|Born||December 30, 1865|
|Died||January 18, 1936 (aged 70)|
Middlesex Hospital, London, England 
|Occupation||Short story writer, novelist, poet, Journalist|
|Genres||Short story, novel, children's literature, poetry, travel literature, Science Fiction|
|Notable work(s)||The Jungle Books|
Just So Stories
|Notable award(s)||Nobel Prize in Literature|
Joseph Rudyard Kipling (December 30, 1865–January 18, 1936) was an English author and poet, born in Bombay, British India, and best known for his works The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895), Just So Stories (1902), and Puck of Pook's Hill (1906); his novel, Kim (1901); his poems, including Mandalay (1890), Gunga Din (1890), "If—" (1910) and "Ulster 1912" (1912); and his many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888) and the collections Life's Handicap (1891), The Day's Work (1898), and Plain Tales from the Hills (1888). Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Middlesex Hospital was a hospital in the Fitzrovia area of London, England. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices Journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events trends Nationality is a relationship between a Person and their State of Origin, Culture, association Affiliation and/or Loyalty The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A literary genre is a category of literary composition Genres may be determined by Literary technique, tone, Content, or even (as in the case of fiction The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Children's literature is an age category of literature written for published for or marketed to Children roughly through age 12 Travel literature is Travel writing considered to have value as Literature. The Jungle Book (1894 is a collection of stories written by Rudyard Kipling. See also Just-so story for anthropological sense The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling Kim is a novel by Rudyard Kipling. It was first published serially in ''McClure's Magazine'' from December 1900 to October 1901 as well as in The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British The Jungle Book (1894 is a collection of stories written by Rudyard Kipling. The Second Jungle Book is a sequel to The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. See also Just-so story for anthropological sense The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling Puck of Pook's Hill is a children's book by Rudyard Kipling, published in 1906 containing a series of short stories set in different periods of history Kim is a novel by Rudyard Kipling. It was first published serially in ''McClure's Magazine'' from December 1900 to October 1901 as well as in Mandalay is a famous poem by Rudyard Kipling that was first published in the collection Barrack Room Ballads, published in 1892 Gunga Din ( 1892) is one of Rudyard Kipling 's most famous Poems perhaps best known for its often-quoted last stanza "Tho' I've belted you "If" is a poem written in 1895 by Rudyard Kipling and first published in the Brother Square Toes chapter of Rewards and Fairies, Kipling's The Man Who Would Be King ( 1888) is a Short story by Rudyard Kipling. Plain Tales from the Hills (published 1888 is the first collection of short stories by Rudyard Kipling. He is regarded as a major "innovator in the art of the short story"; his children's books are enduring classics of children's literature; and his best works speak to a versatile and luminous narrative gift.  Kipling was one of the most popular writers in English, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  The author Henry James famously said of him: "Kipling strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius (as distinct from fine intelligence) that I have ever known. Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James " In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English language writer to receive the prize, and he remains its youngest-ever recipient. The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur is awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has in the words from the will of Alfred English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States  Among other honours, he was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, all of which he rejected. A Poet Laureate is a Poet officially appointed by a government and is often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. 
However, later in life Kipling also came to be seen (in George Orwell's words) as a "prophet of British imperialism. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. " Many saw prejudice and militarism in his works, and the resulting controversy about him continued for much of the 20th century.  According to critic Douglas Kerr: "He is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognized as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with. "
Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, British India, to Alice Kipling (née MacDonald) and (John) Lockwood Kipling. Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British For the MacDonald sisters artist members of The Four, see Glasgow School. John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911 was an art teacher an illustrator museum curator and father of Rudyard Kipling.  Alice Kipling (one of four remarkable Victorian sisters) was a vivacious woman about whom a future Viceroy of India would say, "Dullness and Mrs. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities The Governor-General of India (or from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) was the head of the British administration in India, and Kipling cannot exist in the same room. " Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the principal and professor of architectural sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy School of Art and Industry in Bombay.  The couple, who had moved to India earlier that year, had met in courtship two years before at Rudyard Lake in rural Staffordshire, England, and had been so taken by its beauty that they now named their firstborn after it. Rudyard Lake is a Reservoir in Staffordshire constructed in 1797/8 to feed the Caldon Canal by the Trent and Mersey Canal company Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. Kipling's aunt, Georgiana, was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones and his aunt Agnes was married to the painter Edward Poynter. Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones 1st Baronet (28 August 1833 &ndash 17 June 1898 was an English Artist and Designer closely associated with the later Sir Edward John Poynter 1st Baronet KB PRA ( 20 March 1836 &ndash 26 July 1919) was a British painter His most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, who was Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and 1930s. Stanley Baldwin 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 &ndash 14 December 1947 was a British Conservative politician statesman and major The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom  Kipling's birthplace home still stands on the campus of the Sir J.J. Institute of Applied Art in Mumbai and for many years was used as the Dean's residence. Sir J J Institute of Applied Art is an Indian Applied art institution based in Mumbai. Mumbai historian Foy Nissen points out however that although the cottage bears a plaque stating that this is the site where Kipling was born the fact of the matter is that the original cottage was pulled down decades ago and a new one built in its place. The wooden bungalow has been empty and locked up for years. 
Of Bombay, Kipling was to write:
Mother of Cities to me,
For I was born in her gate,
Between the palms and the sea,
Where the world-end steamers wait.
According to Bernice M. Murphy:
"Kipling’s parents considered themselves 'Anglo-Indians' (a term used in the 19th century for British citizens living in India) and so too would their son, though he in fact spent the bulk of his life elsewhere. Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent features in his fiction. " Kipling himself was to write about these conflicts as a man of seventy:
In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she (the Portuguese ayah, or nanny) or Meeta (the Hindu bearer, or male attendant) would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, and we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution ‘Speak English now to Papa and Mamma. An amah ( Portuguese: ama, German: Amme, Medieval Latin: amma; or ayah Hindi:āyā Portuguese ’ So one spoke ‘English,’ haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in.
Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay were to end when he was six years old. As was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister, Alice ("Trix"), were taken to England—in their case to Southsea (Portsmouth), to be cared for by a couple that took in children of British nationals living in India. Southsea is a Seaside resort located in Portsmouth at the southern tip of Portsea Island in the county of Hampshire in England History See also History of Portsmouth There have been settlements in the area since before Roman times mostly being offshoots of Portchester, which The two children would live with the couple, Captain and Mrs. Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, for the next six years. In his autobiography, written some 65 years later, Kipling would recall this time with horror, and wonder ironically if the combination of cruelty and neglect he experienced there at the hands of Mrs. Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life:
If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day’s doings (specially when he wants to go to sleep) he will contradict himself very satisfactorily. If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific. Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort.
Kipling's sister Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge, Mrs. Holloway apparently hoping that Trix would eventually marry the Holloway son.  The two children, however, did have relatives in England they could visit. They spent a month each Christmas with their maternal aunt Georgiana ("Georgy"), and her husband, the artist Edward Burne-Jones, at their house, "The Grange" in Fulham, London, which Kipling was to call "a paradise which I verily believe saved me. Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones 1st Baronet (28 August 1833 &ndash 17 June 1898 was an English Artist and Designer closely associated with the later Fulham (pronounced "fullum" is an area of south-west London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, (the successor to the Metropolitan Borough of Fulham " In the spring of 1877, Alice Kipling returned from India and removed the children from Lorne Lodge.
Often and often afterwards, the beloved Aunt would ask me why I had never told any one how I was being treated. Children tell little more than animals, for what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also, badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear of it. 
In January 1878 Kipling was admitted to the United Services College, at Westward Ho!, Devon, a school founded a few years earlier to prepare boys for the armed forces. United Services College was an English public school for the sons of Military officers located at Westward Ho! near Bideford in North Devon Westward Ho! is a seaside village near Bideford in Devon, England. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. The school proved rough going for him at first, but later led to firm friendships, and provided the setting for his schoolboy stories Stalky & Co. published many years later. Stalky & Co is a book published in 1899 by Rudyard Kipling, about adolescent boys at a British Boarding school.  During his time there, Kipling also met and fell in love with Florence Garrard, a fellow boarder with Trix at Southsea (to which Trix had returned). Florence was to become the model for Maisie in Kipling's first novel, The Light that Failed (1891).  Towards the end of his stay at the school, it was decided that he lacked the academic ability to get into Oxford University on a scholarship and his parents lacked the wherewithal to finance him; consequently, Lockwood Kipling obtained a job for his son in Lahore (now in Pakistan), where Lockwood was now Principal of the Mayo College of Art and Curator of the Lahore Museum. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and National College of Arts Lahore, usually referred to by its Acronym NCA, is a famous old College in Lahore, Pakistan. Lahore Museum was established in 1894 in Lahore, Pakistan, and is one of the major museums of South Asia. Kipling was to be assistant editor of a small local newspaper, the Civil & Military Gazette. Copy editing (also copy-editing and copyediting) is the editorial work that an editor does to make Formatting changes and improvements to a manuscript He sailed for India on 20 September 1882 and arrived in Bombay on 18 October 1882. Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1009 - The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid Year 1882 ( MDCCCLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
So, at sixteen years and nine months, but looking four or five years older, and adorned with real whiskers which the scandalised Mother abolished within one hour of beholding, I found myself at Bombay where I was born, moving among sights and smells that made me deliver in the vernacular sentences whose meaning I knew not. Other Indian-born boys have told me how the same thing happened to them.
There were yet three or four days’ rail to Lahore, where my people lived. After these, my English years fell away, nor ever, I think, came back in full strength. 
The Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore, which Kipling was to call "my first mistress and most true love," appeared six days a week throughout the year except for a one-day break each for Christmas and Easter. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Kipling was worked hard by the editor, Stephen Wheeler, but his need to write was unstoppable. In 1886, he published his first collection of verse, Departmental Ditties. That year also brought a change of editors at the newspaper. Kay Robinson, the new editor, allowed more creative freedom and Kipling was asked to contribute short stories to the newspaper. 
Meanwhile, in the summer of 1883, Kipling had for the first time visited Simla (now Shimla), well-known hill station and summer capital of British India. Shimla [ʃɪmla] ( Hindi: शिमला originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh Hill station is a term used for a town usually at somewhat higher elevations By then it was established practice for the Viceroy of India and the government to move to Simla for six months and the town became a "centre of power as well as pleasure. The Governor-General of India (or from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India) was the head of the British administration in India, and " Kipling's family became yearly visitors to Simla and Lockwood Kipling was asked to design a fresco in the Christ Church there. Kipling returned to Simla for his annual leave each year from 1885 to 1888, and the town figured prominently in many of the stories Kipling was writing for the Gazette. 
My month’s leave at Simla, or whatever Hill Station my people went to, was pure joy—every golden hour counted. It began in heat and discomfort, by rail and road. It ended in the cool evening, with a wood fire in one’s bedroom, and next morn—thirty more of them ahead!—the early cup of tea, the Mother who brought it in, and the long talks of us all together again. One had leisure to work, too, at whatever play-work was in one’s head, and that was usually full. 
Back in Lahore, some thirty-nine stories appeared in the Gazette between November 1886 and June 1887. Most of these stories were included in Plain Tales from the Hills, Kipling's first prose collection, which was published in Calcutta in January 1888, a month after his 22nd birthday. Plain Tales from the Hills (published 1888 is the first collection of short stories by Rudyard Kipling. Kipling's time in Lahore, however, had come to an end. In November 1887, he had been transferred to the Gazette's much larger sister newspaper, The Pioneer, in Allahabad in the United Provinces. Allahabad ( Hindi: इलाहाबाद Urdu: الہ آباد Ilāhābād) is a city in the north Indian state of Uttar The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, more commonly the United Provinces, was a Province of British India, which existed from 1902 to 1947 His writing, however, continued at a frenetic pace and during the next year, he published six collections of short stories: Soldiers Three, The Story of the Gadsbys, In Black and White, Under the Deodars, The Phantom Rickshaw, and Wee Willie Winkie, containing a total of 41 stories, some quite long. In addition, as The Pioneer's special correspondent in western region of Rajputana, he wrote many sketches that were later collected in Letters of Marque and published in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel. Rajputana Agency was a collection of native states in India (now in Rajasthan west of Jaipur northwestern India under the political charge of an agent to the Governor-General From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches Letters of Travel is a book containing Rudyard Kipling 's articles based on his 1889 travels from India to Burma China Japan 
In early 1889, The Pioneer relieved Kipling of his charge over a dispute. For his part, Kipling had been increasingly thinking about the future. He sold the rights to his six volumes of stories for £200 and a small royalty, and the Plain Tales for £50; in addition, from The Pioneer, he received six-months' salary in lieu of notice.  He decided to use this money to make his way to London, the center of the literary universe in the British Empire. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power.
On 9 March 1889, Kipling left India, traveling first to San Francisco via Rangoon, Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city and a former capital of Burma. Singapore Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. He then traveled through the United States writing articles for The Pioneer that too were collected in From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches Letters of Travel is a book containing Rudyard Kipling 's articles based on his 1889 travels from India to Burma China Japan Starting his American travels in San Francisco, Kipling journeyed north to Portland, Oregon; on to Seattle, Washington; up into Canada, to Victoria and Vancouver, British Columbia; back into the U. Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Victoria (vɪkˈtɔɹiə is the capital city of British Columbia. Vancouver (vænˈkuːvɚ is a coastal British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C S. to Yellowstone National Park; down to Salt Lake City; then east to Omaha, Nebraska and on to Chicago, Illinois; then to Beaver, Pennsylvania on the Ohio River to visit the Hill family; from there he went to Chautauqua with Professor Hill, and later to Niagara, Toronto, Washington, D.C., New York and Boston. Salt Lake City is the Capital and the most populous city of the U Nebraska ( is a state located on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States and Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. Beaver is a borough in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, at the confluence of the Beaver and Ohio Rivers The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. This article is about the educational summer-camp movement For other uses of "Chautauqua" see Chautauqua (disambiguation. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous  In the course of this journey he met with Mark Twain in Elmira, New York, and felt much awed in his presence. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist Elmira is a City in Chemung County, New York, USA. It is the principal city of the 'Elmira New York Metropolitan Statistical Area New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Kipling then crossed the Atlantic, and reached Liverpool in October 1889. Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary Soon thereafter, he made his début in the London literary world to great acclaim. 
In London, Kipling had a number of stories accepted by various magazine editors. He also found a place to live for the next two years:
Meantime, I had found me quarters in Villiers Street, Strand, which forty-six years ago was primitive and passionate in its habits and population. Villiers Street is a The Strand is a street in the City of Westminster, London, England. My rooms were small, not over-clean or well-kept, but from my desk I could look out of my window through the fanlight of Gatti’s Music-Hall entrance, across the street, almost on to its stage. A fanlight is a window semicircular or semi-elliptical in shape with Glazing bars or Tracery sets radiating out like an open fan, It is placed over The Charing Cross Music Hall was a Music hall established beneath the Arches of Charing Cross railway station in 1866 by brothers Giovanni and Carlo Gatti The Charing Cross trains rumbled through my dreams on one side, the boom of the Strand on the other, while, before my windows, Father Thames under the Shot Tower walked up and down with his traffic. Charing Cross is located at the junction of the Strand, Whitehall and Cockspur Street in Central London, England. The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. A shot tower is a Tower designed for the production of shot balls by freefall of molten lead which is then caught in a water basin
In the next two years, and in short order, he published a novel, The Light That Failed; had a nervous breakdown; and met an American writer and publishing agent, Wolcott Balestier, with whom he collaborated on a novel, The Naulahka (a title he uncharacteristically misspelt; see below). The Light That Failed is a Novel by Rudyard Kipling that was first published in 1890 Mental breakdown (also known as nervous breakdown or snapping) is a non-medical term used to describe a sudden acute attack of Mental illness such as  In 1891, on the advice of his doctors, Kipling embarked on another sea voyage visiting South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and once again India. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island However, he cut short his plans for spending Christmas with his family in India when he heard of Wolcott Balestier's sudden death from typhoid fever, and immediately decided to return to London. Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, bilious fever, Yellow Jack or commonly just typhoid, is an illness caused by the Bacterium Before his return, he had used the telegram to propose to (and be accepted by) Wolcott's sister Caroline (Carrie) Balestier, whom he had met a year earlier, and with whom he had apparently been having an intermittent romance.  Meanwhile, late in 1891, his collection of short stories of the British in India, Life's Handicap, was also published in London.
On 18 January 1892, Carrie Balestier (aged 29) and Rudyard Kipling (aged 26) were married in London, in the "thick of an influenza epidemic, when the undertakers had run out of black horses and the dead had to be content with brown ones. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year " The wedding was held at All Souls Church, Langham Place and Henry James gave the bride away. All Souls Church is an Anglican Evangelical church in central London, situated in Marylebone at the north end of Regent Street, next Henry James, OM ( –) son of theologian Henry James Sr, brother of the philosopher and psychologist William James and diarist Alice James
The newlyweds settled upon a honeymoon that would take them first to the United States (including a stop at the Balestier family estate near Brattleboro, Vermont) and then on to Japan. Brattleboro is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state along the state line with New Hampshire Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  However, when the couple arrived in Yokohama, Japan, they discovered that their bank, The New Oriental Banking Corporation, had failed. is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, located in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshū and is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area
Taking their loss in their stride, they returned to the U. S. , back to Vermont—Carrie by this time was pregnant with their first child—and rented a small cottage on a farm near Brattleboro for ten dollars a month.
"We furnished it with a simplicity that fore-ran the hire-purchase system. Rent to own (RTO is an informal term for a type of business which rents assets or items most typically furniture appliances or houses with the condition that the item will be We bought, second or third hand, a huge, hot-air stove which we installed in the cellar. We cut generous holes in our thin floors for its eight inch tin pipes (why we were not burned in our beds each week of the winter I never can understand) and we were extraordinarily and self-centredly content. "
It was in this cottage, Bliss Cottage, that their first child, Josephine, was born "in three foot of snow on the night of December 29, 1892. Events 1170 - Thomas Becket: Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral by followers of King Henry II Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year Her Mother’s birthday being the 31st and mine the 30th of the same month, we congratulated her on her sense of the fitness of things . . . " It was also in this cottage that the first dawnings of the Jungle Books came to Kipling:
My workroom in the Bliss Cottage was seven feet by eight, and from December to April the snow lay level with its window-sill. It chanced that I had written a tale about Indian Forestry work which included a boy who had been brought up by wolves. In the stillness, and suspense, of the winter of ’92 some memory of the Masonic Lions of my childhood’s magazine, and a phrase in Haggard’s Nada the Lily, combined with the echo of this tale. Sir Henry Rider Haggard KBE ( 22 June 1856 &ndash 14 May 1925) was a prolific writer of Adventure novels set After blocking out the main idea in my head, the pen took charge, and I watched it begin to write stories about Mowgli and animals, which later grew into the Jungle Books. Mowgli (ˈmaʊɡli is a fictional character who originally appeared in Rudyard Kipling 's Short story "In the Rukh" (collected in Many Inventions 
With Josephine's arrival, Bliss Cottage was felt to be congested, so eventually the couple bought land—ten acres on a rocky hillside overlooking the Connecticut River—from Carrie's brother Beatty Balestier, and built their own house. The Connecticut River is the largest River in New England, flowing south from the Connecticut Lakes in northern New Hampshire, along the border Kipling named the house "Naulakha" in honour of Wolcott and of their collaboration, and this time the name was spelled correctly.  From his early years in Lahore (1882-1887), Kipling had become enthused by the Mughal architecture especially the Naulakha pavilion situated in Lahore Fort, which eventually became an inspiration for the title of his novel as well as the house. ( lahor is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. Mughal architecture, an amalgam of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, is the distinctive style developed by the Mughal Empire The Naulakha Pavilion is a prominent White marble personal chamber with curvilinear roof, located besides the Sheesh Mahal Courtyard, in The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila ( Urdu: شاهی قلعہ) is Citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab  The house still stands on Kipling Road, three miles (5 km) north of Brattleboro: a big, secluded, dark-green house, with shingled roof and sides, which Kipling called his "ship", and which brought him "sunshine and a mind at ease. "
His seclusion in Vermont, combined with his healthy "sane clean life", made Kipling both inventive and prolific. In the short span of four years, he produced, in addition to the Jungle Books, a collection of short stories (The Day's Work), a novel (Captains Courageous), and a profusion of poetry, including the volume The Seven Seas. Captains Courageous is an 1897 Novel, by Rudyard Kipling, that follows the adventures of fifteen-year-old Harvey Cheyne Jr The collection of Barrack-Room Ballads, first published individually for the most part in 1890, which contains his poems Mandalay and Gunga Din was issued in March 1892. The Barrack-Room Ballads are a set of martial songs and poems by Rudyard Kipling originally published in two parts the first set in 1892, the second in Mandalay is a famous poem by Rudyard Kipling that was first published in the collection Barrack Room Ballads, published in 1892 Gunga Din ( 1892) is one of Rudyard Kipling 's most famous Poems perhaps best known for its often-quoted last stanza "Tho' I've belted you He especially enjoyed writing the Jungle Books—both masterpieces of imaginative writing—and enjoyed too corresponding with the many children who wrote to him about them. 
The writing life in Naulakha was occasionally interrupted by visitors, including his father, who visited soon after his retirement in 1893, and British author Arthur Conan Doyle, who brought his golf-clubs, stayed for two days, and gave Kipling an extended golf lesson. John Lockwood Kipling (1837-1911 was an art teacher an illustrator museum curator and father of Rudyard Kipling. Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930 was an Anglo-Scottish Author most noted for his stories about the  Kipling seemed to take to golf, occasionally practising with the local Congregational minister, and even playing with red painted balls when the ground was covered in snow. Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently  However, the latter game was "not altogether a success because there were no limits to a drive; the ball might skid two miles (3 km) down the long slope to Connecticut river. The Connecticut River is the largest River in New England, flowing south from the Connecticut Lakes in northern New Hampshire, along the border " From all accounts, Kipling loved the outdoors, not least of whose marvels in Vermont was the turning of the leaves each fall:
"A little maple began it, flaming blood-red of a sudden where he stood against the dark green of a pine-belt. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or Next morning there was an answering signal from the swamp where the sumacs grow. Sumac (ˈʃuːmæk or /ˈs(juːmæk/ also spelled sumach) is any one of approximately 250 species of Flowering plants in the Genus Rhus Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold. Then a wet wind blew, and ruined all the uniforms of that gorgeous army; and the oaks, who had held themselves in reserve, buckled on their dull and bronzed cuirasses and stood it out stiffly to the last blown leaf, till nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one could see into the most private heart of the woods. The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Cuirass ( French cuirasse, Latin coriaceus, made of leather from corium, the original breastplate being of Leather) the "
In February 1896, the couple's second daughter, Elsie, was born. By this time, according to several biographers, their marital relationship was no longer light-hearted and spontaneous.  Although they would always remain loyal to each other, they seemed now to have fallen into set roles.  In a letter to a friend who had become engaged around this time, the 29 year old Kipling offered this somber counsel: marriage principally taught "the tougher virtues—such as humility, restraint, order, and forethought. "
The Kiplings might have lived out their lives in Vermont, were it not for two incidents—one of global politics, the other of family discord—that hastily ended their time there. By the early 1890s, Great Britain and Venezuela had long been locking horns over a border dispute involving British Guiana. Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the British Guiana was the name of the British Colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. Several times, the U. S. had offered to arbitrate, but in 1895 the new American secretary of state Richard Olney upped the ante by arguing for the American "right" to arbitrate on grounds of sovereignty on the continent (see the Olney interpretation as an extension of the Monroe Doctrine). For the Member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts see Richard Olney II; for the food and wine writer see Richard Olney (food writer The Olney interpretation (also known as the Olney Corollary or Olney Declaration) was United States Secretary of State Richard Olney 's interpretation The Monroe Doctrine is a US doctrine which on December 2 1823 stated that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with  This raised hackles in Britain and before long the incident had snowballed into a major Anglo-American crisis, with talk of war on both sides. Although, eventually, the crisis would lead to greater U. S. -British cooperation, at the time, Kipling was bewildered by what he felt was persistent anti-British sentiment in the U. S. , especially in the press.  He wrote in a letter that it felt like being "aimed at with a decanter across a friendly dinner table. " By January 1896, he had decided, according to his official biographer, to end his family's "good wholesome life" in the U. S. and seek their fortunes elsewhere.
But the final straw, it seems, was a family dispute. For some time, the relations between Carrie and her brother Beatty Balestier had been strained on account of his drinking and insolvency. In May 1896, an inebriated Beatty ran into Kipling on the street and threatened him with physical harm.  The incident led to Beatty's eventual arrest, but in the subsequent hearing, and the resulting publicity, Kipling's privacy was completely destroyed, and left him feeling both miserable and exhausted. In July 1896, a week before the hearing was to resume, the Kiplings hurriedly packed their belongings and left Naulakha, Vermont, and the U. S. for good. 
Back in England, in September 1896, the Kiplings found themselves in Torquay on the coast of Devon, in a hillside home overlooking the sea. Torquay (tɔrˈkiː is a town in the Unitary authority of Torbay and ceremonial county of Devon, England. Devon is a large county in the South West of England. The county is also referred to as Devonshire, but that is an entirely unofficial name Although Kipling didn't much care for his new house, whose feng shui, he claimed, left its occupants feeling dispirited and gloomy, he nevertheless managed to remain productive and socially active. Feng shui ( ˈfəŋˌʃueɪ fehng-shway in English is an ancient Chinese system of Aesthetics believed to utilize the Laws of both heaven (astronomy and earth (geography  Kipling was now a famous man, and in the previous two or three years, had increasingly been making political pronouncements in his writings. He had also begun work on two poems, Recessional (1897) and The White Man's Burden (1899) which were to create controversy when published. " Recessional " is a poem by Rudyard Kipling, which he composed on the occasion of Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee in 1897. " The White Man's Burden " is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound empire-building (that captured the mood of the Victorian age), the poems equally were regarded by others as propaganda for brazenfaced imperialism and its attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and warnings of the perils of empire. Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude 
Take up the White Man's burden—
Send forth the best ye breed—
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child. 
There was also foreboding in the poems, a sense that all could yet come to naught. 
Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire:
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet. Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) Tyre ( Arabic صور Ṣūr, Phoenician Phoenician wawsvg|12px|ו]] Ṣur, Hebrew
Lest we forget - lest we forget!
A prolific writer—nothing about his work was easily labeled—during his time in Torquay, he also wrote Stalky & Co. , a collection of school stories (born of his experience at the United Services College in Westward Ho!) whose juvenile protagonists displayed a know-it-all, cynical outlook on patriotism and authority. The school story is a genre of fiction basic to much of the Children's literature of the Twentieth century. United Services College was an English public school for the sons of Military officers located at Westward Ho! near Bideford in North Devon Westward Ho! is a seaside village near Bideford in Devon, England. According to his family, Kipling enjoyed reading aloud stories from Stalky & Co. to them, and often went into spasms of laughter over his own jokes. 
In early 1898 Kipling and his family traveled to South Africa for their winter holiday, thus beginning an annual tradition which (excepting the following year) was to last until 1908. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa With his newly minted reputation as the poet of the Empire, Kipling was warmly received by some of the most powerful politicians of the Cape Colony, including Cecil Rhodes, Sir Alfred Milner, and Leander Starr Jameson. The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652 with the founding of Cape Town. Cecil John Rhodes, PC DCL (5 July 1853 &ndash 26 March 1902 was an English -born Businessman mining Magnate, and Politician Alfred Milner 1st Viscount Milner, KG, GCB, GCMG, PC (23 March 1854&ndash13 May 1925 was a controversial German-born British Sir Leander Starr Jameson 1st Baronet, KCMG, CB, ( February 9, 1853 &ndash November 26, 1917) also known as " In turn, Kipling cultivated their friendship and came to greatly admire all three men and their politics. The period 1898–1910 was a crucial one in the history of South Africa and included the Second Boer War (1899–1902), the ensuing peace treaty, and the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910. See also First Boer War,, South African Wars (1879-1915 The Second Boer War ( Dutch: Tweede Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: } The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day state of the Republic of South Africa. Back in England, Kipling wrote poetry in support of the British cause in the Boer War and on his next visit to South Africa in early 1900, he helped start a newspaper, The Friend, for the British troops in Bloemfontein, the newly captured capital of the Orange Free State. Bloemfontein (ˈbluːmfɒnteɪn Afrikaans and Dutch for "spring of Bloem (bloom" The Republic of the Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrystaat Dutch: Oranje-Vrijstaat) was an independent Boer republic in southern Africa Although his journalistic stint was to last only two weeks, it was the first time Kipling would work on a newspaper staff since he left The Pioneer in Allahabad more than ten years earlier. Allahabad ( Hindi: इलाहाबाद Urdu: الہ آباد Ilāhābād) is a city in the north Indian state of Uttar  He also wrote articles published more widely expressing his views on the conflict. 
Kipling began collecting material for another of his children's classics, Just So Stories for Little Children. See also Just-so story for anthropological sense The Just So Stories for Little Children were written by British author Rudyard Kipling That work was published in 1902, and another of his enduring works, Kim, first saw the light of day the previous year. Kim is a novel by Rudyard Kipling. It was first published serially in ''McClure's Magazine'' from December 1900 to October 1901 as well as in
On a visit to the United States in 1899, Kipling and his eldest daughter Josephine developed pneumonia, from which she eventually died. Pneumonia is an inflammatory illness of the Lung. Frequently it is described as lung Parenchyma / alveolar inflammation and abnormal
In the non-fiction realm he also became involved in the debate over the British response to the rise in German naval power, publishing a series of articles in 1898 which were collected as A Fleet in Being. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The first decade of the 20th century saw Kipling at the height of his popularity. In 1907 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature The prize citation said: "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author. " Nobel prizes had been established in 1901 and Kipling was the first English language recipient. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States At the award ceremony in Stockholm on December 10, 1907, the Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, C. ('stɔkhɔlm is Sweden 's Capital and its largest City. It is the site of the national Swedish government, the parliament, and the Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. D. af Wirsén, paid rich tributes to both Kipling and three centuries of English literature:
The Swedish Academy, in awarding the Nobel Prize in Literature this year to Rudyard Kipling, desires to pay a tribute of homage to the literature of England, so rich in manifold glories, and to the greatest genius in the realm of narrative that that country has produced in our times.
"Book-ending" this achievement was the publication of two connected poetry and story collections: 1906's Puck of Pook's Hill and 1910's Rewards and Fairies. Puck of Pook's Hill is a children's book by Rudyard Kipling, published in 1906 containing a series of short stories set in different periods of history The latter contained the poem "If—". "If" is a poem written in 1895 by Rudyard Kipling and first published in the Brother Square Toes chapter of Rewards and Fairies, Kipling's In a 1995 BBC opinion poll, it was voted Britain's favourite poem. This exhortation to self-control and stoicism is arguably Kipling's most famous poem.
Kipling sympathised with the anti-Home Rule stance of Irish Unionists. Home rule refers to a demand that constituent parts of a state be given greater self-government within the greater administrative purview of the central government Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and He was friends with Edward Carson, the Dublin-born leader of Ulster Unionism, who raised the Ulster Volunteers to oppose "Rome Rule" in Ireland. Edward Henry Carson Baron Carson, PC, Kt, KC (often known as Sir Edward Carson or Lord Carson) ( Unionism in Ireland, is a belief in the desirability of a full constitutional and institutional relationship between Ireland and Great Britain based on the terms and The Ulster Volunteers were a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block Home Rule for Ireland. Kipling wrote the poem "Ulster" in 1912 (?) reflecting this. The poem reflects on Ulster Day (28 September 1912) when half a million people signed the Ulster Covenant. The Ulster Covenant was signed by just under half a million of men and women from Ulster, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest against the Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting The Ulster Covenant was signed by just under half a million of men and women from Ulster, on and before September 28, 1912, in protest against the
Kipling was so closely associated with the expansive, confident attitude of late 19th century European civilization that it was inevitable that his reputation would suffer in the years of and after World War I. Brockville is located in the Thousand Islands region on the St Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Kipling also knew personal tragedy at the time as his only son, John Kipling, died in 1915 at the Battle of Loos, after which he wrote "If any question why we died/ Tell them, because our fathers lied" (Kipling's son's death inspired a poem, a play, and television drama called My Boy Jack). My Boy Jack is a 1915 poem by Rudyard Kipling. Kipling wrote it after his beloved son John (called Jack went missing in the Battle of Loos, during The Battle of Loos was one of the major British offensives mounted on the Western Front in 1915 during World War I. My Boy Jack is a 1997 play by English actor David Haig. It tells the story of Rudyard Kipling, and his grief for his son John who died It is speculated that these words may reveal Kipling's feelings of guilt at his role in getting John a commission in the Irish Guards, despite his initially having been rejected by the army because of his poor eyesight, and his having exerted great influence to have his son accepted for officer training at the age of only 17. The Irish Guards ( Irish: Garda na hÉireann) (IG part of the Guards Division, is a Foot Guards Regiment of the British  Partly in response to this tragedy, Kipling joined Sir Fabian Ware's Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission), the group responsible for the garden-like British war graves that can be found to this day dotted along the former Western Front and all the other locations around the world where Commonwealth troops lie buried. Major General Sir Fabian Arthur Goulstone Ware, CB, CMG, KCVO, KBE ( 17 June 1869 - 29 April The Commonwealth War Graves Commission ( CWGC) is a joint governmental organisation responsible for marking and maintaining the graves of members of the Commonwealth See Western Front (disambiguation for other meanings Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World His most significant contribution to the project was his selection of the biblical phrase "Their Name Liveth For Evermore" found on the Stones of Remembrance in larger war graves and his suggestion of the phrase "Known unto God" for the gravestones of unidentified servicemen. He also wrote a two-volume history of the Irish Guards, his son's regiment, that was published in 1923 and is considered to be one of the finest examples of regimental history. The Irish Guards ( Irish: Garda na hÉireann) (IG part of the Guards Division, is a Foot Guards Regiment of the British  Kipling's moving short story, "The Gardener", depicts visits to the war cemeteries.
With the increasing popularity of the automobile, Kipling became a motoring correspondent for the British press, and wrote enthusiastically of his trips around England and abroad, even though he was usually driven by a chauffeur.
In 1922, Kipling, who had made reference to the work of engineers in some of his poems and writings, was asked by a University of Toronto civil engineering professor for his assistance in developing a dignified obligation and ceremony for graduating engineering students. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Events 489 - Odoacer attacks Theodoric at the Battle of Verona and is defeated again Year 1926 ( MCMXXVI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Engineering is the Discipline and Profession of applying technical and scientific Knowledge and This article is about the University of Toronto's St George Campus Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built The word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation Verb "studēre" Kipling was very enthusiastic in his response and shortly produced both, formally entitled "The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer". The Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer (or Kipling Ritual, or Iron Ring Ceremony) is a Ritual dating from 1922 for Students about to graduate Today, engineering graduates all across Canada are presented with an iron ring at the ceremony as a reminder of their obligation to society. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Iron Ring is a symbolic ring worn by many Canadian engineers Obtaining the ring is an optional endeavour – the ring is not a prerequisite for practicing  The same year Kipling became Lord Rector of St Andrews University in Scotland, a position which ended in 1925. The Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews is chosen every three years by the students of the University of St Andrews. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Kipling kept writing until the early 1930s, but at a slower pace and with much less success than before. He died of a hemorrhage from a perforated duodenal ulcer on 18 January 1936, two days before George V, at the age of 70. Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. (His death had in fact previously been incorrectly announced in a magazine, to which he wrote, "I've just read that I am dead. A premature Obituary is an obituary published whose subject is not actually deceased Don't forget to delete me from your list of subscribers. ")
Rudyard Kipling's ashes were buried in Poets' Corner, part of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey, where many distinguished literary people are buried or commemorated. Poets’ Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of Poets Playwrights and The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church
Following his death, Kipling's work continued to fall into critical eclipse. Fashions in poetry moved away from his exact metres and rhymes. Also, as the European colonial empires collapsed in the mid-20th century, Kipling's works fell far out of step with the times. Many who condemn him feel that Kipling's writing was inseparable from his social and political views, they point to his portrayals of Indian characters, which often supported the colonialist view that the Indians and other colonised peoples were incapable of surviving without the help of Europeans, claiming that these portrayals are racist. An example supporting this argument can be seen by denying any irony in the mention of "lesser breeds without the Law" in "Recessional" and the reference to colonised people in general, as "half-devil and half-child" in the poem "The White Man's Burden". " Recessional " is a poem by Rudyard Kipling, which he composed on the occasion of Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee in 1897. " The White Man's Burden " is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. However, George Orwell in his essay on Rudyard Kipling states that the lesser breeds referred to in "Recessional" are ‘almost certainly’ the Germans, and Orwell goes on to claim that the poem is a denunciation of power politics, both British and German. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer
Kipling's links with the Scouting movements were strong. Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide Youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical mental and spiritual Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, used many themes from The Jungle Book stories and Kim in setting up his junior movement, the Wolf Cubs. These connections still exist today. Not only is the movement named after Mowgli's adopted wolf family, the adult helpers of Wolf Cub Packs adopt names taken from The Jungle Book, especially the adult leader who is called Akela after the leader of the Seeonee wolf pack. Mowgli (ˈmaʊɡli is a fictional character who originally appeared in Rudyard Kipling 's Short story "In the Rukh" (collected in Many Inventions Akela the great gray Lone Wolf who led all the Pack by strength and cunning lay out at full length on his rock and below him sat forty or more wolves of every size and color| Rudyard Kipling 
Those who defend Kipling from accusations of racism point out that much of the apparent racism in his writing is spoken by fictional characters, not by him, and thus accurately depicts the characters. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that An example is the soldier who (in "Gunga Din") calls the title character "a squidgy-nosed old idol". However, in the same poem, Gunga Din is seen as a heroic figure; "You're a better man than I am, Gunga Din". They see irony or alternative meanings in poems written in the author's own voice, including "The White Man's Burden" and "Recessional". Irony is a literary or Rhetorical device, in which there is an incongruity or Discordance between what one says or does and what one means or
Despite changes in racial attitudes and literary standards for poetry, Kipling's poetry continues to be popular with those who see it as "vigorous and adept" rather than "jingling". Poets’ Corner is the name traditionally given to a section of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey due to the number of Poets Playwrights and The Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a large mainly Gothic church Even T. S. Eliot, a very different poet, edited A Choice of Kipling's Verse (1943), although in doing so he commented that "[Kipling] could write poetry on occasions—even if only by accident!" Kipling's stories for adults also remain in print and have garnered high praise from writers as different as Poul Anderson, Jorge Luis Borges, and George Orwell. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Poul William Anderson ( November 25, 1926 – July 31, 2001) was an American Science fiction author who wrote during a Golden Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer Nonetheless, Kipling is most highly regarded for his children's books. His Just-So Stories have been illustrated and made into successful children's books, and his Jungle Books have been made into several movies; the first was made by producer Alexander Korda, and others by the Walt Disney Company. Sir Alexander Korda (September 16 1893 - January 23 1956 was a Hungarian-born Film director and producer.
After the death of Kipling's wife in 1939, his house, "Bateman's" in Burwash, East Sussex was bequeathed to the National Trust and is now a public museum dedicated to the author. Bateman's is a 17th-century house located in Burwash, East Sussex, England. Burwash is a village and Civil parish in the Rother District of East Sussex, England. The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organization in England, Wales Elsie, the only one of his three children to live past the age of eighteen, died childless in 1976, and bequeathed his copyrights to the National Trust. There is a thriving Kipling Society in the United Kingdom.
In modern-day India, from where he drew much of material, his reputation remains largely negative especially amongst modern Hindu nationalists and "post-colonial" critics. Postcolonialism ( postcolonial theory, post-colonial theory) is an intellectual discourse that holds together a set of theories found among the texts and However, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, 1st Prime Minister of India, always described Kipling's novel, Kim as his favourite book and, in November 2007, it was announced that his birthplace in the campus of the JJ School of Art in Mumbai will be turned into a museum celebrating the author and his works. Kim is a novel by Rudyard Kipling. It was first published serially in ''McClure's Magazine'' from December 1900 to October 1901 as well as in 
During the first decade of the twentieth century, at a time when Kipling was at the peak of his popularity, a town in southeast Saskatchewan was named after him. Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276 Town of Kipling Local Administration Town council members Mayor Kevin Hassler Alderman Maurice Poirier, employee (Initially, the community was known as "Rudyard", but the name was later changed to "Kipling" because another district already had the name Rudyard. ) The welcome sign located at the entrance to the town depicts a scroll and feather with the name "Kipling" on it to symbolize his writing career. The town, home to about 1000 residents, now has a senior citizen's residential complex which bears the name "Rudyard Manor". The town of Kipling has become noted because of the now famous one red paperclip trade where a man managed to turn a paper clip into a house by means of trading. The website one red paperclip was created by Kyle MacDonald a Canadian Blogger who Bartered his way from a single Paperclip to a house in a series The house he finally ended up with is located in the town of Kipling, Saskatchewan.
Kipling Avenue, a major street in Toronto, (and consequently also the Kipling subway station and the nearby Kipling regional commuter rail station) is also named after him. Kipling Avenue is a street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is a Concession road, 6 concessions (12km from Yonge Street, and is a Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Kipling is the western terminus station on the Bloor-Danforth line of the subway system in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. There is a township near Kapuskasing, Ontario, named Kipling township which may possibly have been named after Kipling, though no confirmatory records exist. Kapuskasing (population 8509 in the Canada 2006 Census) is a Town on the Kapuskasing River in the Cochrane District of northern Ontario
One of the boarding houses in the English boarding school Haileybury was renamed Kipling House, in his memory. A boarding school is a School where some or all pupils not only study but also live during term time with their fellow students and possibly teachers Haileybury and Imperial Service College, (usually shortened to Haileybury & ISC or Haileybury) is a famous British Independent school founded in 1862 (In 1942, Haileybury, or more formally, Haileybury and Imperial Service College, had absorbed the Imperial Service College, which had already absorbed Kipling's school, the United Services College. Haileybury and Imperial Service College, (usually shortened to Haileybury & ISC or Haileybury) is a famous British Independent school founded in 1862 The Imperial Service College (ISC was an English public school based in Windsor. United Services College was an English public school for the sons of Military officers located at Westward Ho! near Bideford in North Devon )
In Brighton, the Rudyard Kipling Primary School and nearby streets Rudyard Road, Rudyard Close and Kipling Avenue, in Woodingdean, are not far from where Kipling lived in Rottingdean. Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove. Woodingdean is an eastern suburb of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, separated from the main part of the city by downland and the Brighton Racecourse Rottingdean is a prosperous coastal village next to the town of Brighton and technically within the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex
In Sheffield there is a Rudyard Road and a Kipling Road just off Hillsborough Corner. Sheffield ( is a city and Metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England
In Portsmouth, Hants, there is a Kipling Road
In Stanmore, Middlesex, there is a Kipling Place just off the Uxbridge Road. Stanmore is a place in the London Borough of Harrow, England It is a suburban development situated 11 miles (18 km north west of Charing Cross. Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest by area.
In the English Lake District (Gimmer Crag) there is a classic rock climb called "Kipling Groove" - so named by a North Country climber because it was "ruddy 'ard" (i. The Lake District, also known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a rural area in North West England. e. very difficult).
When a railroad was being built along the north shore of Lake Michigan, the managing director, a fan of the writer, asked that two towns be named in Kipling's honour: hence Rudyard, Michigan and Kipling, Michigan. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. Rudyard Township is a Civil township of Chippewa County in the U There is also a Rudyard, Montana, and a Kipling community in Kemper County, Mississippi (founded in the 1880s and then the size of a small town). Rudyard is a Census-designated place (CDP in Hill County, Montana, United States. Kemper County is a County located in the US state of Mississippi. There is also Kipling, North Carolina located in Harnett County, North Carolina, which changed its name in the late 19th century. Kipling is an unincorporated community located along US Highway 401 in the Hectors Creek Township of Harnett County North Carolina between the communities Harnett County is a County located in the state of North Carolina, USA. There is a boys' summer camp in the town of Hebron, New Hampshire, named after Kipling's hero of The Jungle Book, Mowglis. The camp, founded in 1903, draws much from the Jungle Books characters, themes, and morality lessons. http://mowglis.org
Kipling has remained influential in popular culture even during those periods in which his critical reputation was in deepest eclipse. An important specific case of his influence is on the development of science fiction during and after its Campbellian reinvention in the late 1930s. John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer
Kipling exerted this influence through John W. Campbell and Robert A. Heinlein. John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7 1907 – May 8 1988 was an American Novelist and Science fiction Writer. Campbell described Kipling as "the first modern science fiction writer", and Heinlein appears to have learned from Kipling the technique of indirect exposition—showing the imagined world through the eyes and the language of the characters, rather than through expository lumps—which was to become the most important structural device of Campbellian science fiction. John Wood Campbell Jr (June 8 1910 – July 11 1971 was an important Science fiction editor and writer
This technique is fully on display in With the Night Mail (1905) and As Easy As A. B. C (1912), both set in the 21st century in Kipling's Aerial Board of Control universe. The Aerial Board of Control is a fictional supranational organization created to manage air traffic for the whole world These read like modern hard science fiction (there are reasons to believe this story was a formative influence on Heinlein, who was five when it was written and probably first read it as a boy). Hard science fiction is a category of Science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail or on scientific accuracy or on both Kipling seems to have developed indirect exposition as a solution to some technical problems of writing about the unfamiliar milieu of India for British and American audiences. The technique reaches full development in Kim (1901), which influenced Heinlein's Citizen of the Galaxy. Citizen of the Galaxy is a Science fiction Novel by Robert A Heinlein, originally serialized in Astounding Science Fiction
Tributes and references to Kipling are common in science fiction, especially in Golden Age writers such as Heinlein and Poul Anderson, but continuing into the present day. The first Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through to the 1950s was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide Poul William Anderson ( November 25, 1926 – July 31, 2001) was an American Science fiction author who wrote during a Golden The science fiction field continues to reflect many of Kipling's values and preoccupations, including nurturing a tradition of high-quality children's fiction in a moral-didactic vein, a fondness for military adventure with elements of bildungsroman set in exotic environments, and a combination of technophilic optimism with classical-liberal individualism and suspicion of government. A bildungsroman (ˈbɪldʊŋsroˌmaːn "novel of formation" is a Novelistic genre that arose during the German Enlightenment (and is regarded by some as Technophilia is in its simplest definition a strong Enthusiasm for Technology, especially newer technologies such as Computers the Internet
Many older editions of Rudyard Kipling's books have a swastika printed on their covers associated with a picture of the Hindu deity Ganesha. The swastika (from Sanskrit: svástika sa स्वस्तिक Hindu IS CORRECT if 'ि' is positioned incorrectly see -->) is A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Ganesha ( Sanskrit: sa गणेश Gaṇeśa) also spelled Ganesa or Ganesh and also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, and Pillaiyar Since the 1930s this has raised the possibility of Kipling being mistaken for a Nazi-sympathiser, though the Nazi party did not adopt the swastika until 1920. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Kipling's use of the swastika, however, was based on the sign's Indian meaning of good luck and well-being. He used the swastika symbol in both right and left facing orientations, and it was generally very popular at the time as well. Swastika ( Gammadion, " Fylfot " Symbol became a popular symbol of luck in the Western world in the early 20th century Even before the Nazis came to power, Kipling ordered the engraver to remove it from the printing block so that he should not be thought of as supporting them. Less than one year before his death Kipling gave a speech (titled "An Undefended Island") to The Royal Society of St George on 6 May 1935 warning of the danger Nazi Germany posed to Britain. The Royal Society of St George is an English patriotic society established in 1894 to encourage interest in the English way of life and English Events 1527 - Spanish and German troops sack Rome; some consider this the end of the Renaissance. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers 
Sir J. M. Barrie
|Rector of the University of St Andrews|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Kipling, Joseph Rudyard|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||British novelist and poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||30 December 1865|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Bombay|
|DATE OF DEATH||18 January 1936|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Middlesex Hospital, London|
Sir James Matthew Barrie 1st Baronet OM ( 9 May, 1860 &ndash 19 June, 1937) more commonly known as J The Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews is chosen every three years by the students of the University of St Andrews. Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (October 10 1861 – May 13 1930 was a Norwegian Explorer, Scientist and Diplomat. A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" Events 1460 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield. 1816 - The Treaty of St Year 1865 ( MDCCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial Events 350 - Generallus Magnentius deposes Roman Emperor Constans and proclaims himself Emperor Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.