Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Revolution of 1918 severed large sections of the Russian church--dioceses in America, Japan, and Manchuria, as well as refugees in Europe--from regular contacts with the mother church.
In 1920 Patriarch Tikhon issued an ukase (decree) that dioceses of the Church of Russia that were cut off from the governance of the highest Church authority (i. Year 1920 ( MCMXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920 of the Gregorian calendar Saint Tikhon of Moscow ( January 19, 1865 &ndash April 7, 1925) born Vasily Ivanovich Bellavin (Василий Иванович Ukase (указ ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the Tsar, government or a religious leader ( Patriarch) that had the force of e. the Patriarch) should continue independently until such time as normal relations with the highest Church authority could be resumed; and on this basis, the North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church (known as the "Metropolia") continued to exist in a de facto autonomous mode of self-governance. The financial hardship that beset the North American diocese as the result of the Russian Revolution resulted in a degree of administrative chaos, with the result that other national Orthodox communities in North America turned to the Churches in their respective homelands for pastoral care and governance.
A group of bishops who had left their sees in Russia gathered in Sremski-Karlovci, Yugoslavia, and adopted a clearly political monarchist stand. The group further claimed to speak as a synod for the entire "free" Russian church. This group, which to this day includes a sizable portion of the Russian emigration, was formally dissolved in 1922 by Patriarch Tikhon, who then appointed metropolitans Platon and Evlogy as ruling bishops in America and Europe, respectively. Both of these metropolitans continued to entertain relations intermittently with the synod in Karlovci, but neither of them accepted it as a canonical authority. Between the World Wars the Metropolia coexisted and at times cooperated with an independent synod later known as Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR), sometimes also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей ru Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey The two groups eventually went their separate ways. ROCOR, which moved its headquarters to North America after the Second World War, claimed but failed to establish jurisdiction over all parishes of Russian origin in North America. The Metropolia, as a former diocese of the Russian Church, looked to the latter as its highest church authority, albeit one from which it was temporarily cut off under the conditions of the communist regime in Russia.
After World War II the patriarchate of Moscow made unsuccessful attempts to regain control over these groups. After resuming communication with Moscow in early 1960s, and being granted autocephaly in 1970, the Metropolia became known as the Orthodox Church in America. Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America.   However, recognition of this autocephalous status is not universal, as the Ecumenical Patriarch (under whom is the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America) and some other jurisdictions have not officially accepted it. The reasons for this are complex; nevertheless the Ecumenical Patriarch and the other jurisdictions remain in communion with the OCA. The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common The patriarchate of Moscow thereby renounced its former canonical claims in the United States and Canada; it also acknowledged an autonomous church established in Japan that same year. Currently both the OCA and ROCOR are now in communion with the Patriarch of Moscow.
|Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Eastern Orthodoxy|
|Four Ancient Patriarchates: Constantinople | Alexandria | Antioch | Jerusalem|
Russia | Serbia | Romania | Bulgaria | Georgia
Cyprus | Greece | Poland | Albania | Czechia and Slovakia | OCA*
|Sinai* | Finland | Estonia* | Japan* | China* | Ukraine | Western Europe* | Bessarabia* | Moldova | Ohrid* | ROCOR**|
|The * designates a church whose autocephaly or autonomy is not universally recognized. This article covers the organization of the Eastern Orthodox Churches rather than the doctrines traditions practices or other aspects of Eastern Orthodoxy. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose Pentarchy is a Greek -derived word meaning "rule by five" A patriarchate is the Office or jurisdiction of a Patriarch. A patriarch as the term is used here is either one of the highest-ranking History Early history Christianity in Byzantium existed from the time of the Twelve Apostles, but it was in the year 330 that the Roman Emperor The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria, also known as the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa ( Greek:) is one of the autocephalous The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East, the Antiochian Orthodox Church, the Orthodox Patriarchate The Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem ( Greek: Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn, Arabic كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس The Serbian Orthodox Church ( Serbian: Српска Православна Црква / Srpska Pravoslavna Crkva; СПЦ / SPC) or the The Romanian Orthodox Church ( Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is a Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква Bălgarska pravoslavna cărkva) is an Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church Christianity in ancient and feudal Georgia According to tradition when the Apostles were sent out to preach the Gospel to the nations of the world the Apostle The ancient Greek Orthodox Church of Cyprus ( Greek: Ekklēsía tês Kýprou) is one of the fourteen or fifteen independent (' autocephalous The Church of Greece ( Greek: Ekklēsía tês Helládos, ekliˈsia tis eˈlaðos is one of the fifteen Autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches History The establishment of the church was undertaken after the Treaty of Riga left large amount of territory previously under the Russian Empire, as part The Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania ( Albanian: Kisha Orthodhokse Autoqefale e Shqipërisë) is one of the newest autocephalous Eastern The Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church ( Czechoslovak Orthodox Church up to 1993 in Czech Pravoslavná církev, in Slovak Pravoslávna cirkev The Orthodox Church in America ( OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. Autocephaly, in Hierarchical Christian churches and especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches is the status of a hierarchical church whose Saint Catherine's Monastery ( Greek:) on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of an inaccessible gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai in Egypt is one Structure and organization Along with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland the Orthodox Church of Finland has a special position in Finnish law The Japanese Orthodox Church (日本ハリストス正教会 is an autonomous The Chinese Orthodox Church is an autonomous Eastern Orthodox church in China, which prior to the Chinese Cultural Revolution in 1966 was estimated Name For the purpose of distinguishing the two Orthodox Churches the Ukrainian Orthodox Church is often referred to in public as the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate The Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe is an Exarchate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Russian Orthodox The Metropolis of Bessarabia is one of the metropoles of the Romanian Orthodox Church, aside from the six metropoles inside Romania proper Relation with the Metropolis of Bessarabia In the lead up to the independence of Moldova the Romanian society and by the Romanian Orthodox Church encouraged unification with The Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric (Православна Охридска Архиепископија Pravoslavna Ohridska Arhiepiskopija) is an autonomous Eastern The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (Ру́сская Правосла́вная Це́рковь Заграни́цей ru Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov' Zagranitsey |
The ** designates a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Orthodox Church.