|Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini|
December 3, 1979 – June 3, 1989
|Succeeded by||Ali Khamenei|
|Born||24 September 1902|
Khomein, Markazi Province, Persian Empire
|Died||June 4, 1989 (aged 86)|
|Spouse||Batoul Saqafi Khomeini|
|Children||Ahmad, Mustafa & others; grandchildren: Hassan, Hussein,Ali Khomeini & Ali,Zahra,Atefeh Eshraghi|
|Religion||Twelver Shi'a Islam|
Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian: , Rūḥullāh Mūsawī Khumaynī) (September 24, 1902 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian politician and religious figure, and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran (Persia). The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) (fa علی حسینی خامنهای born 17 July 1939 also known as Ali Khamenei, is an Iranian Azeri politician and cleric Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Khomein (in Persian خمین is a city in central Iran, located in Markazi province about 160 km from Qom and 350 km from Tehran Markazi (استان مرکزی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Events 781 BC - The first historic Solar eclipse is recorded in China. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Ahmad Khomeini (1945, Qom - March, 1995, Tehran) was the younger son of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Hojatoleslam Sayyid Hussein Khomeini (in Persian حسین خمینی(born 1961~ is the grandson of Grand Ayatollah Zahra Eshraghi ( Persian: زهرا اشراقی Zahrâ Eshrâqi) is an Iranian feminist and human rights activist See also Shi'a Islam Twelver Shi'ism ( ar اثنا عشرية Ithnāˤashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shi'a branch of Islam Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد For the Lost character please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid ( ar سيد) (plural Saadah is an Honorific title Khomein (in Persian خمین is a city in central Iran, located in Markazi province about 160 km from Qom and 350 km from Tehran Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—the paramount political figure of the new Islamic Republic until his death. The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit
Khomeini was a marja or marja al-taqlid, ("source of imitation"), providing religious leadership to many Twelver Shi'a Muslims, but is most famous for his political role. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد In his writings and preachings he expanded the Shi'a theory of velayat-e faqih, the "guardianship of the jurisconsult (clerical authority)" to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists and to provide the theological basis for his rule of Iran. Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه Internationally he also made a great impact, and has been called "the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture," during his reign as ruler of Iran. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. He was named Time's Man of the Year in 1979 and also one of Time magazine's 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Person of the Year (formerly Man of the Year) is an annual issue of the United States Newsmagazine Time that features and profiles
Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was born to Mustafa Musawi and Hajiyah Aga Khanum in the town of Khomein, about 300 kilometers (180 miles) south of Tehran, on September 24, 1902. Khomein (in Persian خمین is a city in central Iran, located in Markazi province about 160 km from Qom and 350 km from Tehran Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting  His family allegedly descends from Muhammad through the seventh of the Twelve Imams, Musa al-Kazim; thus, Khomeini is called a sayyid. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Imāmah (إمامة is the Shī‘ah doctrine of religious spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. Mūsá ibn Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Kāżim (الإمام موسى الكاظم ( October 28, 746 AD - September 1, 799 / For the Lost character please see Sayid Jarrah Sayyid ( ar سيد) (plural Saadah is an Honorific title Several of his close ancestors were dedicated to Islamic studies: his father and both of his grandfathers were all Shia clerics.  Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Sayid Ahmad Musawi Hindi, spent many years in India before returning to Persia to purchase a home in Khomein that his family would own until the late twentieth century. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country   Khomeini's father was murdered when he was still a baby. Popular myth insists Khomeini's father was killed by the Shah of Iran. This is not true as the Shah would not come to power for another twenty-five years. Many historians today believe his father may have been the victim of a local dispute.  Khomeini's mother and one of his aunts proceeded to raise him until 1918, when both of them died.  Ruhollah Khomeini began to study the Qur'an, Islam's holiest book, and elementary Persian at age six. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.  The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned math, science, geography, and other traditional subjects.  Throughout his childhood, he would continue his religious and secular education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far, and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh. 
After World War I, arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted, instead, to the seminary in Arak, under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān Arak, (in Persian: اراک previously known as Soltan-abad, is the center of Markazi province, Ayatollah ( Persian: آيتالله, âyato-llâh, from Arabic: آية الله, āyatu 'llāh, meaning 'the sign of Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi ( Persian: عبدالكريم حائري يزدي; Arabic: عبد  In 1920, Khomeini moved to Arak and commenced his studies.  The following year, Ayatollah Haeri Yazdi transferred the Islamic seminary to the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved, and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom.  Khomeini's studies included Islamic law (sharia) and jurisprudence (fiqh), but by that time, Khomeini had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy (irfan). Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Irfan also spelt eerfan ( Arabic / Persian / Urdu: عرفان) literally means knowing. So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. The title Mirza ( is used for a member of a Royal family or a member of the highest Aristocracy, as well as children of a Sayyida mother Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini would continue to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini.  However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza Muhammad 'Ali Shahabadi, and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadra and Ibn Arabi. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف Mysticism (from the Greek grc μυστικός mystikos, an initiate of a Mystery religion) is the pursuit of communion with identity Sadr al-Din Moḥammad Shirazi also called Mulla Sadra ( also spelt Molla Sadra or Mollasadra or sadrol mote allehin; (c TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ibn Arabi (ابن عربي ( July 28, 1165 - November 10, 1240) was an 
|Name:||Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini|
|Birth:||24 September 1902|
|Death:||June 3, 1989 (aged 86)|
|Main interests:||Fiqh, Irfan, Islamic philosophy, Islamic ethics, Hadith, politics|
|Notable ideas:||Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists, Dynamic Fiqh|
|Works:||Islamic Government, Tahrir-ol-vasyleh, Forty Hadith, Adab as Salat|
|Influences:||Mulla Sadra, Abdol-Karim Haeri-Yazdi, Hassan Modarres, Mohammad-Ali Shah Abadi|
|Influenced:||Mohammad Beheshti, Hossein-Ali Montazeri, Morteza Motahhari, Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi, Fazel Lankarani|
Ruhollah Khomeini was a lecturer at Najaf and Qum seminaries for decades before he was known in the political scene. Scholars in Islamic studies are both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. Events 622 - Prophet Muhammad completes his hegira from Mecca to Medina. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Irfan also spelt eerfan ( Arabic / Persian / Urdu: عرفان) literally means knowing. Islamic philosophy is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between Philosophy ( Reason) and the religious teachings Islamic ethics ( akhlāq) defined as "good character" historically took shape gradually from the 7th century and was finally established by the 11th Hadith ( ar الحديث, pl aḥadīth; lit. "narrative" are oral Traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Twelvers. Jaʿfarī school of thought, Jaʿfarī jurisprudence or Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih ( ولاية الفقيه) (also known as Hokumat-e Islami or Islamic Government Tahrirolvasyleh (Arabic script تحرير الوسيلة also transcribed as Tahrir-ul-Vaseela or Tahrir al-wasilah) is a book (in four volumes and four editions Sadr al-Din Moḥammad Shirazi also called Mulla Sadra ( also spelt Molla Sadra or Mollasadra or sadrol mote allehin; (c Grand Ayatollah Hajj Sheikh Abdolkarim Haeri Yazdi ( Persian: عبدالكريم حائري يزدي; Arabic: عبد Seyyed Hassan Modarres ( (c 1870 - December 1, 1937) was an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric and a notable supporter Ayatollah Dr Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (محمد حسینی بهشتی ( October 24, 1928 - June 28 Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri (حسین علی منتظری styled His Honourable Eminence, (born in 1922 was one of the leaders of the Islamic TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری February 3, 1920 (fa علی حسینی خامنهای born 17 July 1939 also known as Ali Khamenei, is an Iranian Azeri politician and cleric Ayatollah Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani ( Persian:اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī) Hashemi Bahramani Clerical activities Grand Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani was declared as the most knowledgeable specialist in the field of the Islamic law ( Marja al-taqlid) by the central He soon became a leading scholar of Shia Islam.  He taught political philosophy, Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students (e. g. Morteza Motahhari) later became leading Islamic philosophers and also marja. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری February 3, 1920 As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics.  He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophy and gnosticism that not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion. Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Gnosticism (γνώσις gnōsis, Knowledge) refers to a diverse Syncretistic Religious movement consisting of various Belief systems 
Although during this scholarly phase of his life Khomeini was not politically active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings suggest that he believed early on in the importance of political involvement by clerics. Khomeini studied not only traditional subjects like Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-shari`ah), and principles (usul), but also philosophy and ethics. His teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day. He was the first Iranian cleric to try to refute the outspoken advocacy of secularism in the 1940s. His first book, Kashf al-Asrar (Uncovering of Secrets)  published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of Asrar-e hazar salih (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi. Ahmad Kasravi ( 29 September, 1890 - March 11, 1946) ( was a notable Iranian linguist, Historian, and  In addition, he went from Qom to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris- the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during 1920s. The Majlis of Iran ( Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی lit Khomeini became a marja in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi (1875-1961 ( Persian
Khomeini held a moderate standpoint vis-à-vis Greek Philosophy and regarded Aristotle as the founder of logic. Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of Reason and Inquiry. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.  He was also influenced by Plato's philosophy. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece About Plato he said: "In the field of divinity, he has grave and solid views . . . ".  On the other hand, Khomeini attacks the philosophy of Descartes and regards it as weak. Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini was mainly influenced by Avicenna and Mulla Sadra. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Sadr al-Din Moḥammad Shirazi also called Mulla Sadra ( also spelt Molla Sadra or Mollasadra or sadrol mote allehin; (c 
Apart from philosophy, Khomeini was also interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Since his adolescent years, Khomeini has composed mystic, political and social poetry.
|“||"We" and "I" are both from reason|
That are used as ropes to bind
His poetry works were published in three collections The Confidant, The Decanter of Love and Turning Point and Divan. 
At the age of 60, Khomeini found the arena of leadership open following the deaths of Ayatollah Sayyed Husayn Borujerdi (1961), the leading, although quiescent, Shiite religious leader; and Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962), an activist cleric. Ayatollah Seyyed Abol-Ghasem Mostafavi Kashani ( (born 1882 in Tehran, Iran, died March 14 1962) was a prominent The clerical class had been on the defensive ever since the 1920s when the secular, anti-clerical modernizer Reza Shah Pahlavi rose to power. For the Afghan serial killer see Reza Khan (Taliban. The "White Revolution" of Reza's son Muhammad Reza Shah, was a further challenge to the ulama. The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran 
In January 1963, the Shah announced the "White Revolution," a six-point program of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharing in industry, and a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally Profit sharing, when used as a special term refers to various Incentive plans introduced by Businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to Employees Some of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, Westernizing trends by traditionalists, especially by the powerful and privileged Shiite ulama (religious scholars). 
Ayatollah Khomeini summoned a meeting of the other senior marjas of Qom and persuaded them to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد On January 22, 1963 Khomeini issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah and his plans. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class. Ulema ( ar علماء,, singular ar عالِم,, "scholar" refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several
Khomeini continued his denunciation of the Shah's programs, issuing a manifesto that bore the signatures of eight other senior Iranian Shia religious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah had allegedly violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah of submission to America and Israel. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on March 21, 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated Events 630 - Byzantine emperor Heraclius restores the True Cross to Jerusalem. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On the afternoon of 'Ashura (June 3, 1963), Khomeini delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasah drawing parallels between the infamous tyrant Yazid and the Shah, denouncing the Shah as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان ( July 23[[ 45]] - 683 was the second Caliph of the Umayyad 
On June 5, 1963, (15 of Khordad), two days after this public denunciation of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini was arrested. Events 70 - Titus and his Roman Legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages This sparked three days of major riots throughout Iran and led to the deaths of some 400. That event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad. Movement of 15 Khordad ( نهضت پانزده خرداد) which took place on June 5 in protest against the arrest of Ayatollah Khomeini  Khomeini was kept under house arrest for 8 months and released in 1964.
During November 1964, Khomeini denounced both the Shah and the United States, this time in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah to American military personnel in Iran  . The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The famous "capitulation" law (or "status-of-forces agreement") would allow members of the U. S. armed forces in Iran to be tried in their own military courts. Khomeini was arrested in November 1964 and held for half a year. Upon his release, he was brought before Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur, who tried to convince Khomeini that he should apologize and drop his opposition to the government. Hasan-ali Mansur (1923 – January 27, 1965) was a Prime Minister of Iran from 1963-1965 Khomeini refused. In fury, Mansur slapped Khomeini's face.  Two weeks later, Mansur was assassinated on his way to parliament. Four members of the Fadayan-e Islam were later executed for the murder. Fadayan-e Islam (also Feda'iyan-e Islam or in English "Fedayeen of Islam" or "Devotees of Islam" was an Iranian Islamic fundamentalist
Advisers to the Shah recommended executing the ayatollah perhaps, an accidental death. The Shah refused and sent Khomeini into exile to Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. "Former royalist officials now living in London, Paris and Los Angeles still grumble about the decision not to kill Khomeini in 1964. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West "
Khomeini spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shia city of Najaf, Iraq. Najaf ( BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Initially he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964 where he stayed in the city of Bursa for less than a year. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. Bursa (historically also known as Prussa, Greek: Προύσα and later as Brusa) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the seat He was hosted by a colonel in Turkish Military Intelligence named Ali Cetiner in his own residence, who couldn't find another accommodation alternative for his stay at the time.  Later in October 1965 he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until being forced to leave in 1978, after then-Vice President Saddam Hussein forced him out (the two countries would fight a bitter eight year war 1980-1988 only a year after the two reached power in 1979) after which he went to Neauphle-le-Château in France on a tourist visa, apparently not seeking political asylum, where he stayed for four months. October events and holidays Children's Book Week ( England) - First Week of October National Day ( China People's Republic Year 1965 ( MCMLXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. Najaf ( BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 Neauphle-le-Château is a commune of the Yvelines département, in France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit "a document that has been seen" is a document issued by a Country giving an individual Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient Judicial notion under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his According to Alexandre de Marenches, chief of External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service (now known as the DGSE), France would have suggested to the shah to "organize a fatal accident for Khomeini"; the shah declined the assassination offer, as that would have made Khomeini a martyr. Count Alexandre de Marenches (June 7 1921 - June 2 1995 was a French Military officer. The Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage ( External Documentation and Counter-Espionage Service, SDECE) was France 's external
By the late 1960s Khomeini was a marja-e taqlid (model for imitation) for "hundreds of thousands" of Shia, one of six or so models in the Shia world. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد 
While in the 1940s Khomeini accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906-1907—as evidenced by his book Kashf al-Asrar—by the 1970s he did not.
In early 1970 Khomeini gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Authority of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih). Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih ( ولاية الفقيه) (also known as Hokumat-e Islami or Islamic Government
This was his most famous and influential work and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):
A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini and his followers took power, and Khomeini was the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Supreme Leader. Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit
In the meantime, however, Khomeini was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade. Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah as (for example) ". . . the Jewish agent, the American snake whose head must be smashed with a stone",  became common items in the markets of Iran,  helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, despite his long-term ideological incompatibility with them.
After the 1977 death of Dr. Ali Shariati, an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival among young educated Iranians, Khomeini became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual, if not political, leader of revolt. Ali Shariati ( علی شريعتی) ( November 23, 1933 &ndash 1977 was an Iranian sociologist and Revolutionary, well Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages Adding to his mystique was the circulation among Iranians in the 1970s of "an old Shia saying attributed to the Imam Musa al-Jafar. " Prior to his death in 799, al-Jafar was said to have prophesied that `A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God. ` Khomeini was said to match this description. 
As protest grew so did his profile and importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran in Paris, Khomeini set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime.  During the last few months of his exile, Khomeini received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution. 
Khomeini had refused to return to Iran until the Shah left. Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( Persian:, pronounced muːsæviː-je xomejniː}}( September 24, 1902 – June 3 1989 The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed On January 16, 1979, the Shah did leave the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Two weeks later, on Thursday, February 1, 1979, Khomeini returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated at at least six million by ABC News reporter Peter Jennings, who was reporting the event from Tehran. Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. This article is about the American news organization See also ABC News (disambiguation ABC News is a division of American Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29 1938 &ndash August 7 2005 was a Canadian-American Journalist and News anchor.
On the airplane on his way to Iran, Khomeini was asked by reporter Peter Jennings: "What do you feel in returning to Iran?" Khomeini answered "Hich ehsâsi nadâram" (I don't feel a thing). This statement was considered reflective of his mystical or puritanical belief that Dar al-Islam, rather than the motherland, was what mattered, and also a warning to Iranians who hoped he would be a "mainstream nationalist leader" that they were in for disappointment. The house of divisions in Islam such as "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Harb" does not appear in the Koran or the Hadith. 
Khomeini adamantly opposed the provisional government of Shapour Bakhtiar, promising "I shall kick their teeth in. Shapour Bakhtiar ( (also Shapur Bakhtiar) ( Persian: شاپور بختیار Shāpūr Bakhtīār) (born 1914 or 1915 - August I appoint the government. I appoint the government by support of this nation. "` On February 11 [(Bahman 22)], Khomeini appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Mehdi Bazargan (مهدی بازرگان In Persian) (September 1907 - January 20, 1995) (also spelled Mahdi Bazargan) was a prominent " It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against which was a "revolt against God. "
As Khomeini's movement gained momentum soldiers began to defect to his side, and Khomeini declared jihad on soldiers who did not surrender.  On February 11 [(Bahman 22)], as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu.  On March 30, 1979, and March 31, 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic passed with 98% voting yes (sic). Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) 
Although revolutionaries were now in charge and Khomeini was their leader, many revolutionaries, both secular and religious, did not approve and/or know of Khomeini's plan for Islamic government by wilayat al-faqih, which involved rule by a marja` Islamic cleric -- i. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد e. , by him.  Nor did the new provisional constitution for the Islamic Republic, which revolutionaries had been working on with Khomeini's approval, include the post of supreme Islamic clerical ruler.  At the same time, as the undisputed leader of the revolution with enormous mass support, Khomeini had considerable leeway to change the direction of the revolution. In the coming months, Khomeini and his supporters worked to suppress these former allies now becoming opponents, and rewrite the proposed constitution. Newspapers were closed, and those protesting the closings were attacked.  Opposition groups such as the National Democratic Front and Muslim People's Republican Party were attacked and finally banned.  Through a combination of popular support and questionable balloting pro-Khomeini candidates gained an overwhelming majority of the seats of the Assembly of Experts which revised the proposed constitution. The new constitution included an Islamic jurist Supreme Leader of the country, and a Council of Guardians to veto un-Islamic legislation and screen candidates for office, disqualifying those found un-Islamic. The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی or Guardian Council and also Council of Guardians is an appointed and
In November 1979 the new constitution of the Islamic Republic was passed by referendum. Khomeini himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader (supreme jurist ruler), and officially decreed as the "Leader of the Revolution. The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit " On February 4, 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr was elected as the first president of Iran. Events 211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Abol-hassan Banisadr ( Persian: ابوالحسن بنیصدر born 22 March 1933) was the first President of Iran, following the 1979 Helping pass the controversial constitution was the Iran hostage crisis.
On 22 October 1979, the Shah was admitted into the United States for medical treatment for lymphoma. The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 Events 202 BC - Hannibal Barca, leader of the Carthaginians, is defeated by the Roman legions under Scipio Africanus Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) There was an immediate outcry in Iran and on November 4, 1979, a group of students, all of whom were ardent followers of Khomeini, seized the United States embassy in Tehran, taking 63 American citizens as hostage. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of After a delay, Khomeini supported the hostage-takers under the slogan "America can't do a damn thing. " Fifty two of the hostages were held prisoner for 444 days — an event usually referred to as the Iran hostage crisis. The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 The hostage-takers justified this violation of long-established international law as a reaction to American refusal to hand over the Shah for trial and execution. On February 23, 1980, Khomeini proclaimed Iran's Majlis would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, and demanded that the United States hand over the Shah for trial in Iran for crimes against the nation. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) Majlis (also spelled Majalis or Mejlis, Arabic مجلس is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting" used to describe various types of formal Although the Shah died less than a year later, this did not end the crisis. Supporters of Khomeini named the embassy a "Den of Espionage", and publicized the weapons, electronic listening devices, other equipment and many volumes of official and secret classified documents they found there. The Espionage Den ( Persian:لانه جاسوسی is the popular name given to the U Others explain the length of the imprisonment on what Khomeini is reported to have told his president: "This action has many benefits. . . . This has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections. "  The new theocratic constitution did successfully pass its referendum one month after the hostage-taking, which did succeed in splitting its opposition -- radicals supporting the hostage taking and moderates opposing it. 
Khomeini believed in Muslim unity and solidarity and the export of Islamic revolution throughout the world. In American Political Jargon, an October surprise is a news event with the potential to influence the outcome of an election particularly one for the presidency "Establishing the Islamic state world-wide belong to the great goals of the revolution. "  He declared the birth week of Muhammad (the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi' al-awwal) as the Unity week. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Rabi' al-awwal (ar ربيع الأول is the third month in the Islamic calendar. Then he declared the last Friday of Ramadan as International Day of Quds in 1979. Ramadan or Ramazan ( Arabic: رمضان Ramaḍān) is a Muslim religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic International Day of Al-Quds ( Rooz-e jahaany-e Qods in Persian روز جهانی قدس is an annual event opposing Israel 's control of Jerusalem, (
Despite his devotion to Islam, Khomeini also emphasized international revolutionary solidarity, expressing support for the PLO, the IRA, Cuba, and the South African anti-apartheid struggle.
Shortly after assuming power, Khomeini began calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq, the one large state besides Iran with a Shia majority population. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings At the same time Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan, and, of course, to undermine Iranian Islamic revolutionary attempts to incite the Shi'a majority of his country. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Khūzestān (خوزستان is one of the 30 provinces of Iran.
With what many Iranians believe was the encouragement of the United States, Saudi Arabia and other countries, Iraq soon launched a full scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran-Iraq War (September 1980 - August 1988). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi A combination of fierce resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and by early 1982 Iran regained almost all the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Khomeini's stature and allowed him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. After this reversal, Khomeini refused an Iraqi offer of a truce, instead demanding reparation and toppling of Saddam Hussein from power. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 
Outside powers supplied arms to both sides during the war, but the West wanted to be sure the Islamic revolution did not spread to other parts of the oil-exporting Persian Gulf and began to supply Iraq with whatever help it needed. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Most military sales came from the USSR and the USA, and also from France, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Most rulers of other Muslim countries also supported Iraq out of opposition to the Islamic ideology of Islamic Republic of Iran, which threatened their own native monarchies. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. On the other hand most Islamic parties and organizations supported Islamic unity with Iran, especially the Shiite ones.
The war continued for another six years, with 450,000 to 950,000 casualties on the Iranian side and at a cost estimated by Iranian officials to total USD $300 billion. 
As the costs of the eight-year war mounted, Khomeini, in his words, “drank the cup of poison” and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. He strongly denied however that pursuit of overthrow of Saddam had been a mistake. In a `Letter to Clergy` he wrote: `. . . we do not repent, nor are we sorry for even a single moment for our performance during the war. Have we forgotten that we fought to fulfill our religious duty and that the result is a marginal issue?`
As the war ended, the struggles among the clergy resumed and Khomeini’s health began to decline.
In early 1989, Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, an India-born British author. The Satanic Verses controversy refers to the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie 's novel The Satanic A fatwā (فتوى plural fatāwā فتاوى in the Islamic faith is a religious opinion on Islamic law issued by an The Satanic Verses controversy refers to the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie 's novel The Satanic Khomeini claimed that Rushdie's assassination was a religious duty for Muslims because of his alleged blasphemy against Muhammad in his novel, The Satanic Verses. Blasphemy is the disrespectful use of the name of one or more gods. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie 's fourth Novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. Rushdie's book contains passages that many Muslims – including Ayatollah Khomeini – considered offensive to Islam and the prophet, but the fatwa has also been attacked for violating the rules of fiqh by not allowing the accused an opportunity to defend himself, and because "even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Fiqh ( Arabic: فقه, fɪqəh is Islamic Jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the "
Though Rushdie publicly apologized, the fatwa was not revoked. Khomeini explained,
Even if Salman Rushdie repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell. 
Rushdie himself was not killed but Hitoshi Igarashi, the Japanese translator of the book The Satanic Verses, was murdered and two other translators of the book survived attempted assassinations. was the Japanese translator of Salman Rushdie 's novel The Satanic Verses. The Satanic Verses controversy refers to the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie 's novel The Satanic 
More of Khomeini's fataawa were compiled in The Little Green Book, Sayings of Ayathollah Khomeini, Political, Philosophical, Social and Religious
In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran from exile February 1, 1979, Khomeini made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: A popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran and with which the clergy would not interfere. See also Shi'a Islam Twelver Shi'ism ( ar اثنا عشرية Ithnāˤashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shi'a branch of Islam Events 1327 - Teenaged Edward III is crowned King of England, but the country is ruled by his mother Queen Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) He promised that “no one should remain homeless in this country,” and that Iranians would have free telephone, heating, electricity, bus services and free oil at their doorstep. While many changes came to Iran under Khomeini, these promises have yet to be fulfilled in the Islamic Republic. 
Khomeini was more interested in the religious devotion of Muslims than their material prosperity -- six months after his first speech he expressed exasperation with complaints about the sharp drop in Iran's standard of living: `I cannot believe that the purpose of all these sacrifices was to have less expensive melons` 
Under Khomeini's rule, Sharia (Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women by Islamic Revolutionary Guards and other Islamic groups Women were required to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. The Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution ( Sepáh e Pásdárán e Enqeláb e Eslámi) is an ideologically motivated branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran's The Iranian educational curriculum was Islamized at all levels with the Islamic Cultural Revolution; the "Committee for Islamization of Universities" carried this out thoroughly. The Cultural Revolution (1980-1987 (in Persian انقلاب فرهنگي was a period following the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran where the academia of Iran was
Opposition to the religious rule of the clergy or Islamic government in general was often met with harsh punishments. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. In a talk at the Fayzieah School in Qom, August 30, 1979, Khomeini warned opponents: "Those who are trying to bring corruption and destruction to our country in the name of democracy will be oppressed. They are worse than Bani-Ghorizeh Jews, and they must be hanged. The Banu Qurayza (بني قريظة بنو قريظة alternate spellings include Quraiza, Qurayzah, Quraytha, and the archaic Koreiza) We will oppress them by God's order and God's call to prayer. "
The Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and his family left Iran and escaped harm, but hundreds of former members of the overthrown monarchy and military met their end in firing squads, with critics complaining of "secrecy, vagueness of the charges, the absence of defense lawyers or juries", or the opportunity of the accused "to defend themselves. "  In later years these were followed in larger numbers by the erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini's movement -- Marxists and socialists, mostly university students -- who opposed the theocratic regime. 
In the 1988 massacre of Iranian prisoners, following the People's Mujahedin of Iran operation Forough-e Javidan against the Islamic Republic, Khomeini issued an order to judicial officials to judge every Iranian political prisoner and kill those who would not repent anti-regime activities. 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners (۱۳۶۷ اعدام زندانیان سیاسی در تابستان refers to the systematic execution of thousands of political prisoners The People's Mujahedin of Iran ( PMOI, also MEK, MKO) ( Persian: سازمان مجاهدين خلق ايران sāzmān-e mojāhedin-e khalq-e Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400  to 30,000. 
Although many hoped the revolution would bring freedom of speech and press, this was not to be. In defending forced closing of opposition newspapers and attacks on opposition protesters by club-wielding vigilantes, Khomeini explained, `The club of the pen and the club of the tongue is the worst of clubs, whose corruption is a 100 times greater than other clubs. ` 
Life for religious minorities has been mixed under Khomeini and his successors. Earlier statements by Khomeini were antagonistic towards Jews, but shortly after his return from exile in 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Baha'is) be treated well. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind   In power, Khomeini distinguished between Zionism as a secular political party that enjoys Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaism as the religion of Moses. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ  As Haroun Yashyaei, a film producer and former chairman of the Central Jewish Community in Iran has said:
Take it from me, the Jewish community here faces no difficulties. If some people left after the revolution, maybe it's because they were scared. 
By law, four of the 270 seats in parliament are reserved for three non-Islamic minority religions. Khomeini also called for unity between Sunni and Shi'a Muslims (Sunni Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran). 
Non-Muslim religious minorities, however, do not have equal rights in Khomeini's Islamic Republic. Senior government posts are reserved for Muslims. Jewish, Christian and Zoroastrian schools must be run by Muslim principals.  Compensation for death paid to the family of a non-Muslim was (by law) less than if the victim was a Muslim. (This was recently changed, with non-Muslims families now receiving just as much. ) Conversion to Islam is encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim.  Iran's non-Muslim population has fallen dramatically. For example, the Jewish population in Iran dropped from 80,000 to 30,000 in the first two decades of the revolution. 
Unlike the other non-Muslims in Iran, the 300,000 members of the Bahá'í Faith, are actively harassed. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind "Some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities. "  Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were either killed or disappeared. Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdu'l-Bahá to refer to elected councils that govern the Bahá'í Faith. Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdu'l-Bahá to refer to elected councils that govern the Bahá'í Faith.  Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini believed them to be apostates, for example issuing a fatwa stating:
It is not acceptable that a tributary [non-Muslim who pays tribute] changes his religion to another religion not recognized by the followers of the previous religion. For example, from the Jews who become Bahai's nothing is accepted except Islam or execution. 
the Baha'is are not a sect but a party, which was previously supported by Britain and now the United States. The Baha'is are also spies just like the Tudeh [Communist Party]. Formed in 1941 the Tudeh Party of Iran ("Party of the Masses of Iran" حزب توده ایران Hezb-e Tudeh Iran) is an Iranian Communist party 
During the drafting of the new constitution the wording intentionally excluded the Bahá'ís from protection as a religious minority. 
Many Shia Iranians have also left the country. The persecution of Bahá'ís is the Religious persecution of Bahá'ís in various countries especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and While the revolution has made Iran more strict Islamically, an estimated "two to four million entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled craftspeople (and their capital)" have emigrated to other countries. Partly as a result, the economy has not prospered in terms of inflation, unemployment and living standards.   The poor have also exhibited dissatisfaction. Absolute poverty rose by nearly 45% during the first 6 years of the Islamic revolution  and on several occasions the mustazafin have rioted, protesting the demolition of their shantytowns and rising food prices. Disabled war veterans have demonstrated against mismanagement of the Foundation of the Disinherited. 
After eleven days in a hospital for an operation to stop internal bleeding, Khomeini died of heart attack on Saturday, June 3, 1989, at the age of 86. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar)  Iranians poured out into the cities and streets to mourn Khomeini's death in a "completely spontaneous and unorchestrated outpouring of grief. " 
Despite the hundred-degree heat, crushing mobs created an impassable sea of black for miles as they wailed, chanted and rhythmically beat themselves in anguish . . . As the hours passed, fire trucks had to be brought in to spray water on the crowd to provide relief from the heat, while helicopters were flown in to ferry the eight killed and more than four hundred injured . . . " 
It was the biggest funeral in recorded history, eleven million people attended it. Iranian officials aborted Khomeini’s first funeral, after a large crowd stormed the funeral procession, nearly destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a last glimpse of his body. At one point, Khomeini's body actually almost fell to the ground, as the crowd attempted to grab pieces of the death shroud. The second funeral was held under much tighter security. Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and heavily armed security personnel surrounded it. In accordance with Islamic tradition, the casket was only to carry the body to the burial site. Khomeini's grave is now housed within a larger mausoleum complex. The Mausoleum of Ayatollah Khomeini houses the tomb of Ruhollah Musawi Khomeini.
Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri, a major figure of the Revolution, was designated by Khomeini to be his successor as Supreme Leader. Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri (حسین علی منتظری styled His Honourable Eminence, (born in 1922 was one of the leaders of the Islamic The principle of velayat-e faqih and the Islamic constitution called for the Supreme Ruler to be a marja or grand ayatollah, and of the dozen or so grand ayatollahs living in 1981 only Montazeri accepted the concept of rule by Islamic jurist. Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد  In 1989 Montazeri began to call for liberalization, freedom for political parties. Following the execution of thousands of political prisoners by the Islamic government, Montazeri told Khomeini `your prisons are far worse than those of the Shah and his SAVAK. ` After a letter of his complaints was leaked to Europe and broadcast on the BBC a furious Khomeini ousted him from his position as official successor.
Writers in the West report that the amendment made to Iran's constitution removing the requirement that the Supreme Leader to be a Marja, was to deal with the problem of a lack of any remaining Grand Ayatollahs willing to accept "velayat-e faqih. The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد This article provides the list of marja taqlid (supreme legal authorities since 1900 both current and deceased followed by Usuli Twelver Shi'a Muslims Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه " However, others say the reason marjas were not elected was because of their lack of votes in the Assembly of Experts, for example Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani had the backing of only 13 members of the assembly. The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts of the Leadership) of Iran ( Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری Majles-e-Khobregan or Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Golpaygani (1898-1993 was born in Gogad village near the city of Golpaygan, Iran. Furthermore, there were other marjas present who accepted "velayat-e faqih" Grand Ayatollah Hossein Montazeri continued his criticism of the regime and in 1997 was put under house arrest for questioning the unaccountable rule exercised by the supreme leader. Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri (حسین علی منتظری styled His Honourable Eminence, (born in 1922 was one of the leaders of the Islamic  He was released in 2003.
See also: History of political Islam in Iran
Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini's views on governance evolved. See also Ruhollah Khomeini The Political thought and legacy of Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Mustafavi Khomeini refers to the impact of the religious and The islam in Iran (or History of Principle-ism) covers the history of Islamic revivalism and the rise of political Islam in modern Iran Originally declaring rule by monarchs or others permissible so long as sharia law was followed  Khomeini later adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist (a marja`), would insure Sharia was properly followed (wilayat al-faqih),  before finally insisting the ruling jurist need not be a leading one and Sharia rule could be overruled by that jurist if necessary to serve the interests of Islam and the "divine government" of the Islamic state. Sharia ( Arabic: ar شريعة) is the body of Islamic Religious law. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه 
Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (ولایت فقیه, velayat-e faqih)  did not win the support of the leading Iranian Shi'i clergy of the time. Islamic leadership|Ja'fari jurisprudence Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists ( Arabic: ولاية الفقيه, Persian: ولایت فقیه Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, although none came around to supporting Khomeini's vision of a theocratic Islamic Republic. 
Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be a democratic republic is disputed. According to the state-run Aftab News,  both ultraconservative (Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi) and reformist opponents of the regime (Akbar Ganji and Abdolkarim Soroush) believe he did not, while regime officials and supporters like Ali Khamenei, Mohammad Khatami and Mortaza Motahhari believe Khomeini intended the Islamic republic to be democratic and that it is so. Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi ( محمد تقی مصباح یزدی) (born 1934) is a Hardline Iranian Twelver Akbar Ganji ( born 31 January, 1960 in Tehran) is an Iranian Journalist and Writer. Hosein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (1945 -)(, mostly known by his pen-name Abdolkarim Soroush (Persian عبدالكريم سروش) or Abdulkarim Soroush is an (fa علی حسینی خامنهای born 17 July 1939 also known as Ali Khamenei, is an Iranian Azeri politician and cleric Seyyed Mohammad Khātamī ( سید محمد خاتمی, pronounced xɑːtæmiː}} (born September 29, 1943, in Ardakan, Yazd TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری February 3, 1920 Islamic Republic is the name given to several states in the Muslim world including the Islamic Republics of Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Mauritania  Khomeini himself also made statements at different times indicating both support and opposition to democracy. 
One scholar, Shaul Bakhash, explains this disagreement as coming from Khomeini's belief that the huge turnout of Iranians in anti-Shah demonstrations during the revolution constituted a `referendum` in favor of an Islamic republic. Shaul Bakhash (in شائول بخاش is a reigning doyen of Persian studies at George Mason University where he is Clarence J  Khomeini also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim countries than any government based on elected representatives. 
Khomeini offered himself as a "champion of Islamic revival" and unity, emphasising issues Muslims agreed upon - the fight against zionism and imperialism - and downplaying Shia issues that would divide Shia from Sunni. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic  Khomeini strongly opposed close relations with neither Eastern or Western Bloc nations, believing the Islamic world should be its own bloc, or rather converge into a single unified power. During the Cold War, the term Communist Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) was used to refer to the Soviet Union and countries it either controlled or that were The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the powers allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw  He viewed Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. The Islamic Republic banned or discouraged popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature.  In the Western world it is said "his glowering visage became the virtual face of Islam in Western popular culture" and "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam. " This has particularly been the case in the United States where Khomeini and the Islamic Republic are remembered for the American embassy hostage taking and accused of sponsoring hostage-taking and terrorist attacks, and which continues to apply economic sanctions against Iran. The Iran hostage crisis ( Persian: تصرف سفارت آمریکا was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States where 52 This article outlines economic trade scientific and military sanctions against Iran, which have been imposed by the U
Before taking power Khomeini expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; in Sahifeh Nour (Vol. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly ( 10 December 1948 at Palais 2 Page 242), he states: "We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence. " However once in power Khomeini took a firm line against dissent, warning opponents of theocracy for example: "I repeat for the last time: abstain from holding meetings, from blathering, from publishing protests. Otherwise I will break your teeth. " Iran adopted an alternative human rights declaration, the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, in 1990 (one year after Khomeini's death), which diverges in key respects from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the
Many of Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. This conflict came to a head during the writing of the Islamic constitution when many newspapers were closed by the government. Khomeini angrily told the intellectuals:
Yes, we are reactionaries, and you are enlightened intellectuals: You intellectuals do not want us to go back 1400 years. Reactionary (also reactionist) is a derogatory term usually used by the Left wing in regards to movements which oppose radical change in society and seeks a return The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom. Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression 
In contrast to Khomeini's alienation from Iranian intellectuals was his embrace of international revolution and Third World solidarity which "took precedence over Muslim fraternity, in an utter departure from all other Islamist movements. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically " Until Khomeini's death the Iranian press - which was controlled by his supporters - "devoted extensive coverage to non-Muslim revolutionary movements (from the Sandinistas to the African National Congress and the Irish Republican Army) and downplayed the role of the Islamic movements considered conservative, such as the Afghan mujahidin. The Sandinista National Liberation Front ( Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional) is a socialist Nicaraguan Political party. The African National Congress (ANC has been South Africa 's governing party supported by its Tripartite alliance with the Congress of South African Trade Unions The Irish Republican Army ( IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann was a military organisation descended from the Irish Volunteers, established 25 November 1913 and who A Mujahid (Arabic ar مجاهد, literally "struggler" is a Muslim involved in a Jihad, id est fighting in a war or "
Khomeini also emphasized the serious nature of life: "Allah did not create man so that he could have fun. The aim of creation was for mankind to be put to the test through hardship and prayer. "
Khomeini is described as "slim," but athletic and "heavily boned. " He was "fairly tall by the Iranian standards of his day", at a height of 1. 76 meters (5 ft 9 in).  He was known for his punctuality:
He's so punctual that if he doesn't turn up for lunch at exactly ten past everyone will get worried, because his work is regulated in such a way that he turned up for lunch at exactly that time every day. He goes to bed exactly on time. He eats exactly on time. And he wakes up exactly on time. He changes his frock every time he comes back from the mosque. 
and for his aloof and stern demeanor. He is said to have "variously inspired admiration, awe, and fear from those around him. " His practice of moving "through the halls of the madresehs never smiling at anybody or anything. . . . his practice of ignoring his audience while he thought contributed to his charisma. "  He preached that `there are no jokes in Islam. There is no humor in Islam. `
Khomeini also refusing to eat or drink in a restaurant unless he knew for sure the waiter was a Muslim.  He was one of the Shia marja who adhered to traditional beliefs of Islamic cleanliness holding that non-Moslems - like urine, excrement, blood, wine, sweat of the excrement-eating camels, etc. Marja ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini ( Arabic / Persian: مرجع تقليد This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and Cleanliness. - were one of eleven impure things contact with which required major ritual washing or Ghusl before prayer or salah. Ghusl (غسل is an Arabic term referring to the full ablution (ritual washing required in Islam for various rituals and prayers Ṣalāt ( Arabic: صلاة, pl ṣalawāt, Qur'anic Arabic: صلوة ṣalawah) (also munz in Pashto and 
Even more famous was his mystique. He benefited from the widespread circulation of "an old Shia saying" attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kazim who is said to have prophesied shortly before his death in 799 that
`A man will come out from Qom and he will summon people to the right path. Mūsá ibn Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Kāżim (الإمام موسى الكاظم ( October 28, 746 AD - September 1, 799 / There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God. ` 
Khomeini was the first and only Iranian cleric to be addressed as "Imam", a title hitherto reserved in Iran for the twelve infallible leaders of the early Shi'a. This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shi'a doctrine and is specifically about the Shi'a Twelver conception of the term  He was also associated with the Mahdi or 12th Imam of Shia belief in a number of ways. According to Twelver Shi'as Imam Hujjat al-Mahdī ( ar المهدى) (or Hujjat ibn Hasan ibn Ali is the twelfth Imam and the One of his titles was Na'eb-e Imam (Deputy to the [Twelfth Imam). His enemies were often attacked as taghut and mofsidin fi'l-arz (corrupters of the earth), religious terms used for enemies of the Twelfth Imam. "Taghout" redirects here for the village in Azerbaijan see Ataqut. Many of the officials of the overthrown Shah's government executed by Revolutionary Courts were convicted of "fighting against the Twelfth Imam". When a deputy in the majlis asked Khomeini if he was the `promised Mahdi`, Khomeini did not answer, "astutely" neither confirming nor denying the title. The Majlis of Iran ( Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی lit 
In late 1978 a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon.
Tears of joy were shed and huge quantities of sweets and fruits were consumed as millions of people jumped for joy, shouting `I've seen the Imam in the moon. ` The event was celebrated in thousands of mosques with mullahs reminding the faithful that a sure sign of the coming of the Mahdi was that the sun would rise in the West. In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi ( ar مهدي, also Mehdi; "Guided One" is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth Khomeini, representing the sun, was now in France and his face was shining in the moon like a sun. People were ready to swear on the Qur'an that they had seen Khomeini's face in the moon. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Even the Tudeh Party [the party of "Scientific Socialism"] shared in the [enthusiasm]. Formed in 1941 the Tudeh Party of Iran ("Party of the Masses of Iran" حزب توده ایران Hezb-e Tudeh Iran) is an Iranian Communist party Scientific Socialism is the term used by Friedrich Engels to describe the socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx. Its paper Navid wrote: `Our toiling masses, fighting against world-devouring imperialism headed by the blood-sucking United States, have seen the face of their beloved Imam and leader, Khomeini the Breaker of Idols, in the moon. Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A few pipsqueaks cannot deny what a whole nation has seen with its own eyes. ` 
As the revolution gained momentum, even some non-supporters exhibited awe, called him "magnificently clear-minded, single-minded and unswerving. " His image was as "absolute, wise, and indispensable leader of the nation"
The Imam, it was generally believed, had shown by his uncanny sweep to power, that he knew how to act in ways which others could not begin to understand. His timing was extraordinary, and his insight into the motivation of others, those around him as well as his enemies, could not be explained as ordinary knowledge. This emergent belief in Khomeini as a divinely guided figure was carefully fostered by the clerics who supported him and spoke up for him in front of the people. 
Even many secularists who firmly disapproved of his policies were said to feel the power of his "messianic" appeal. Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs  Comparing him to a father figure who retains the enduring loyalty even of children he disapproves of, journalist Afshin Molavi writes of the defenses of Khomeini he's "heard in the most unlikely settings":
A whiskey-drinking professor told an American journalist that Khomeini brought pride back to Iranians. A women's rights activist told me that Khomeini was not the problem; it was his conservative allies who had directed him wrongly. A nationalist war veteran, who held Iran's ruling clerics in contempt, carried with him a picture of `the Imam`. 
Another journalist tells the story of how an Iranian who had just gotten done telling her how he wanted his son to leave the country and "repeatedly made the point that life had been better" under the Shah, turned "ashen faced" and speechless upon hearing the 85+-year-old Imam might be dying, pronouncing `This is terrible for my country. `
In 1929, (some say 1931) Khomeini married Batoul Saqafi Khomeini, the 11-year-old daughter of a cleric in Tehran. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of By all acounts their marriage was harmonious and happy.  They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. The elder son, Mustafa, is rumored to have been murdered in 1977 while in exile with his father in Najaf, Iraq and Khomeini accused SAVAK of orchestrating it. Najaf ( BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. SAVAK ( Persian: ساواک short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sazeman-e Ettela'at va Amniyat-e Keshvar, National Intelligence and Security Ahmad Khomeini, Khomeini's younger son, died in 1995 under mysterious circumstances.
Khomeini's notable grandchildren include:
In that same year Husain Khomeini visited the United States, where he met figures such as Reza Pahlavi II, the son of the last Shah.
Later that year, Husain returned to Iran after receiving an urgent message from his grandmother. According to Michael Ledeen, quoting "family sources", he was blackmailed into returning. Michael Arthur Ledeen (b Los Angeles California, August 1, 1941) is a scholar at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies and a contributing 
In 2006, he called for an American invasion and overthrow of the Islamic Republic, telling Al-Arabiyah television station viewers, "If you were a prisoner, what would you do? I want someone to break the prison [doors open]. ".
Hussein is currently under house arrest in the holy city of Qum.
Another of Khomeini's grandchildren, Ali Eshraghi was first disqulaifed from the 2008 parliamentary elections on grounds of being insufficently loyal to the principles of the Islamic revolution, but later reinstated. 
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
as Shah of Iran
|Supreme Leader of Iran|
The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit (fa علی حسینی خامنهای born 17 July 1939 also known as Ali Khamenei, is an Iranian Azeri politician and cleric