Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian: Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к, Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk, shortened to PAH, RAN) is consisting of the national academy of Russia, and a network of scientific institutes from all across the Russian Federation engaged in research, as well as auxiliary units - scientific like libraries and publishers, and social, e. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages A national academy is an organizational body usually operating with State financial support and approval that co-ordinates scholarly Research activities and standards Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending g. hospitals.
The Academy is headquartered in Moscow. Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of It is incorporated as a civil, self-governed, non-commercial organization chartered by Russian Government. The Government of the Russian Federation (Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции is an executive governmental body that brings together the principal It combines members of RAS (see below) and scientists employed by institutions.
There are three types of membership in the RAS: full members (academicians), corresponding members, and foreign members. The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art literary or scientific Academy. Academicians and corresponding members must be citizen of the Russian Federation (at the moment of election; however, there are academicians and corresponding members who had been elected before the collapse of the USSR and now are citizens of other countries). Members of RAS are elected based upon scientific contributions. It is a big honour to be elected to membership of the Academy. As of 2005-2007 there are slightly less than 500 full members of the academy and about the same number of corresponding members.
The RAS consist of 9 branches by scientific domain, of 3 territorial branches and of 14 regional scientific centres. The Academy has numerous councils, committees and commissions, organized for a different purposes. 
The Siberian Branch was established in 1957, with Mikhail Lavrentyev as its founding chairman.  Research centres are in Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, Kemerovo, Tyumen, and Omsk.  As of 2005, the Branch employed 33,051 employees, 58 of whom were members of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The Russian Academy of Sciences consists of a large number of research institutions, including:
Member institutions are linked by a dedicated Russian Space Science Internet (RSSI). The Institute of World Economics and International Affairs was begun in 1956 Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute is one of Russia 's largest research centers specialized in Physics and technology The Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Институт прикладной математики им The Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ботанический институт им Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering (IPMCE of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, situated in Moscow, is one of the leading Russian research institutes specializing in Physics The LD Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a research institution located in the small town of Chernogolovka near NN Miklukho-Maklai Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology (Институт этнологии и антропологии им The Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences ( PIN; Палеонтологический институт РАН in Moscow is among the world's largest Directors of the Institute Georgy Petrov ( 1965 — 1973) Roald Z The Special Astrophysical Observatory (Специальная Астрофизическая Обсерватория or SAO RAS for short is an astronomical Observatory Steklov Institute of Mathematics or Steklov Mathematical Institute ( Russian: Математический институт имени В Institute of Forest SB RAS is the first academic institution of forest profile in Russia. The RSSI, starting with just 3 members, now has 3100 members, including 57 of the largest research institutions.
Moscow University, St.Petersburg University, or Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, etc. Saint Petersburg State University ( Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) is a Russian federal state-owned higher do not belong to RAS (they belongs to Ministry of Education of Russian Federation), but the leading universities use many institutes of RAS (as well as many others institutions) as educational centers ("Phystech System").
The Academy gives a number of different prizes, medals, and awards:
The Academy was founded in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great, inspired and advised by Gottfried Leibniz, and implemented in the Senate decree of January 28, 1724. The Demidov Prize (Демидовская премия was a national scientific prize in the Russian Empire awarded annually to the members of the Russian Academy of Sciences The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and Polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements Andrey (Andrei Andreyevich Markov (Андрей Андреевич Марков (June 14 1856 N Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogoliubov, (Микола Миколайович Боголюбов Николай Николаевич Боголюбов ( 21 August 1909 Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River A decree is an order made by a Head of state or government and having the force of Law. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Year 1724 ( MDCCXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a It was called Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences between 1724 and 1917. Those invited to work there included mathematicians Leonhard Euler, Christian Goldbach, Georg Bernhard Bilfinger, Nicholas and Daniel Bernoulli, botanist Johann Georg Gmelin, embryologists Caspar Friedrich Wolff, astronomer and geographer Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, physicist Georg Wolfgang Kraft, and historian Gerhard Friedrich Müller. A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of Mathematics. Christian Goldbach ( March 18, 1690 &ndash November 20, 1764) was a Prussian Mathematician who also studied Law Georg Bernhard Bilfinger (* 23 January, 1693; &dagger 18 February, 1750) German philosopher mathematician and statesman son of Nicolaus II Bernoulli, aka Niklaus Bernoulli, Nikolaus Bernoulli, ( February 6 1695, Basel, Switzerland – July Daniel Bernoulli ( Groningen, 29 January 1700 &ndash 27 July 1782 was a Dutch - Swiss Mathematician, who is particularly remembered for his applications Johann Georg Gmelin ( August 8, 1709 - May 20, 1755) was a German naturalist, Botanist and Geographer Caspar Friedrich Wolff ( January 18, 1733 &ndash February 22, 1794) was a German Physiologist and one of the founders of Historically Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky while Astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena A geographer is a Scientist whose area of study is Geography, the study of Earth 's physical environment and Human habitat Joseph-Nicolas Delisle ( April 4, 1688 Paris - 1768 Paris) was a French Astronomer. See also History An historian is an individual who studies and writes about History, and is regarded as an Authority on it Gerhardt Friedrich Müller ( 1705 - 1783) was a historian and ethnologist who studied Russia, Siberia, Mongolia and China
Under the leadership of Princess Ekaterina Dashkova (1783-96), the Academy was engaged on compiling the huge Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language. Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Екатери́на Рома́новна Воронцо́ва-Да́шкова ( March 17, 1743 – January Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages Expeditions to explore remote parts of the country had Academy scientists as their leaders or most active participants. These included Vitus Bering's Second Kamchatka Expedition of 1733–43, and Peter Simon Pallas's expeditions to Siberia. Vitus Jonassen Bering (also less correctly Behring) ( August 1681 &ndash December 19, 1741) was a Danish -born navigator in the Peter Simon Pallas ( September 22, 1741, Berlin — September 8, 1811, Berlin) was a German Zoologist Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving
In December 1917, Sergei Fedorovich Oldenburg, a leading ethnographer and political activist in the Kadet party met with Lenin to discuss the future of the Academy. Year 1917 ( MCMXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg (Серге́й Фёдорович Ольденбу́рг 26 September, 1863 near Nerchinsk - 28 February Ethnography ( Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing is a genre of writing that uses Fieldwork to provide a descriptive The Constitutional Democratic Party ( Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of Popular Freedom, informally Kadets) was a liberal Political They agreed that the expertise of the Academy would be applied to addressing questions of state construction, in return the Soviet regime would give the Academy financial and political support. By early 1918 it was agreed that the Academy would report to the Department of the Mobilisation of Scientific Forces of the People's Commissariat of Enlightening which replaced the Provisional Government's Ministry of Education. Year 1918 ( MCMXVIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Narkompros (Наркомпрос is an abbreviation for the People's Commissariat for Education (Народный комиссариат просвещения the
In 1925 the Soviet government recognized the Russian Academy of Sciences as the "highest all-Union scientific institution" and renamed it the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
In 1934 the Academy headquarters moved from Leningrad (formerly Saint Petersburg) to the Russian capital, Moscow, together with a number of academic institutes. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, by decree of the President of Russia of December 2, 1991, the institute once again became the Russian Academy of Sciences, inheriting all facilities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the territory of Russia. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 The President of Russia (Президент России or the President of the Russian Federation, Президент Российской Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.
The USSR Academy of Sciences helped to establish national Academies of Sciences in all Soviet republics (with the exception of the Russian SFSR), in many cases delegating prominent scientists to live and work in other republics. These academies were