A ruminant, from a physiological point-of-view, is any artiodactyl mammal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud from within their first stomach, known as the rumen. Chordates ( Phylum Chordata) are a group of Animals that includes the Vertebrates together with several closely related Invertebrates Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands The even-toed ungulates form the Mammal order Artiodactyla. They are Ungulates whose weight is borne (if they have more than two toes about Antilocapridae is a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. A bovid is any of almost 140 species of Cloven-hoofed Mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. The giraffids are Ruminant Artiodactyl mammals that share a common ancestor with Deer and Bovids The biological family Giraffidae Musk deer are Artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. "Kancil" redirects here For the car see Perodua Kancil Not to be confused with Kanchil (Lesser Mouse Deer Not to be confused The even-toed ungulates form the Mammal order Artiodactyla. They are Ungulates whose weight is borne (if they have more than two toes about Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands CUD is an acronym sometimes used to describe the genetic disorder Primary carnitine deficiency. The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the Reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the Alimentary canal of Ruminant The process of again chewing the cud to break down the plant matter and stimulate digestion is called ruminating. Ruminating Mammals include cattle, goats, sheep, giraffes, American Bison, European bison, yaks, water buffalo, deer, camels, alpacas, llamas, wildebeest, antelope, and pronghorn. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe The giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African Even-toed ungulate Mammal, the tallest of all land-living Animal Species The American bison ( Bison bison) is a Bovine Mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. The wisent (ˈviːzənt or European bison ( Bison bonasus) is a Bison Species and the heaviest surviving land animal in Europe The yak ( Bos grunniens) is a long-haired Bovine found throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, the Qinghai - A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Camels are Even-toed ungulates within the Genus Camelus. The Dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump and the The Alpaca ( Vicugna pacos) is a domesticated species of South American Camelid. The llama ( Lama glama) is a South American Camelid, widely used as a Pack animal by the Incas and other natives of the Andes Antelope are Ruminant hoofed Mammals of the family Bovidae in the order of Even-toed ungulates. The pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) also pronghorn antelope or prong buck, is a species of Ungulate Mammal native to interior However, from a zoologial and evolution point-of-view, the suborder Ruminantia includes all those species except the camels, llamas and alpacas, which are Tylopoda. The biological suborder Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing Mammals among them Cattle, goats Sheep, Deer Tylopoda (meaning "padded foot" is a suborder of the mammalian order Artiodactyla containing some families like the Camelidae, Oromerycidae, Therefore, 'Ruminant' (physiology) is not synonymous of Ruminantia (taxonomy). Physiology (from Greek grc φύσις physis, "nature origin" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the mechanical physical The biological suborder Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing Mammals among them Cattle, goats Sheep, Deer Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification The word comes from the Greek, taxis (meaning 'order' 'arrangement' and, nomos
Ruminants have a fore-stomach with four chambers. These are the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the Reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the Alimentary canal of Ruminant This article is about an anatomical part The reticulum is the second chamber in the Alimentary canal of a Ruminant animal The omasum, also known as the bible, the fardel The abomasum, also known as the maw, and the rennet-bag In the first two chambers, the rumen and the reticulum, the food is mixed with saliva and separates into layers of solid and liquid material. Solids clump together to form the cud (or bolus). The cud is then regurgitated, chewed slowly to completely mix it with saliva and to break down the particle size, Fiber, especially cellulose and hemi-cellulose, is primarily broken down into the three volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in these chambers by microbes (bacteria, protozoa, and fungi). Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 A hemicellulose can be any of several Heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides present in almost all plant cell walls along with Cellulose. Volatile fatty acids are Fatty acids with a Carbon chain of six carbons or fewer Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound, giving Vinegar its sour taste Propionic acid (systematically named propanoic acid) is a naturally-occurring Carboxylic acid with Chemical formula C[[Hydrogen H]]3CH2C Butyric acid (from Greek βούτυρος = butter) also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, is a Carboxylic acid with the structural The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Protozoa (in Greek πρῶτον proton "first" and ζῷα zoia "animals" are unicellular Eukaryotes (singular A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Protein and non-structural carbohydrate (pectin, sugars, starches) are also fermented. Pectin (from Greek πηκτικός - pektikos, "congealed curdled" a white to light brown powder is a Heteropolysaccharide Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Starch, CAS # 9005-25-8 Chemical formula (C6H10O5n is a Polysaccharide
Even though the rumen and reticulum have different names they represent the same functional space as digesta can move back and forth between them. Together these chambers are called the reticulorumen. The degraded digesta, which is now in the lower liquid part of the reticulorumen, then passes into the next chamber, the omasum, where water and many of the inorganic mineral elements are absorbed into the blood stream. After this the digesta is moved to the last chamber, the abomasum. The abomasum is the direct equivalent of the monogastric stomach (for example that of the human or pig), and digesta is digested here in much the same way. Digesta is finally moved into the small intestine, where the digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs. Microbes produced in the reticulo-rumen are also digested in the small intestine. Fermentation continues in the large intestine in the same way as in the reticulorumen.
Almost all the glucose produced by the breaking down of cellulose and hemicellulose is used by microbes in the rumen, and as such ruminants usually absorb little glucose from the small intestine. Glucose (Glc a Monosaccharide (or simple Sugar) also known as grape sugar, is an important Carbohydrate in Biology. In Biology the small Intestine is the part of the Gastrointestinal tract (gut between the Stomach and the Large intestine, and comprises Rather, ruminants' requirement for glucose (for brain function and lactation if appropriate) is made by the liver from propionate, one of the volatile fatty acids made in the rumen.
In Abrahamic religions, a distinction between clean and unclean animals approximately falls according to whether the animal ruminates. Unclean animals, in some Religions are Animals on whose consumption or handling is labelled a Taboo. The Law of Moses in the Bible allowed only the eating of animals that had split hooves and swallowed their food multiple times, a stipulation preserved to this day in the Kashrut. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus, he כַּשְׁרוּת refers to Jewish dietary laws.  The close relation to rumination is apparent in many English translations of the Bible, which use the word cud in an expanded sense to indicate food that is re-chewed through either rumination or the process used by lagomorphs. The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two families, the Leporidae ( Hares and 
The verb to ruminate has been extended metaphorically to mean to thoughtfully ponder or to meditate on some topic. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects Meditation is a mental discipline by which one attempts to get beyond the conditioned "thinking" mind into a deeper state of relaxation or awareness Similarly, ideas may be chewed on or digested. Chew the (one's) cud is to reflect or meditate.