|Rudolph W. Giuliani|
107th Mayor of New York City
January 1, 1994 – December 31, 2001
|Preceded by||David N. Dinkins|
|Succeeded by||Michael R. Bloomberg|
|Born||May 28, 1944 |
Brooklyn, New York
|Spouse||Regina Peruggi (m. The Mayor of New York City is the chief executive of the Government of New York City, as stipulated by the Charter of the City of New York. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Events 406 – Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. David Norman Dinkins (born July 10 1927 was the Mayor of New York City from 1990 through 1993 being the first and to date only African American to hold that office Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman and the Mayor of New York City. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Regina S Peruggi (born c 1947 is an American Educator, who is the President of Kingsborough Community College, the first woman to hold that position 1968, div. 1982)|
Donna Hanover (m. Donna Hanover (born February 13, 1950) is an American Journalist, radio and Television personality, Television producer 1984, div. 2002)
Judith Nathan (m. Judi Ann "Judith" Stish Giuliani (born December 16, 1954) is a United States medical Sales representative, Fundraiser, and 2003)
|Alma mater||Manhattan College|
New York University Law School
|Rudy Giuliani series|
|Mayor of New York City|
|September 11 attacks|
|2008 presidential campaign|
Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (pronounced /ˈruːdi ˌdʒuːliːˈɑːni/; born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, and politician from the state of New York who was Mayor of New York City from 1994 to 2001. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Manhattan College is a Roman Catholic liberal arts college in the Lasallian tradition in New York City. See also New York Law School The New York University School of Law ( NYU Law) is the A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person Rudy Giuliani (full name "Rudolph William Louis Giuliani" served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 until Rudy Giuliani ’s 2008 presidential campaign began in October 2005 when the “Draft Rudy Giuliani for President Inc” organization was formed Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law as an attorney, Counsel or Solicitor; a person A businessperson (also businessman or businesswoman) is someone who is employed at usually a profit-oriented enterprise, or more specifically someone A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person A US state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States of America that share Sovereignty with the federal government New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Mayor of New York City is the head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City.
A Democrat and Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican from the 1980s to the present, Giuliani served in the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York, eventually becoming U.S. Attorney. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party. The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the United States federal government in United States district court and He prosecuted a number of high-profile cases, including ones against organized crime and Wall Street financiers. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. Financier (fɨˈnænsiɚ or finãˈsje in French is a term for a person who handles large sums of Money, usually involving money lending, financing
Giuliani served two terms as Mayor of New York City, and was credited with initiating improvements in the city's quality of life and with a reduction in crime. He ran for the United States Senate in 2000 but withdrew due to being diagnosed with prostate cancer and to revelations about his personal life. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Giuliani gained international attention during and after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan  In 2001, Time magazine named him "Person of the Year" and he received an honorary knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 2002. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Person of the Year (formerly Man of the Year) is an annual issue of the United States Newsmagazine Time that features and profiles The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II 
After leaving office as mayor, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners, a security consulting business; acquired Giuliani Capital Advisors (later sold), an investment banking firm; and joined the Bracewell & Giuliani law firm, which changed its name when he became a partner. Giuliani Partners LLC is a management consulting and security consulting business founded by former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani in January 2002 Investment banks profit from companies and governments by raising money through issuing and selling Securities in the Capital markets (both equity and Bracewell & Giuliani LLP is an International Law firm based in Houston Texas that began in 1945 A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more Lawyers to engage in the practice of law Giuliani ran for the Republican Party nomination in the 2008 United States presidential election. The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled for Tuesday November 4 2008 will be the 56th consecutive After leading in national polls for much of 2007, his candidacy faltered late in that year and he did poorly in the early caucuses and primaries in 2008. He withdrew from the race on January 30, 2008 and endorsed John McCain. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
Rudolph Giuliani was born in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents Harold Angelo Giuliani, and Helen C. The City of New York Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types D'Avanzo, both children of Italian immigrants. The' Italian people' are a Southern European Ethnic group located primarily in Italy, Switzerland, France and by virtue of a wide-ranging American immigration ( emigration to the United States of America) refers to the movement of non-residents to the United States.  The family was Roman Catholic and its extended members included police officers and firefighters. Harold Giuliani had trouble holding a job and had been convicted of felony assault and robbery and served time in Sing Sing; after his release he served as a Mafia enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn. In Common law legal systems a felony is a serious Crime, often contrasted with a Misdemeanor. Assault is a Crime of Violence against another person. In some Jurisdictions including Australia and New Zealand, Robbery is the Crime of seizing Property through Violence or Intimidation. Sing Sing Correctional Facility is a maximum security Prison in Ossining, New York, USA. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. A loan shark is a person or body that offers illegal Unsecured loans at high Interest rates to individuals often backed by Blackmail or threats 
In 1951, when Rudy Giuliani was seven, his family moved from Brooklyn to Garden City South on Long Island. Garden City South is a hamlet (and Census-designated place) in Nassau County, New York, United States. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches There he attended a local Catholic school, St. This article is about Catholic schools in general for specific schools named Catholic High School, see Catholic High School (disambiguation. Anne's.  Later, he commuted back to Brooklyn to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961 with an 85 percent average. Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School is a Roman Catholic Christian Brothers Secondary school 
Giuliani went on to Manhattan College in Riverdale, Bronx, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy. Manhattan College is a Roman Catholic liberal arts college in the Lasallian tradition in New York City. Riverdale (population approximately 45000 according to the 2000 U Political science is a branch of Social sciences that deals with the theory and practice of Politics and the description and analysis of Political systems Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language  There he considered becoming a priest. In a general sense the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession.  Giuliani has stated that this was due in part to having studied theology for four years in college, though nine credits (three semesters) of religious studies courses is the minimum graduation requirement at Manhattan College, which is affiliated with the Roman Catholic church. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Manhattan College is a Roman Catholic liberal arts college in the Lasallian tradition in New York City.
He was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year.  He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity, and was active in shaping its direction. Fraternities and sororities (from the Latin words la frater and la soror, meaning "brother" and "sister" respectively are fraternal  He graduated in 1965.
Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead attending New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made law review and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor in 1968. See also New York Law School The New York University School of Law ( NYU Law) is the Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The New York University Law Review is a Law review edited and published by students at New York University School of Law. Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an Academic degree was earned Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional 
Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. He has said that he admired the Kennedy family, and volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. The Kennedy family are a family descending from the marriage of the Irish-Americans Joseph P Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20 1925 – June 6 1968 also called RFK, was the United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964 and a He also worked as a Democratic party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s, and voted for George McGovern for president in 1972. George Stanley McGovern 
Upon graduation, Giuliani clerked for Judge Lloyd MacMahon, United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York. A law clerk or a judicial clerk is a person who provides assistance to a Judge in researching issues before the Court and in writing opinions 
Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia He received a student deferment while at Manhattan College and another while at NYU Law. The Draft redirects here For other uses see Draft. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times usually during Upon graduation from NYU Law in 1968, he was classified as 1-A, available for military service. The Selective Service System is the means by which the United States administers military Conscription. He applied for a deferment but was rejected. In 1969, MacMahon wrote a letter to Giuliani's draft board, asking that he be reclassified as 2-A, civilian occupation deferment, because Giuliani, who was a law clerk for MacMahon, was an essential employee. The deferment was granted. In 1970, Giuliani received a high draft lottery number; he was not called up for service although by then he had been reclassified 1-A. 
In 1970, Giuliani joined the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York. The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S 
In 1973, he was named Chief of the Narcotics Unit and was eventually appointed United States Attorney. United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the United States federal government in United States district court and In 1975, Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to Independent as he was recruited to Washington, D.C. during the Ford administration, where he was named Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace" Tyler. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Gerald Ford served 29 months as President from 1974 to 1977 Accession When President Richard Nixon resigned in the wake of the Watergate scandal In Politics, a chief of staff is the primary aide to a political leader or position United States Deputy Attorney General is the second-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice.  His first high-profile prosecution was of U.S. Representative Bertram L. Podell (NY-13), who was convicted of corruption. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Bertram L Podell ( December 27, 1925 - August 17, 2005) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives New York's 13th Congressional District is a Congressional district for the United States House of Representatives located in New York City.
From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter Administration, Giuliani practiced law at the Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler law firm, as chief of staff to his previous DC boss, Ace Tyler. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more Lawyers to engage in the practice of law Tyler later became critical of Giuliani's turn as a prosecutor, calling his tactics "overkill". 
On December 8, 1980, one month after the election of Ronald Reagan brought Republicans back to power in Washington, he switched his party affiliation from Independent to Republican. Events 1609 - Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room the second public library of Europe. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan  Giuliani later said the switches were because he found Democratic policies "naïve", and that "by the time I moved to Washington, the Republicans had come to make more sense to me. " Others suggested that the switches were made in order to get positions in the Justice Department.  Giuliani's mother maintained in 1988 that, "He only became a Republican after he began to get all these jobs from them. He's definitely not a conservative Republican. He thinks he is, but he isn't. He still feels very sorry for the poor. "
In 1981, Giuliani was named Associate Attorney General in the Reagan administration, the third-highest position in the Department of Justice. The Associate Attorney General is the third-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by For animal rights group see Justice Department (JD The United States Department of Justice ( DOJ) is a Cabinet department As Associate Attorney General, Giuliani supervised the U. S. Attorney Offices' federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of Corrections, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United States Marshals Service. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and
In a well-publicized 1982 case, Giuliani testified in defense of the federal government's "detention posture" regarding the internment of over 2,000 Haitian asylum seekers who had entered the country illegally. The federal government of the United States is the central United States Governmental body established by the United States Constitution. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race The U. S. government disputed the assertion that most of the detainees had fled their country due to political persecution, alleging instead that they were "economic migrants. " In defense of the government's position, Giuliani stated at one point that political repression under President Jean-Claude Duvalier (the infamous "Baby Doc") no longer existed. Political repression is the Persecution of an individual or group for political reasons particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part The President of Haiti is the Head of state of the Republic of Haiti. Jean-Claude Duvalier (nicknamed Bébé Doc or Baby Doc) (born July 3, 1951) succeeded his father François "Papa Doc" Duvalier  After meeting personally with Duvalier, Giuliani testified that "political repression, at least in general, does not exist" in Haiti under Duvalier's regime. 
In 1983, Giuliani was appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S It was in this position that he first gained national prominence by prosecuting numerous high-profile cases, resulting in the convictions of Wall Street figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken for insider trading. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. Ivan Frederick Boesky (born March 6, 1937, in Detroit) was notable for his prominent role in a Wall Street Insider trading scandal Michael Robert Milken (born July 4, 1946 in Encino California) is a criminal American financier and philanthropist who almost single-handedly Insider trading is the trading of a Corporation 's Stock or other securities (e He also focused on prosecuting drug dealers, organized crime, and corruption in government. "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate.  He amassed a record of 4,152 convictions and 25 reversals. As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with bringing the "perp walk," parading of suspects in front of the previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool. The term Perp walk is an American slang term which refers to the police practice of intentionally parading an arrested suspect (or "perp" short for "alleged perpetrator"  After Giuliani "patented the perp walk", the tool was used by increasing numbers of prosecutors nationwide. 
Critics of Giuliani claim he arranged public arrests of people, then dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than going to trial. In a few cases, his public arrests of alleged white-collar criminals at their workplaces, with charges later dropped or lessened, irreparably damaged their reputations.  He claimed that veteran stock trader Richard Wigton, of Kidder, Peabody & Co. was guilty of insider trading; in February 1987 he had officers handcuff Wigton and march him through the company's trading floor, with Wigton in tears. Kidder Peabody & Co was a US-based securities firm established in Massachusetts in 1865. Insider trading is the trading of a Corporation 's Stock or other securities (e Giuliani had his agents arrest Tim Tabor, a young arbitrageur and former colleague of Wigton, so late that he had to stay overnight in jail before posting bond.  However, in three months, charges were dropped against both Wigton and Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial. We're just the tip of the iceberg," but no further charges were forthcoming and the investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place.  Giuliani's high-profile raid of the Princeton/Newport firm ended with the defendants having their cases overturned on appeal on the grounds that what they had been convicted of were not crimes. 
In the Mafia Commission Trial (February 25, 1985–November 19, 1986), Giuliani indicted eleven organized crime figures, including the heads of New York's so-called "Five Families", under the RICO Act on charges including extortion, labor racketeering, and murder for hire. Tsalernojpg|right|thumb| Anthony Salerno]] The Mafia Commission Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) "Crime syndicate" redirects here For the DC Comics group of villains see Crime Syndicate. The Five Families are the five major Italian-American Mafia crime families which have dominated Organized crime in New York City since the 1930s The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (commonly referred to as RICO Act or RICO) is a United States federal law that provides for extended Time magazine called this "Case of Cases" possibly "the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943", and quoted Giuliani's stated intention: "Our approach. . . is to wipe out the five families. " Eight defendants were found guilty on all counts and subsequently sentenced on January 13, 1987 to hundreds of years of prison time. Events 532 - Nika riots in Constantinople. 888 - Odo Count of Paris becomes King of the Franks Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar)
Ivan Boesky was a Wall Street arbitrageur who had amassed a fortune of about US $200 million by betting on corporate takeovers. Ivan Frederick Boesky (born March 6, 1937, in Detroit) was notable for his prominent role in a Wall Street Insider trading scandal Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. He was investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission for making investments based on tips received from corporate insiders. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (commonly known as the SEC) is an independent agency of the United States government which holds primary responsibility These stock acquisitions were sometimes brazen, with massive purchases occurring only a few days before a corporation announced a takeover.
Although insider trading of this kind was illegal, laws prohibiting it were rarely enforced until Boesky was prosecuted. Boesky cooperated with the SEC and informed on several of his insiders, including junk bond trader Michael Milken:
"Boesky admitted to numerous offenses and then turned state's evidence, primarily against Milken. Michael Robert Milken (born July 4, 1946 in Encino California) is a criminal American financier and philanthropist who almost single-handedly He received a 3 1/2 year prison sentence and $100 million fine after admitting to the charges and reached a plea bargain with Rudy Giuliani. . . [who would] draw criticism because Ivan was allowed to unload his holdings before his indictment was officially announced, realizing profits from it before being convicted. Others considered the sentence and fine as being too light. But Giuliani and company was [sic] after a much bigger fish, namely Milken. "
In 1989, Giuliani charged Milken under the RICO Act with 98 counts of racketeering and fraud. The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (commonly referred to as RICO Act or RICO) is a United States federal law that provides for extended A racket is an illegal business usually run as part of Organized crime. In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual In a highly-publicized case, Milken was indicted by a federal grand jury, and after a plea bargain, pled guilty to six lesser securities and reporting violations. In the Common law legal system an indictment (ɪnˈdaɪtmənt (in-DITE-mint is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense In the Common law, a grand jury is a type of Jury which determines whether there is enough evidence for a trial. A plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal or copping a plea) is an agreement in a Criminal case whereby the Prosecutor offers He paid a total of $900 million in fines and settlements relating primarily to civil lawsuits and was banned for life from the securities industry.
Giuliani was U. S. Attorney until January 1989, resigning as the Reagan administration ended. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by He garnered criticism until he left office for his handling of cases, and was accused of prosecuting cases to further his political ambitions.  He joined the law firm White & Case in New York City as a partner. He remained with White & Case until May 1990, when he joined the law firm Anderson Kill Olick & Oshinsky, also in New York City. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) 
Giuliani first ran for New York City Mayor in 1989, attempting to unseat three-term incumbent Ed Koch. The Mayor of the City of New York is elected in early November every four years and takes office at the beginning of the following year Edward Irving Koch (born December 12, 1924;) was a United States Congressman from 1969 to 1977 and the Mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989 He won the September 1989 Republican Party primary election against business magnate Ronald Lauder, in a campaign marked by claims that Giuliani was not a true Republican and by an acrimonious debate. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) A primary election ( nominating primary) also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a Jurisdiction select candidates Ronald Steven Lauder (born February 26 1944 in New York City) is an American businessman civic leader Philanthropist, and Art collector  In the Democratic primary, Koch was upset by Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins. David Norman Dinkins (born July 10 1927 was the Mayor of New York City from 1990 through 1993 being the first and to date only African American to hold that office
In the general election, Giuliani ran as the fusion candidate of both the Republican and Liberal Parties. A general election is an Election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties support a common Candidate, pooling the votes for all those parties The Liberal Party of New York is a minor American Political party that has been active only in the state of New York. The Conservative Party, which had often co-lined the Republican party candidate, withheld support from Giuliani and ran Lauder instead. The Conservative Party of New York is an American Political party active only in the state of New York.  Conservative Party leaders were unhappy with Giuliani on ideological grounds. They cited the Liberal Party's endorsement statement that Giuliani "agreed with the Liberal Party's views on affirmative action, gay rights, gun control, school prayer and tuition tax credits. Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender social movements share related goals of social acceptance of Homosexuality, Bisexuality and Transgenderism Lesbian Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership use and regulation of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through School prayer in its most common usage refers to state sanctioned Prayer by students in state Schools. The term tax credit describes two different concepts The first is a recognition of partial payment already made towards Taxes due. "
During two televised debates, Giuliani framed himself as an agent of change, saying that "I'm the reformer," that "If we keep going merrily along, this city's going down," and that electing Dinkins would represent "more of the same, more of the rotten politics that have been dragging us down. " Giuliani also accused Dinkins of not having paid his taxes for many years and of several other ethical missteps, in particular a stock transfer to his son.  Dinkins said the tax matter had been fully paid off, denied other wrongdoing, and said that "what we need is a mayor, not a prosecutor," and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word - he doesn't like to admit he's a Republican. " Dinkins won the endorsements of three of the four daily New York newspapers, while Giuliani won approval from the New York Post. The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually 
In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by 47,080 votes out of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in city history. The Mayor of the City of New York is elected in early November every four years and takes office at the beginning of the following year 
In 1993, Giuliani again ran for mayor. Once again, Giuliani also ran on the Liberal Party line but not the Conservative Party line, which ran activist George Marlin.  The principal issues of the election of 1993 were crime and taxes. Giuliani also declared that expansion of the city's budget was going unchecked, and that incumbent David Dinkins was incompetent.
In addition, the city was suffering from a spike in unemployment associated with the nationwide recession, with local unemployment rates going from 6. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work. A recession is a contraction phase of the Business cycle. The U 7 percent in 1989 to 11. 1 percent in 1992.  There was also a public perception that crime was increasing, although in fact the crime rate in most categories had decreased during the Dinkins administration; for example, the per capita murder rate had peaked and then begun to decline under Dinkins, and rapes decreased in each year of his term. Rape, also referred to as Sexual assault, is an Assault by a person involving Sexual intercourse with or Sexual penetration of another person 
Giuliani promised to focus the police department on shutting down petty crimes and nuisances as a way of restoring the quality of life: "It's the street tax paid to drunk and drug-ridden panhandlers. It's the squeegee men shaking down the motorist waiting at a light. It's the trash storms, the swirling mass of garbage left by peddlers and panhandlers, and open-air drug bazaars on unclean streets. "
Dinkins and Giuliani never debated during the campaign, because they were never able to agree on how to approach a debate.  Dinkins was endorsed by The New York Times and Newsday, while Giuliani was endorsed by the New York Post and, in a key switch from 1989, the New York Daily News. Newsday is a daily Tabloid -size Pulitzer Prize winning Newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137 
In the end Giuliani won by a margin of 53,367 votes, with 49. The Mayor of the City of New York is elected in early November every four years and takes office at the beginning of the following year 25 percent of the electorate to the incumbent's 46. 42 percent. He became the first Republican elected Mayor of New York City since John Lindsay in 1965. John Vliet Lindsay ( November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American Politician who served as a member of the 
Giuliani's opponent in 1997 was Democratic Manhattan Borough President Ruth Messinger, who had beaten Al Sharpton in the September 9, 1997 Democratic primary. The New York City mayoral election of 1997 occurred on Tuesday November 4, 1997, with incumbent Republican mayor Borough President (informally BP, or Beep in slang is an elective office in each of the five boroughs of New York City. Ruth Wyler Messinger (born November 6 1940 is a former political leader in New York City and a member of the Democratic Alfred Charles "Al" Sharpton Jr (born October 3 1954 is an American Baptist minister political and civil rights / Social justice Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar  In the general election, Giuliani once again had the Liberal Party and not the Conservative Party listing. Giuliani ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who had cleaned up the city. Giuliani's popularity was at its highest point to date, with a late October 1997 Quinnipiac University poll showing him as having a 68 percent approval rating; 70 percent of New Yorkers were satisfied with life in the city and 64 percent said things were better in the city compared to four years previously. Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar Quinnipiac University is a private, Nonsectarian, Coeducational University located in Hamden, Connecticut, at the 
Throughout the campaign he was well ahead in the polls and had a strong fund-raising advantage over Messinger. On her part, Messinger lost the support of several usually Democratic constituencies, including gay organizations and large labor unions. In the English language, gay is an Adjective that in modern usage refers to Homosexuality. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming  All four daily New York newspapers—The New York Times, New York Daily News, New York Post, and Newsday—endorsed Giuliani over Messinger. The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137 The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually Newsday is a daily Tabloid -size Pulitzer Prize winning Newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City 
In the end, Giuliani won 59 percent of the vote to Messinger's 41 percent, and became the first Republican to win a second term as mayor since Fiorello H. La Guardia in 1941. LaGuardia redirects here For the airport see LaGuardia Airport.  Voter turnout was the lowest in 12 years, with 38 percent of registered voters casting ballots.  The margin of victory included gains in his share of the African American vote (20 percent compared to 5 percent in 1993) and the Hispanic vote (43 percent from 37 percent) while maintaining his base of white and Jewish voters from 1993. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Hispanic (hispano hispánico hispânico Hispānus adjective from ''Hispānia'', the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ 
Giuliani served as mayor of New York City from 1994 through 2001. Rudy Giuliani (full name "Rudolph William Louis Giuliani" served as the 107th Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 until
In his first term as mayor, Giuliani, in conjunction with New York City Police Department Commissioner Bill Bratton, adopted an aggressive enforcement-deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken Windows" approach. William Joseph "Bill" Bratton (born October 6, 1947) is currently the 54th Chief of police of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD James Q Wilson (born May 27, 1931) in Denver, Colorado is the Ronald Reagan Professor of Public policy at the Pepperdine Fixing Broken Windows Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities by George L This involved crackdowns on relatively minor offenses such as graffiti, turnstile jumping, and aggressive "squeegeemen", on the theory that this would send a message that order would be maintained. Graffiti (singular graffito; the plural is used as a Mass noun) is the name for images or lettering scratched scrawled painted or marked in any manner on property Giuliani and Bratton also instituted CompStat, a comparative statistical approach to mapping crime geographically and in terms of emerging criminal patterns, as well as charting officer performance by quantifying criminal apprehensions. See also New York City Police Department CompStat —or COMPSTAT—(short for COMPuter STATistics or COMParative STATistics is the name given to the New York City Critics of the system assert that it creates an environment in which police officials are encouraged to underreport or otherwise manipulate crime data.  The CompStat initiative won the 1996 Innovations in Government Award from the Kennedy School of Government. The John F Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS) is a Public policy and 
During Giuliani's administration, crime rates dropped in New York City, which Giuliani's presidential campaign website has credited to his leadership.  The extent to which his policies deserve the credit is disputed, however. A small nationwide drop in crime preceded Giuliani's election, and critics say that he may have been the beneficiary of a trend already in progress. Additional contributing factors to the overall decline in crime during the 1990s were federal funding of an additional 7,000 police officers and an overall improvement in the national economy. Changing demographics were a key factor contributing to crime rate reductions, which were similar across the country during this time.  Because the crime index is based on that of the FBI, which is self-reported by police departments, some have alleged that crimes were shifted into categories that the FBI doesn't collect. 
Giuliani's supporters cite studies concluding that New York's drop in crime rate in the '90s and '00s exceeds all national figures and therefore should be linked with a local dynamic that was not present as such anywhere else in the country: what University of California sociologist Frank Zimring calls "the most focused form of policing in history". The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" In his book The Great American Crime Decline, Zimring claims that "up to half of New York’s crime drop in the 1990s, and virtually 100 percent of its continuing crime decline since 2000, has resulted from policing. "
Bratton was featured on the cover of Time in 1996. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and  Giuliani forced Bratton out of his position after two years, in what was generally seen as a battle of two large egos in which Giuliani was not tolerant of Bratton's celebrity. Id, ego, and super-ego are the three parts of the " Psychic apparatus " defined in Sigmund Freud 's structural model of 
Giuliani's term also saw allegations of civil rights abuses and other police misconduct. There were police shootings of unarmed suspects, and the scandals surrounding the sexual torture of Abner Louima and the killings of Amadou Diallo and Patrick Dorismond. Torture, according to the United Nations Convention Against Torture, is "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is intentionally Abner Louima (b 1966 in Thomassin Haiti) is a Haïtian immigrant who was assaulted and brutalized by New York City police officers after being arrested outside a Amadou Bailo Diallo ( September 2, 1975 – February 4, 1999) was a 23-year-old immigrant to the United States from Guinea Patrick Moses Dorismond (1974-2000 was a security guard and father of two children who was killed by an undercover New York Police Department officer during the early morning Giuliani supported the New York Police Department, for example by releasing what he called Dorismond's "extensive criminal record" to the public, including a sealed juvenile file. 
The Giuliani administration advocated the privatization of failing public schools and increasing school choice through a voucher-based system. 
Giuliani supported protection for illegal immigrants. Illegal immigration refers to Immigration across National Borders in a way that violates the Immigration laws of the destination Country He continued a policy of preventing city employees from contacting the Immigration and Naturalization Service about immigration violations, on the grounds that illegal aliens should be able to take actions such as sending their children to school or reporting crimes to the police without fear of deportation. The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service ( INS) was a part of the United States Department of Justice and handled legal and illegal Immigration Deportation, not to be confused with Extradition, generally means the expulsion of someone from a place or Country. 
During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic partnership rights. A lesbian is a Woman who is romantically or sexually attracted only to other women A domestic partnership is a legal or Personal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are neither joined by a traditional Giuliani induced the city's Democratic-controlled New York City Council, which had avoided the issue for years, to pass legislation providing broad protection for same-sex partners. In 1998, he codified local law by granting all city employees equal benefits for their domestic partners. 
Several of Giuliani's appointees to head City agencies became defendants in criminal proceedings.
In 2000, Giuliani appointed 34-year-old Russell Harding, the son of Liberal Party of New York leader and longtime Giuliani mentor Raymond Harding, to head the New York City Housing Development Corporation, although Harding had neither a college degree nor relevant experience. The Liberal Party of New York is a minor American Political party that has been active only in the state of New York. In 2005, Harding pleaded guilty to defrauding the Housing Development Corporation and to possession of child pornography. In the broadest sense a fraud is a Deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual Child pornography refers to material depicting Children being in a state of undress engaged in erotic poses or sexual activity He was sentenced to five years in prison.  In a related matter, Richard Roberts, appointed by Giuliani as Housing Commissioner and as chairman of the Health and Hospitals Corporation, pleaded guilty to perjury after lying to a grand jury about a car that Harding bought for him with City funds. The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation ( HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under Oath or Affirmation in a In the Common law, a grand jury is a type of Jury which determines whether there is enough evidence for a trial. 
Giuliani was a longtime backer of Bernard Kerik, who started out as a NYPD detective driving for Giuliani's campaign. Mayor of New York Rudy Giuliani promoted the career of Bernard Kerik (by appointment or recommendation on several occasions Bernard Bailey "Bernie" Kerik, CBE, (born September 4, 1955 in Newark, New Jersey) is a former American law-enforcement Giuliani appointed him as the Commissioner of the Department of Correction and then as the Police Commissioner. The New York City Department of Correction is responsible for over 13000 of New York City's inmates housing the majority of them on Riker's Island and The New York City Police Commissioner is the head of the New York City Police Department, appointed by the Mayor of New York City. After Giuliani left office, Kerik pleaded guilty to state corruption charges dating from his Corrections days.  Kerik is currently awaiting trial on related federal charges of conspiracy, tax fraud and obstruction of justice. In the Criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between Natural persons to break the law at some time in the future and in some cases with at least one overt act Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law The crime of obstruction of justice includes crimes committed by Judges Prosecutors attorneys general, and elected officials in general  Giuliani has not been implicated in any of the Kerik scandals.
Due to term limits, Giuliani could not run in 2001 for a third term as Mayor. The United States Senate election in New York in 2000 was held on November 7 2000 See also Rotation in office A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office In November 1998, long-serving Democratic New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan retired and Giuliani immediately indicated an interest in running in the 2000 election for the now-open seat. For the US Representative from Illinois see P H Moynihan Daniel Patrick “Pat” Moynihan ( March 16, 1927 – March 26, Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party, even though he had irritated many by endorsing incumbent Democrat Governor Mario Cuomo over Republican George Pataki in 1994. Mario Matthew Cuomo (born Queens New York, June 15, 1932) served as the 52nd Governor of New York from 1983 to 1994 George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is an American politician who was the 53rd Governor of New York serving three consecutive  Giuliani's entrance led Democratic Congressman Charles Rangel and others to recruit then-U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to run for Moynihan's seat, hoping she might combat his star power. Charles Bernard "Charlie" Rangel (born June 11, 1930) is an American Politician. First Lady of the United States is the unofficial title of the hostess of the White House. Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26 1947 is the junior United States Senator from
An early, January 1999 poll showed Giuliani trailing Clinton by 10 points.  In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in connection with the Senate run. By January 2000, Giuliani had reversed the polls situation, pulling 9 points ahead after taking advantage of several campaign stumbles by Clinton.  Nevertheless, the Giuliani campaign was showing some structural weaknesses; so closely identified with New York City, he had somewhat limited appeal to naturally Republican voters in Upstate New York. Upstate New York is the region of New York State north of the core of the New York metropolitan area.  The New York Police Department's fatal shooting of Patrick Dorismond in March 2000 inflamed Giuliani's already strained relations with the city's minority communities, and Clinton seized on it as a major campaign issue. Patrick Moses Dorismond (1974-2000 was a security guard and father of two children who was killed by an undercover New York Police Department officer during the early morning  By April 2000, reports showed Clinton gaining upstate and generally outworking Giuliani, who stated that his duties as mayor prevented him from campaigning more.  Clinton was now 8 to 10 points ahead of Giuliani in the polls. 
Then followed four tumultuous weeks, in which Giuliani's medical life, romantic life, marital life, and political life all collided at once in a most visible fashion. The United States Senate election in New York in 2000 was held on November 7 2000 Giuliani discovered that he had prostate cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; he announced a separation from his wife Donna Hanover; and, after much indecision, on May 19, 2000 he announced his withdrawal from the senate race. Judi Ann "Judith" Stish Giuliani (born December 16, 1954) is a United States medical Sales representative, Fundraiser, and Donna Hanover (born February 13, 1950) is an American Journalist, radio and Television personality, Television producer Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Giuliani was prominent in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center. The World Trade Center in New York City, United States (sometimes informally the WTC or Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan He made frequent appearances on radio and television on September 11 and afterwards—for example, to indicate that tunnels would be closed as a precautionary measure, and that there was no reason to believe that the dispersion of chemical or biological weaponry into the air was a factor in the attack. Events 9 - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest ends 506 - The Bishops of Visigothic Gaul Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of Chemical substances to kill injure or incapacitate an enemy. Biological warfare (BW — known as a germ warfare, biological weapons and bioweaponry — is the use of any Pathogen ( Bacterium In his public statements, Giuliani said "Tomorrow New York is going to be here. And we're going to rebuild, and we're going to be stronger than we were before. . . I want the people of New York to be an example to the rest of the country, and the rest of the world, that terrorism can't stop us. "
The 9/11 attack occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September 25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month emergency extension of his term from January 1 to April 1 under the New York State Constitution (Article 3 Section 25), but the State Assembly and Senate did not approve it. The request was backed by the threat of a run for a third mayoral term as a Conservative Party candidate, requiring a legal challenge to the law imposing term limits on elected New York City officials. The City of New York 
Giuliani claimed to have been at the Ground Zero site "as often, if not more, than most workers. The term Ground Zero may be used to describe the point on the earth's surface where an explosion occurs . . . I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them. " Some 9/11 workers have objected to those claims.  While his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks, after that Giuliani spent a total of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days. 
When Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal suggested that the attacks were an indication that the United States "should re-examine its policies in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stand toward the Palestinian cause", Giuliani asserted, "There is no moral equivalent for this act. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi Khaled bin al-Walid Reem bint al-Walid The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn There is no justification for it. . . And one of the reasons I think this happened is because people were engaged in moral equivalency in not understanding the difference between liberal democracies like the United States, like Israel, and terrorist states and those who condone terrorism. The term "liberal" in "liberal democracy" does not imply that the government of such a democracy must follow the political ideology of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion So I think not only are those statements wrong, they're part of the problem. " Giuliani subsequently rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the aftermath of the attack. 
Giuliani has been widely criticized for his decision to locate the Office of Emergency Management headquarters on the 23rd floor inside the 7 World Trade Center building. 7 World Trade Center is a building in New York City located across from the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan. Those opposing the decision perceived the office as a target for a terrorist attack in light of the previous terrorist attack against the World Trade Center in 1993. The 1993 World Trade Center bombing occurred on February 26, 1993, when a Car bomb was detonated below Tower One of the World Trade Center  The office was unable to coordinate efforts between police and firefighters properly while evacuating its headquarters.  Large tanks of diesel fuel were placed in 7 World Trade to power the command center, and this fuel was later deemed responsible for the intense fire that caused that building to collapse hours after the Twin Towers.  In May 2007, Giuliani put responsibility for selecting the location on Jerome M. May 2007 is the fifth month of that year It began on a Tuesday and 31 days later ended on a Thursday. Hauer, who had served under Giuliani from 1996 to 2000 before being appointed by him as New York City’s first Director of Emergency Management. Hauer has taken exception to that account in interviews and provided Fox News and New York Magazine with a memo demonstrating that he recommended a location in Brooklyn but was overruled by Giuliani. New York is a weekly magazine concerned with the life culture politics and style of New York City. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Television journalist Chris Wallace interviewed Giuliani on May 13, 2007, about his 1997 decision to locate the command center at the World Trade Center. Chris Wallace (born October 12, 1947) is an American journalist currently the host of Fox News Sunday. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Giuliani laughed during Wallace's questions and said that Hauer recommended the World Trade Center site and claimed that Hauer said that the WTC site was the best location. Wallace presented Giuliani a photocopy of Hauer directive letter. The letter urged Giuliani to locate the command center in Brooklyn, instead of lower Manhattan.  The February 1996 memo read, "The [Brooklyn] building is secure and not as visible a target as buildings in Lower Manhattan. "
In January 2008, an eight-page memo was revealed which detailed the New York City Police Department's opposition in 1998 to location of the city's emergency command center at the Trade Center site. PortalCurrent events International holidays January 1 - New Year's Day January 1 - Independence The Giuliani administration overrode these concerns. 
The 9/11 Commission noted in its report that lack of preparedness could have led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. 9/11 Commission ReportThe National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002 9/11 Commission Report, formally named Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, is the official report of the events leading up to The Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Family members of 9/11 victims have said that these radios were a complaint of emergency services responders for years.  The radios were not working when Fire Department chiefs ordered the 343 firefighters inside the towers to evacuate, and they remained in the towers as the towers collapsed.  However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11 Commission he said that the firefighters ignored the evacuation order out of an effort to save lives.  Giuliani testified to the Commission, where some family members of responders who had died in the attacks appeared to protest his statements.  A 1994 mayoral office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty. Replacement radios were purchased in a $33 million no-bid contract with Motorola, and implemented in early 2001. No-bid contract is a popular term for what is officially known as a "sole source contract Motorola Inc ( is an American, multinational Fortune 100, Telecommunications company based in Schaumburg Illinois. However, the radios were recalled in March 2001 after a Probationary Firefighter's calls for help at a house fire could not be picked up by others at the scene, leaving firemen with the old analog radios from 1993. March 2001: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September Analog transmission is a method of conveying voice data image signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude phase or some other property in proportion  A book later published by Commission members Thomas Kean and Lee Hamilton, Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, argued that the Commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning with Giuliani. Thomas Howard Kean (born April 21, 1935 in New York City) is an American Republican Party Politician, who served as the Lee Herbert Hamilton (born April 20 1931) the vice chairman of the 9/11 Commission, currently serves on the President 's Homeland 
An October 2001 study by the National Institute of Environmental Safety and Health said that cleanup workers lacked adequate protective gear. October 2001: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - 
In the wake of the attacks, Giuliani was hailed by many for his leadership during the crisis. When polled just six weeks after the attack Giuliani received a 79 percent approval rating among New York City voters, a dramatic increase over the 36 percent rating he had received a year earlier — average at the end of a two-term mayorship.  Oprah Winfrey called him "America's Mayor" at a 9/11 memorial service held at Yankee Stadium on September 23, 2001, a term now in common use by his supporters. Oprah Gail Winfrey (born January 29 1954 often referred to simply as Oprah, is an American The original Yankee Stadium is a Stadium located in The Bronx in New York City. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Other voices denied it was the mayor who had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have come together if Bozo was the mayor", said civil rights activist Al Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. Bozo the Clown is a Clown character whose widespread Franchising in early Television made him the best-known clown character in the United States Alfred Charles "Al" Sharpton Jr (born October 3 1954 is an American Baptist minister political and civil rights / Social justice Fernando James "Freddy" Ferrer (born April 30, 1950) was the Borough President of The "He was a power-hungry person", Sharpton also said.  Many New Yorkers were impressed with Giuliani's response to the attacks, precisely because his calm and soothing demeanor seemed markedly out of character, after seven years in which he had gained a reputation as a divisive mayor.
On December 24, 2001, Time magazine named Giuliani its Person of the Year for 2001. Events 563 - The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by Earthquakes Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Time (trademarked in capitals as TIME) is a weekly American Newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and Person of the Year (formerly Man of the Year) is an annual issue of the United States Newsmagazine Time that features and profiles  Time observed that, prior to 9/11, the public image of Giuliani had been that of a rigid, self-righteous, ambitious politician. After 9/11, and perhaps owing also to his bout with prostate cancer, his public image had been reformed to that of a man who could be counted on to unite a city in the midst of its greatest crisis. Thus historian Vincent J. Cannato concluded in September 2006, "With time, Giuliani's legacy will be based on more than just 9/11. He left a city immeasurably better off — safer, more prosperous, more confident — than the one he had inherited eight years earlier, even with the smoldering ruins of the World Trade Center at its heart. Debates about his accomplishments will continue, but the significance of his mayoralty is hard to deny. "
Giuliani was praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue and recovery efforts, but others, including some firefighters, police, rescue workers, and families of WTC victims argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a hero for political gain. " Giuliani has collected $11. 4 million from speaking fees in a single year (his demand increasing after the attacks).  Before September 11, Giuliani's assets were estimated to be somewhat less than $2 million, but his net worth could now be as high as 30 times that amount. 
Giuliani initially downplayed the health effects arising from the September 11, 2001 attacks in the Financial District and lower Manhattan areas in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site. The Financial District of New York City (sometimes called FiDi) is a neighborhood on the southernmost section of the borough of Manhattan which The World Trade Center site sits on 16 Acres (65000 m² in Lower Manhattan in New York City.  He moved quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. Wall Street is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. In the first month after the attacks, he said "The air quality is safe and acceptable. " However, in the weeks after the attacks, the United States Geological Survey identified hundreds of asbestos hot spots of debris dust that remained on buildings. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective By the end of the month the USGS reported that the toxicity of the debris was akin to that of drain cleaner.  It would eventually be determined that a wide swath of lower Manhattan and Brooklyn had been heavily contaminated by highly caustic and toxic materials.  The city's health agencies, such as the Department of Environmental Protection, did not supervise or issue guidelines for the testing and cleanup of private buildings. Department of Environmental Protection (DEP is a name used by several states in the United States of America for the agency charged with proposing and enforcing Instead, the city left this responsibility to building owners. 
Giuliani took control away from agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, leaving the "largely unknown" city Department of Design and Construction in charge of recovery and cleanup. The purpose of FEMA is to coordinate the response to a Disaster which has occurred in the United States and which overwhelms the resources of local and state authorities The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators. A respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling harmful Dusts fumes vapors and/or Gases Respirators come in a wide range of types and sizes Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal if cleanup work slowed.  In June 2007, Christie Todd Whitman, former Republican Governor of New Jersey and director of the Environmental Protection Agency, reportedly stated that the EPA had pushed for workers at the WTC site to wear respirators but that she had been blocked by Giuliani. June 2007 is the sixth month of that year It began on a Friday and 30 days later ended on a Saturday. Christine Todd "Christie" Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican Politician and Author who New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. She stated that she believed that the subsequent lung disease and deaths suffered by WTC responders were a result of these actions. Respiratory Disease is the term for Diseases of the Respiratory system.  However, former deputy mayor Joe Lhota, now with the Giuliani campaign, replied, "All workers at Ground Zero were instructed repeatedly to wear their respirators. " A safety professional who worked at Ground Zero added, "I was absolutely aghast at the refusal of the workers at ground zero to wear the personal protective equipment. All of my efforts to convince these guys to wear the masks was for naught. "
Giuliani asked the city's Congressional delegation to limit the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses be limited to a total of $350 million. Two years after Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits. 
In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter asserting that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill," it said, adding: "Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on them. February 2007 is the second month of the year It began on a Thursday and 28 days later ended on a Wednesday. The International Association of Fire Fighters ( IAFF) is a labor union representing professional fire fighters in the United States and Canada Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen The Fresh Kills Landfill on the New York City borough of Staten Island in the United States, was formerly the largest Landfill in " Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal action alleging that New York City negligently dumped body parts and other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill. 
Since leaving office as Mayor, Giuliani has remained politically active by campaigning for Republican candidates for political offices at all levels. He was a speaker at the 2004 Republican National Convention, where he endorsed George W. Bush for re-election by recalling that immediately after the World Trade Center towers fell, "Without really thinking, based on just emotion, spontaneous, I grabbed the arm of then-Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, and I said to him, 'Bernie, thank God George Bush is our president. The 2004 Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States, took place from August George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. '"
Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions America to help elect Republicans candidates across the nation.
After campaigning on behalf of President Bush in the 2004 election, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security after the resignation of Tom Ridge. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday November 2, 2004, to elect the President of the United States. The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 26 1945) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983&ndash1995 When suggestions were made that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. Bernard Bailey "Bernie" Kerik, CBE, (born September 4, 1955 in Newark, New Jersey) is a former American law-enforcement Kerik in his pre-announcement interviews with the White House failed to disclose facts in his past that were certain to disqualify him. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination, information known for years to local reporters, but unreported, became widely known (most notably, that Kerik had ties to organized crime, but also that he had been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien as a domestic servant). The political fallout was damaging to the perception of competence in the White House vetting process and doubts as to Giuliani's ethics and political judgment in recommending Kerik in the first place. Broadly vetting is a process of examination and evaluation Specifically vetting often refers to performing a Background check on someone before offering them employment Mayor of New York Rudy Giuliani promoted the career of Bernard Kerik (by appointment or recommendation on several occasions
A May 14, 2007 New York Daily News poll indicates that 56 percent of polled New Yorkers believe that Michael Bloomberg has done a better job as mayor, and that 29 percent believed that Giuliani had been a better mayor. The Drug Enforcement Administration ( DEA) is a United States Department of Justice Law enforcement agency tasked with combating drug smuggling and Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137 Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman and the Mayor of New York City.  46 percent of those polled also indicated they would choose Bloomberg over Giuliani as President; Giuliani received the support of only 29 percent of New Yorkers. 
On March 15, 2006, Congress formed the Iraq Study Group (ISG). Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The Iraq Study group (ISG also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission, was a ten-person Bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, This 10-person bipartisan panel, of which Giuliani was one of the members, was charged with assessing the Iraq War and making recommendations. In a Two-party system (such as in the United States) bipartisan refers to any bill, act, resolution, or any other action of a The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign They would eventually unanimously conclude that contrary to Bush administration assertions, "The situation in Iraq is grave and deteriorating" and called for "changes in the primary mission" that would allow "the United States to begin to move its forces out of Iraq". For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. 
On May 24, 2006, after missing all of the group's meetings, including a briefing from General David Petraeus, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and former Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, Giuliani resigned from the panel, citing his "previous time commitments". Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. General David Howell Petraeus, USA (born November 7 1952) is scheduled to become the next Commander U Secretary of State is a commonly used title for a Government Official. Colin Luther Powell, KCB (Honorary MSC, (born April 5, 1937) is a retired General in the United States Army. General Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) was the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1999 - 2003  It later was discovered that it was Giuliani's fundraising schedule which had kept him from participating in the panel, a schedule which raised $11. 4 million in speaking fees over fourteen months, and that Giuliani had been forced to resign after being given "an ultimatum to either show up for meetings or leave the group" by group leader James Baker. Speaking fee, a payment awarded to an individual for speaking at a public event See also James Addison Baker James Addison Baker III (born April 28 1930) is a American attorney politician political  Giuliani subsequently said that he had started thinking about running for President, and being on the panel might give it a political spin. But Slate noted that Giuliani had "been set to run for months, if not years" before he accepted appointment to the study group. Slate is an English-language online current affairs and culture Magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael 
Giuliani was described by Newsweek in January 2007 as "one of the most consistent cheerleaders for the president’s handling of the war in Iraq" and as of June 2007 remained one of the few candidates for president to unequivocally support both the basis for the invasion and the execution of the war. Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. January 2007 is the first month of that year It began on a Monday and 31 days later ended on a Wednesday. June 2007 is the sixth month of that year It began on a Friday and 30 days later ended on a Saturday. 
After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani founded a security consulting business, Giuliani Partners LLC, in 2002, a firm that has been categorized by various media outlets as a lobbying entity capitalizing on Giuliani's name recognition, and which has been the subject of allegations surrounding staff hired by Giuliani and due to the firm's chosen client base. Giuliani Partners LLC is a management consulting and security consulting business founded by former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani in January 2002  Over five years, Giuliani Partners has earned more than $100 million.  In June 2007 he stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners, although this action was not made public until December 4, 2007; he maintained his equity interest in the firm. "December 4th" redirects here For the song by Jay-Z, see December 4th (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
On March 31, 2005, it was announced that Giuliani would join the law firm of Bracewell & Patterson LLP (renamed Bracewell & Giuliani LLP) as a name partner and symbolic head of the expanding firm's new New York office. Bracewell & Giuliani LLP is an International Law firm based in Houston Texas that began in 1945 Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Bracewell & Giuliani LLP is an International Law firm based in Houston Texas that began in 1945 When he joined the Texas-based firm he brought Marc Mukasey, the son of Attorney General Michael Mukasey, into the firm. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement Michael Bernard Mukasey (mjuːˈkeɪzi(born July 28, 1941)is an American lawyer currently the 81st Attorney General of the United States, and Despite a busy schedule the former mayor is known to be highly active in the day-to-day business of the law firm, which is described by the New York Times as "perhaps the nation’s most aggressive lobbyist for coal-fired power plants, heavy emitters of air pollutants and carbon dioxide, a gas associated with global warming. " Giuliani advocates increased reliance on coal-burning power plants as one means of addressing the issue of global warming. See also Rudy Giuliani Below are remarks and positions of Rudy Giuliani, former candidate for the Republican nomination for President of the United States Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the
While there was early speculation that the firm would merge with Giuliani Partners, this is a legal impossibility because as a matter of ethics, lawyers cannot share legal fees with non-lawyers. However, while the firm is completely independent of the consulting business, the two entities maintain a close strategic partnership.
On May 15, 2007 the Associated Press reported that Giuliani "has profited from his firm's work representing corporate clients before nearly every Cabinet department, exposing himself to a wide range of potential ethical entanglements. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio " It was further reported that Giuliani's efforts on behalf of clients such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the chewing tobacco manufacturer UST Inc. [nee United States Tobacco] had "contributed toward his personal net worth of millions of dollars. UST Inc ( is a Holding company whose subsidiaries include US Smokeless Tobacco Company and International Wine & Spirits Ltd "
Bracewell & Giuliani has also been tied to the Trans-Texas Corridor, as the firm represents Cintra Concesiones de Infraestructuras de Transporte, S. The Trans-Texas Corridor ( TTC) is a transportation network in the planning and early construction stages in the U A, one of the investment firms involved in the financing of the project. 
In 2006, Giuliani acted as the "lead counsel and lead spokesmen" for Bracewell & Giuliani client Purdue Pharma, the makers of Oxycontin, during their negotiations with federal prosecutors over charges that the pharmaceutical company misled the public about Oxycontin's addictive properties; the agreement reached resulted in Purdue Pharma and some of its executives paying $634. Purdue Pharma LP is a privately-held Pharmaceutical company founded by Physicians It is located in Stamford, Connecticut. Oxycodone is an Opioid Analgesic Medication synthesized from Thebaine. 5 million in fines. 
On June 7, 2007, Fidelis America, a Catholic political advocacy group, reported that Bracewell & Giuliani has lobbied for stem cell research on behalf of Johns Hopkins University. Events 1099 - The First Crusade: The Siege of Jerusalem begins Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Stem cells are cells found in most if not all multi-cellular Organisms. 
A draft movement began in late 2005 to get Giuliani to run for President of the United States in 2008. Rudy Giuliani ’s 2008 presidential campaign began in October 2005 when the “Draft Rudy Giuliani for President Inc” organization was formed The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled for Tuesday November 4 2008 will be the 56th consecutive Throughout 2006, rumors circulated regarding a possible Giuliani campaign, abetted by hints from the former Mayor himself. In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee. In the Election politics of the United States, an exploratory committee is an organization established to help determine whether a potential candidate should run for In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live that he was indeed running. Larry King Live is an American talk show hosted by Larry King on CNN. 
Early polls showed him with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support and the front-runner in the opinion polls for the Republican nomination. Statewide opinion polling for the Democratic Party presidential primaries 2008 This article is a collection of state-wide public Opinion polls that have been conducted relating  As of September 2007, most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only Senator Fred Thompson and Governor Mitt Romney showing greater support in some state polls.  On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an endorsement from evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson. Events 1492 - The Ensisheim Meteorite the oldest Meteorite with a known date of impact strikes the Earth around noon in a Wheat Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Evangelicalism is a theological movement tradition and system of beliefs most closely associated with Protestant Christianity, which identifies with the Gospel The Christian Broadcasting Network, or CBN, is a Christian Television broadcasting network in the United States. Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22 1930 is a controversial Televangelist from the United States.  This was viewed by political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of Giuliani's positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights. 
Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and December 2007, in which Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had appointed to or recommended for several top positions, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges; the media reported that while Mayor of New York, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair (later analysis showed the billing to likely be unrelated to hiding Nathan); and several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani being in opposition to goals of American foreign policy. December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year It began on a Saturday and 31 days later ended on a Monday Bernard Bailey "Bernie" Kerik, CBE, (born September 4, 1955 in Newark, New Jersey) is a former American law-enforcement Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the Tax regime to one's own advantage in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law Judi Ann "Judith" Stish Giuliani (born December 16, 1954) is a United States medical Sales representative, Fundraiser, and Giuliani Partners LLC is a management consulting and security consulting business founded by former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani in January 2002 Bracewell & Giuliani LLP is an International Law firm based in Houston Texas that began in 1945  Giuliani's national poll numbers began steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later, multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states was seen at risk. 
Despite his strategy, Giuliani did compete to a substantial extent in the January 8, 2008 New Hampshire primary, but finished a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote. Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide Political party Primary elections held in the United States every four years as part of  Similar poor results continued in other early contests, as Giuliani's staff went without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January Florida Republican primary. The 2008 Florida Republican primary was held on January 29, 2008, with 57 delegates at stake on a winner-take-all basis  The shift of the electorate's focus from national security to the state of the economy also hurt Giuliani, as did the resurgence of Senator John McCain's similarly-themed campaign. National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain and Romney. Events 904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed Antipope Christopher. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the  Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming large Super Tuesday states, including that of his home New York, Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain. Super Tuesday 2008, Super Duper Tuesday, Giga Tuesday, Tsunami Tuesday, and The Tuesday of Destiny are names for February 5 2008 the day Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain 
Giuliani was originally a Democrat, and supported both John F. Kennedy and George McGovern in their presidential bids. See also Rudy Giuliani Below are remarks and positions of Rudy Giuliani, former candidate for the Republican nomination for President of the United States The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of George Stanley McGovern He switched to the Republican Party in 1980 after a short stint as an Independent. In Politics, an independent is a Politician who is not Affiliated with any Political party.
Giuliani has been married three times. Vito John Fossella Jr (born March 9, 1965) is a Republican Politician from the state of New York who has represented Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6 1921 is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and served as an influential On October 26, 1968, soon after he graduated from law school, he married his second cousin, educator Regina Peruggi, whom Giuliani had known since childhood. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death Year 1968 ( MCMLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. cousin in Kinship terminology is a relative with whom one shares a common Ancestor, but in modern usage the term is rarely used when referring to a Regina S Peruggi (born c 1947 is an American Educator, who is the President of Kingsborough Community College, the first woman to hold that position In the mid-70s the marriage was in trouble and in 1975 they agreed to a trial separation.  Peruggi did not accompany him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's Office. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement  Giuliani met local television personality Donna Hanover sometime in 1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. A celebrity is a widely-recognized or famous person who commands a high degree of public and media attention Donna Hanover (born February 13, 1950) is an American Journalist, radio and Television personality, Television producer Giuliani filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982. Legal separation (sometimes "separate maintenance" " divorce a mensa et thoro," or "divorce from bed-and-board" is a possible step towards Events 1099 - First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon - Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid Year 1982 ( MCMLXXXII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar)  Giuliani and Hanover started living together later that year in Washington, D.C. The Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was ended in two ways: a civil divorce was issued by the end of 1982, while a Roman Catholic Church annulment of the Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was granted at the end of 1983, according to Giuliani, because he discovered after 14 years of marriage that he and his wife were second cousins, rather than third cousins, and they did not have the Church dispensation thus needed. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the termination of a Marriage. cousin in Kinship terminology is a relative with whom one shares a common Ancestor, but in modern usage the term is rarely used when referring to a  Giuliani and Peruggi did not have any children. 
Giuliani and Hanover then married in a Catholic ceremony at St. Monica's Church in New York on April 15, 1984. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar)  They had two children, son Andrew Harold (born January 30, 1986 in New York) and daughter Caroline (born 1989). Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Andrew first became a familiar sight by misbehaving at Giuliani's first mayoral inauguration, then with his father at New York Yankees games, of which Rudy Giuliani is an enthusiastic fan; Andrew also was an accomplished junior golfer. The New York Yankees are a professional baseball team based in the borough of The Bronx, in New York City, New York.
Beginning in 1996, Giuliani and Hanover's public relationship became distant, with Hanover appearing at few public events.  In 1997, a Vanity Fair article reported that Giuliani had a romantic relationship with Cristyne Lategano, the mayor's communications director. Vanity Fair is an American magazine of Culture, Fashion, and Politics published by Condé Nast Publications.  The mayor and Lategano denied the allegations. On Father's Day, 1995 Giuliani had told reporters that he was returning to Gracie Mansion to play ball with Andrew. However, he instead went to City Hall, to a basement suite with his press secretary. Three hours later, Hanover, angered, appeared at City Hall; yet a mayoral aide prevented her from entering the suite. 
Giuliani met Judith Nathan, a sales manager for a pharmaceutical company, in May 1999 at Club Macanudo, an Upper East Side cigar bar; he took the initiative in forming an ongoing relationship that was kept secret for almost a year. Judi Ann "Judith" Stish Giuliani (born December 16, 1954) is a United States medical Sales representative, Fundraiser, and The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park and the East River. A cigar bar is an establishment that caters to patrons who smoke Cigars.  Beginning in summer 1999, costs for his New York Police Department security detail during weekend visits to her in Southhampton, New York were charged to obscure city agencies. Southampton New York may refer to Southampton (town New York in Suffolk County Southampton (village New York, in the town of Southampton  In early 2000, Nathan began getting city-provided chauffeur services from the police department.  By March 2000, Giuliani had stopped wearing his wedding ring, and his and Nathan's appearances together at functions and events became publicly visible but not mentioned in the press.  In early May 2000, the New York Daily News and then the New York Post broke news of Giuliani's relationship with Nathan. The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137 The New York Post is the 13th-oldest Newspaper published in the United States and generally acknowledged as the oldest to have been published continually  Giuliani first publicly acknowledged her on May 3, 2000, stating that Nathan was his "very good friend. Events 1491 - Kongo monarch Nkuwu Nzinga is baptised by Portuguese missionaries adopting the baptismal name of João 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. "
On May 10, 2000, Giuliani called a press conference to announce that he intended to separate from Hanover. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.  Hanover, however, had not been told about his plans before his press conference, an omission for which Giuliani was widely criticized.  Giuliani now went on to praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman", and said about his marriage with Hanover, that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown to live independent and separate lives. " Hours later Hanover said, "I had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because of his relationship with one staff member," a reference to Lategano. Giuliani, Hanover and Nathan appeared on the cover of People in the aftermath. People (full name People Weekly) is a weekly American Magazine of Celebrity and human interest stories, published 
Giuliani then moved out of Gracie Mansion and into an apartment belonging to two gay friends. Gracie Mansion is the Official residence of the Mayor of New York City.  Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in October 2000, and a public battle broke out between their representatives.  Nathan was barred by court order from entering Gracie Mansion (where Hanover still lived) or meeting his children before the divorce was final.  In May 2001, in an effort to mitigate the bad publicity from the proceedings, Giuliani's attorney revealed (with the mayor's approval) that Giuliani was impotent due to his prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and radiation all by yourself," Giuliani said. Radiation, as in Physics, is Energy in the form of waves or moving Subatomic particles emitted by an atom or other body as it changes from a higher energy "You need people to help you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith Nathan. " Giuliani argued in a court case that he aimed to introduce Nathan to his children on Father's Day, 2001, and that Hanover had prevented this visit.  Giuliani and Hanover finally settled their acrimonious divorce case in July 2002, after his mayoralty had ended, with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6. July 2002: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September 8 million settlement and granting her custody of their children. For other uses of settlement including legal uses see Settlement. 
Giuliani subsequently married Nathan on May 24, 2003, and thus gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. It was also Nathan's third marriage after two prior divorces. 
By March 2007, The New York Times and the New York Daily News reported that Giuliani had become estranged from both his son Andrew and his daughter Caroline, missing major events in their lives, such as graduations, and sometimes going long stretches without talking to them, and that neither of them was taking part in his presidential campaign. March 2007 is the third month of the year It began on a Thursday, and ended 31 days later on a Saturday. The Daily News of New York City is the fifth most-widely circulated daily Newspaper in the United States with a daily circulation of 703137  Caroline uses her mother's surname, Hanover, rather than Giuliani's, and according to reports, she did not inform Giuliani when she was accepted to Harvard.  Caroline apparently linked her personal Facebook page to a page related to the campaign of Democratic presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama. Facebook is a social networking Website launched on February 4 2004  After a slate.com contributor reported this link, Caroline removed it from her Facebook page. Slate is an English-language online current affairs and culture Magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael 
Giuliani is the godfather to former New York City police commissioner Bernard Kerik's two youngest children. Bernard Bailey "Bernie" Kerik, CBE, (born September 4, 1955 in Newark, New Jersey) is a former American law-enforcement 
Giuliani has declined to comment publicly on his religious practice and beliefs, although he identifies religion as an important part of his life. When asked if he is a practicing Catholic, Giuliani answered, "My religious affiliation, my religious practices and the degree to which I am a good or not-so-good Catholic, I prefer to leave to the priests. "
David N. Dinkins
|Mayor of New York City|
1994 – 2001
Michael R. Bloomberg
|The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award|
George H.W. Bush
|NAME||Giuliani, Rudolph William Louis|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||American businessman, politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 28, 1944|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Brooklyn, New York, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|